Rolls-Royce Dart

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Dart
RRDart.JPG
Rolls-Royce Dart RDa. 3 Mk506
Type Turboprop
Manufacturer Rolls-Royce Limited
First run 1946
Major applications Vickers Viscount, Fokker F27, Avro 748, Armstrong Whitworth AW.660 Argosy, Breguet Alizé, Handley Page Dart Herald, NAMC YS-11, Grumman Gulfstream I, Fairchild F-27, Fairchild Hiller FH-227, Hawker Siddeley Andover
Number built >7,100

The Rolls-Royce RB.53 Dart is a long-lived British turboprop engine designed, built and manufactured by Rolls-Royce Limited. First produced in the late 1940s, it powered the first Vickers Viscount maiden flight in 1948, and was still in production until the last F27s and H.S 748s were produced in 1987. Following the company convention for naming gas turbine engines after rivers, this turboprop design was named after the River Dart.

History[edit]

Designed in 1946 by a team under Lionel Haworth, the engine was initially rated at 890 shp and first flew in the nose of a converted Avro Lancaster in October 1947. Improvements in design led to the RDa.3 of 1,400 shp which went into production for the Viscount in 1952. The RDa.6 increased this rating to 1,600 shp and the RDa.7, thanks to a three-stage turbine, increased this to 1,800 shp.[1]

Later Darts were rated up to 3,245 ehp and the Dart remained in production until 1987, some 7,100 having been produced and the engine type having flown some 170 million flying hours.[2]

Haworth and his team later went on to design and develop the Rolls-Royce Tyne.[3]

Variants[edit]

As well as the RB.53 designation each mark of Dart engine was allocated a Ministry of Supply (MoS) "RDa.n" number as well as Mk.numbers.

RDa.1
Initial prototype engines - 1,250 shp plus 300lb residual thrust[4]
RDa.2
Initial production engines
RDa.3
1,480 hp (1,103.64 kW) estimated power - 1,345 hp (1,002.97 kW) shaft power + 350 lbf (1.56 kN) residual thrust at 14,500 rpm
RDa.6
1,670 hp (1,245.32 kW) estimated power - 1,535 hp (1,144.65 kW) shaft power + 350 lbf (1.56 kN) residual thrust at 14,500 rpm
RDa.7
1,815 hp (1,353.45 kW) estimated power - 1,630 hp (1,215.49 kW) shaft power + 480 lbf (2.14 kN) residual thrust at 15,000 rpm
RDa.7/1
1,910 hp (1,424.29 kW) estimated power - 1,730 hp (1,290.06 kW) shaft power + 470 lbf (2.09 kN) residual thrust at 15,000 rpm
RDa.7/2
2,020 hp (1,506.31 kW) estimated power - 1,835 hp (1,368.36 kW) shaft power + 485 lbf (2.16 kN) residual thrust at 15,000 rpm
RDa.7/2 Mk.529
2,100 hp (1,565.97 kW) estimated power - 1,910 hp (1,424.29 kW) shaft power + 495 lbf (2.20 kN) residual thrust at 15,000 rpm
RDa.10
2,555 hp (1,905.26 kW) estimated power - 2,305 hp (1,718.84 kW) shaft power + 670 lbf (2.98 kN) residual thrust at 15,000 rpm
RDa.10/1
3,030 hp (2,259.47 kW) estimated power - 2,750 hp (2,050.67 kW) shaft power + 750.4 lbf (3.34 kN) residual thrust at 15,000 rpm
RDa.10/1
3,245 hp (2,419.80 kW) estimated power at 15,000 rpm, with Water/Methanol injection for the Hawker-Siddeley HS.748MF Andover C Mk.1.
Mk.506
(RDa.3)
Mk.510
(RDa.6)
Mk.511
(RDa.6)
Mk.514
(RDa.6)
Mk.520
(RDa.7)
Mk.525
(RDa.7/1)
Mk.526
(RDa.7/2)
Mk.527
(RDa.7/2)
Mk.528
(RDa.7/2)
Mk.529
(RDa.7/2)
Mk.530
(RDa.7/2)
Mk.531
(RDa.7/2)
Mk.551
(RDa.7)
Mk.552
(RDa-7)
Mk.540
(RDa.10)
Mk.542
(RDa.10/1)

Applications[edit]

A Rolls-Royce Dart mounted on a Fokker F27.

Largely associated with the very successful Vickers Viscount medium range airliner it powered a number of other European and Japanese designs of the 1950s and 60s and was also used to convert American-manufactured piston aircraft to turboprop power. The list includes:

Power output was around 1,500 hp (1,120 kW) in early versions, and close to twice that in later versions, such as those that powered the NAMC YS-11 airliner. Some versions of the engine were fitted with water methanol injection, which acted as a power restorative in hot and high conditions.

Engines on display[edit]

  • Two Dart engines are on display at Brooklands Museum, Weybridge, Surrey, alongside a Vickers Viscount airliner.[citation needed]

Specifications (Dart RDa.7)[edit]

Rolls-Royce Dart Turboprop engine

Data from Jane's All The World's Aircraft 1965–66.[6]

General characteristics

  • Type: Turboprop
  • Length: 97.6 in (2,480 mm)
  • Diameter: 37.9 in (960 mm)
  • Dry weight: 1,207 lb (547 kg) (dry)

Components

  • Compressor: Two-stage centrifugal compressor
  • Combustors: 7 straight-flow combustion chambers with ignitors in No 3 and 7 chambers
  • Turbine: 3-stage axial turbine
  • Fuel type: Kerosene
  • Oil system: Self contained, 25 pint (14 L) capacity oil tank

Performance

See also[edit]

Comparable engines
Related lists

References[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ "World Encyclopedia of Aero Engines - 5th edition" by Bill Gunston, Sutton Publishing, 2006, p.195
  2. ^ "World Encyclopedia of Aero Engines - 5th edition" by Bill Gunston, Sutton Publishing, 2006, p.195
  3. ^ "World Encyclopedia of Aero Engines - 5th edition" by Bill Gunston, Sutton Publishing, 2006, p.197
  4. ^ http://www.flightglobal.com/pdfarchive/view/1953/1953%20-%200371.html
  5. ^ Royal Air Force Museum Cosford - Rolls-Royce Dart www.rafmuseum.org.uk Retrieved: 31 July 2012
  6. ^ Taylor 1965, pp. 485–6.

Bibliography[edit]

  • Gunston, Bill. World Encyclopedia of Aero Engines. Cambridge, England. Patrick Stephens Limited, 1989. ISBN 1-85260-163-9
  • Taylor, John W. R. Jane's All The World's Aircraft 1965–66. London: Sampson Low, Marston & Company Ltd, 1965.

External links[edit]