Rodoljub Čolaković (Serbian Cyrillic: Родољуб Чолаковић; 7 June 1900 – 30 March 1983) was a Bosnian Serb and Yugoslav politician.
A native of Bijeljina, Rodoljub Čolaković joined the Socialist Party of Bosnia-Herzegovina in March 1919 as a student. Later he joined Crvena Pravda ("Red Justice"), a left-wing terrorist organisation which assassinated Yugoslav interior minister Milorad Drašković. For his role in this event Čolaković was sentenced to 12 years in prison. While serving his sentence he made friends with many notable Yugoslav communists, including Moše Pijade with whom he translated Das Kapital and other seminal Marxist texts into Serbo-Croatian.
After his release, Rodoljub Čolaković emigrated to the Soviet Union and later took part in the Spanish Civil War on the Republican side.