Steiger joined US Internazionale Napoli in 1915, a club who were played in the early Italian Football Championships. After World War I, Steiger returned to the club and carried on where he left off, eventually playing 33 league games for them and scoring 4 goals. This was the most appearances an Internazionale Napoli player participated in during the Italian Championship.
In 1922, the club merged with Naples FBC to form Internaples (which would eventually become SSC Napoli). Rolf Steiger stayed on as part of this new club in his usual defensive role.
As part of a Technical Commission with Giovanni Terrile and Anton Molnár, Steiger returned to S.S.C. Napoli as a manager in the 1927-28 season. This was during the era in which Attila Sallustro played for the club, the Commission was only in charge for one season however.