Roland Thaxter (August 28, 1858 – April 22, 1932), the son of Celia Thaxter and Levi Thaxter, was an American mycologist. He was known for his work on the fungal group, the Laboulbeniales, and published many individual papers and a huge five volume work on the subject. Thaxter served as editor of the journal Annals of Botany from 1907 to 1932. He was elected a foreign member of the Russian Mycological Society, Linnean Societies of London and Lyon, Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Royal Academy of Denmark, Botanical Society of Edinburgh, Academy of Science of the Institute of France, British Mycological Society, and Deutsche Botanish Gesellschaft. He received the Prix Desmaziers from the French Academy for his work on Laboulbeniales. In the United States Thaxter was elected to the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, the American Philosophical Society, and the National Academy of Sciences (Clinton, 1935).