Rodoljub Čolaković (Serbian: Родољуб Чолаковић) (1900 – 1983) was a Bosnian Serb and Yugoslav politician.
A native of Bijeljina, Rodoljub Čolaković joined the Socialist Party of Bosnia-Herzegovina in March 1919 as a student. Later he joined Crvena Pravda, a left-wing terrorist organisation that assassinated Yugoslav interior ministerMilorad Drašković. For his role in those events Čolaković received 12 years in prison. While serving his sentence he made friends with many notable Yugoslav Communists, including Moše Pijade with whom he translated Das Kapital and other classic texts of Marxism to Serbo-Croatian.
After release, Rodoljub Čolaković emigrated to Soviet Union and later took part in the Spanish Civil War on Republican side.