Roméo LeBlanc

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The Right Honourable
Roméo-Adrien LeBlanc
PC CC CMM ONB CD
GG-Romeo LeBlanc.jpg
25th Governor General of Canada
In office
February 8, 1995 – October 8, 1999
Monarch Elizabeth II
Prime Minister Jean Chrétien
Preceded by Ray Hnatyshyn
Succeeded by Adrienne Clarkson
More...
Personal details
Born (1927-12-18)December 18, 1927
Memramcook, New Brunswick, Canada
Died June 24, 2009(2009-06-24) (aged 81)
Grande-Digue, New Brunswick, Canada
Spouse(s)
Children Dominic Leblanc, Genevieve Leblanc
Profession Politician, Journalist, Teacher
Religion Roman Catholicism
Signature

Roméo-Adrien LeBlanc PC CC CMM ONB CD (December 18, 1927 – June 24, 2009) was a Canadian journalist, politician, and statesman who served as Governor General of Canada, the 25th since Canadian Confederation.

LeBlanc was born and educated on Canada's east coast and also studied in France prior to becoming a teacher and then a reporter for Radio-Canada. He was subsequently elected to the House of Commons in 1972, whereafter he served as a minister of the Crown until 1984, when he was moved to the Senate and became that chamber's Speaker. He was in 1994 appointed as governor general by Queen Elizabeth II, on the recommendation of Prime Minister of Canada Jean Chrétien, to replace Ramon John Hnatyshyn as viceroy, and he occupied the post until succeeded by Adrienne Clarkson in 1999, citing his health as the reason for his stepping down. His appointment as the Queen's representative caused some controversy, due to perceptions of political favouritism, though he was praised for raising the stature of Acadians and francophones, and for opening up Rideau Hall to ordinary Canadians and tourists alike.

On August 8, 1974, LeBlanc was sworn into the Queen's Privy Council for Canada,[1] giving him the accordant style of The Honourable; however, as a former Governor General of Canada, LeBlanc was entitled to be styled for life with the superior form of The Right Honourable. He died of Alzheimer's disease on June 24, 2009.

Youth and political career[edit]

The rural community of Memramcook, New Brunswick, where LeBlanc was born and raised

Born on December 18, 1927 and raised in Memramcook, New Brunswick, LeBlanc obtained bachelor degrees in arts and education from the Collège St-Joseph before studying French civilization at the Université de Paris. He then moved on to teaching for nine years— at Drummond's high school from 1951 to 1953 and the New Brunswick Teachers' College in Fredericton from 1955 to 1959— after which he obtained work between 1960 and 1967 as a journalist with the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation's French language broadcaster, Radio-Canada, serving in the bureaus in Ottawa, the United Kingdom, and the United States.[2] His first marriage, to Joslyn "Lyn" Carter, with whom LeBlanc had two children (Genevieve Leblanc and Dominic LeBlanc), lasted from 1966 to 1981;[3] in 1994, he married Diana Fowler, who also had two children from a previous marriage.[4]

LeBlanc stepped into the realm of politics when he became the press secretary for successive prime ministers Lester B. Pearson and Pierre Trudeau. He then went further, winning in the 1972 federal election a seat in the House of Commons as the Liberal Party representative for Westmorland-Kent, paving the way for his appointment as the Minister of Fisheries and Oceans in the Cabinet chaired by Trudeau; LeBlanc served in this position for most of the period between 1974 and 1982, making him Canada's longest-serving fisheries minister. Hugely popular with Atlantic fishermen and with departmental staff, LeBlanc was a key figure in Canada's imposition of a 200-mile fishing zone; the establishment of a new fisheries licencing system; the widespread use of quotas and zones that protected Canadian fishermen from overexpansion and competition from trawlers owned by large companies; the owner-operator rule, requiring licence holders to operate vessels themselves; the separate-fleet rule, preventing corporations from obtaining licences for an under-65-foot fleet; and for creating an additional system of advisory committees that permitted fishermen a larger voice in fisheries management. On one occasion, LeBlanc also persuaded Trudeau to advise the Governor General to close Canadian ports to Soviet fishing vessels, a headline-grabbing diplomatic thrust that resulted in better co-operation, and forbade all foreign corporations from holding commercial fishing licences in Canada.[5] On the Pacific coast, LeBlanc oversaw the creation of the Salmonid Enhancement Program, which aimed at doubling salmon production, and quelled plans by Alcan that were deemed to threaten salmon rivers at the time.[6]

Late in 1982, LeBlanc became Minister of Public Works for two years before being nominated by Trudeau to then Governor General Jeanne Sauvé for appointment to the Senate on June 29, 1984. He was then selected in 1993 by Prime Minister Jean Chrétien as Governor General Ray Hnatyshyn's appointee as that chamber's speaker.

Governor General of Canada[edit]

LeBlanc's time as the Queen's viceregal representative was considered to have been low key and largely uneventful, especially in comparison to that of his successor, Adrienne Clarkson.[7][8][9][10] He was, however, the first governor general of Acadian heritage, which earned praise from the Acadian community, and he was also the first from the Canadian maritimes to be appointed as viceroy.[7]

As governor general-designate[edit]

Sandringham House, where LeBlanc met with Queen Elizabeth II after his appointment as Governor General-Designate

It was announced from the Office of the Prime Minister of Canada on November 22, 1994 that Queen Elizabeth II had, by commission under the royal sign-manual and Great Seal of Canada, approved Prime Minister Jean Chrétien's choice of LeBlanc to succeed Ray Hnatyshyn as the Queen's representative. Thereafter, LeBlanc was invited to an audience with the Queen at Sandringham House, and he was said to have been impressed and inspired by the devotion to duty on the part of both Elizabeth and her mother.[11]

The largest bout of publicity around LeBlanc and regarding his governor generalcy came immediately after the announcement of his appointment to the post: Though previous governors general had worked as politicians prior to and after serving as viceroy, the recommendation of a prominent Liberal Party politician and organiser was criticised as being little more than a patronage gift from the Prime Minister to a loyal party member. In the 1993 federal election, LeBlanc had been one of the chief architects of the Liberal Party's election strategy, and was a strong party loyalist. In protest, both Reform Party of Canada leader Preston Manning and Bloc Québécois leader Lucien Bouchard refused to attend LeBlanc's installation ceremony.[7]

In office[edit]

As with each governor general, LeBlanc took on unofficial and personal mandates, choosing for himself: voluntarism, the teaching of Canadian history, Canada's Aboriginal peoples, and the military. He spoke often about the generosity, tolerance, and compassion of Canadians, and admired the dignity and abilities of the common citizen. To recognize the "unsung heroes" who volunteer their time and effort to help others, LeBlanc initiated in 1996 the Governor General's Caring Canadian Award, and, on June 21, of the same year, was proud to issue a royal proclamation inaugurating National Aboriginal Day as an annual observance.[12] As well, in 1996 LeBlanc formed the Governor General's Award for Excellence in Teaching Canadian History, in 1999 partnered with the Canada Council for the Arts to create the Governor General's Awards in Visual and Media Arts, oversaw the issuance of the Governor General's Canadian History Medal for the Millennium, and established the Governor General's Millennium Edition of the Map of Canada, which was taken into space in 1999 by Julie Payette.[13]

LeBlanc travelled to all parts of Canada and had a special affinity for small towns and cities, making himself particularly visible in those parts of Quebec after the province's referendum on secession in 1995. He participated in more than 2,000 events, including the annual New Year's Levée, which he moved to various locations around the country, seeing the party organised at Ottawa, Ontario, in 1996; Quebec City, Quebec, in 1997; Winnipeg, Manitoba, in 1998; and St. John's, Newfoundland and Labrador, in 1999. Over the same years, LeBlanc also had public access to Rideau Hall and its grounds expanded and improved— including opening a dedicated visitors' centre in 1997— so that the number of visitors increased threefold to approximately 125,000 people per year.[13] In keeping with his respect for the First Peoples of Canada, LeBlanc placed a totem pole and inukshuk prominently on the royal property.

Amongst numerous other official and ceremonial duties, the Governor General granted Royal Assent to amendments to the constitution on three occasions: April 21, 1997, December 19, 1997, and January 8, 1998, and also issued the royal proclamation announcing the creation of the territory of Nunavut on April 1, 1999. LeBlanc welcomed to Rideau Hall the Queen, Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh, and Prince Charles, Prince of Wales, along with a host of foreign dignitaries such as United States president Bill Clinton and his wife, Hillary; King Hussein and Queen Noor of Jordan, and later Hussein's son, King Abdullah II, and his wife Queen Rania; as well as President of South Africa Nelson Mandela; and President of China Jiang Zemin. Further, he undertook eight state visits, becoming the first governor general of Canada to make such trips to the Czech Republic, India, Pakistan, the Côte d'Ivoire, Tanzania, Mali, and Morocco.[13]

Legacy[edit]

As governor general, LeBlanc was viewed as having been a role model for Acadians, and was complimented for having drawn the attention of the country to Acadian history and culture. As such, he was seen as a symbol for reconciliation, given the past relations between the Acadians and the Canadian Crown's predecessor. At the same time, LeBlanc was also credited for returning Rideau Hall to a status closer to that which it held a century previous, when it was the centre of life in the national capital.[7]

The Governor General's standard as redesigned at LeBlanc's direction, declawed and delangued

Although LeBlanc enjoyed all the provinces and territories, his visits touching small towns as well as big cities, he travelled to events in his home province to a degree that some saw as disproportionate. Moreover, LeBlanc never sought media coverage, with the result that many Canadians were unaware of who he was, and his down-to-earth demeanour was thought by some to have been too "folksy" for the post.[11] The accusations of political patronage also failed to evaporate during LeBlanc's governorship; while LeBlanc was viceroy, his son, Dominic, continued to work for the prime minister's office until 1997, when he ran for election to the House of Commons in LeBlanc's old riding, where the Governor General had a series of events planned the very week he dropped the election writs. Further, LeBlanc's daughter maintained employment as a political assistant to Liberal Cabinet ministers, and some of the Governor General's staff had close Liberal Party connections.[7]

Personal touches were also left on the symbol of the Canadian viceregal office, from which LeBlanc removed the claws and tongue of the crowned lion,[11] saying that they were impolite and un-Canadian. Though the change did not gather much attention until near the end of LeBlanc's tenure, the reaction, when it came, was generally unfavourable, and the modifications were undone by his successor.[7]

Post-viceregal life and death[edit]

St. Thomas Church in Memramcook was the location of his state funeral.

After being released from the Queen's service, LeBlanc returned to New Brunswick. There, after a lengthy battle with Alzheimer's disease, he died on June 24, 2009, in Grande-Digue.[14] He was, as is protocol for all incumbent and former governors general, accorded a state funeral, which took place on July 3 of the same year, in Memramcook. The casket's path through the community was lined with officers from the Department of Fisheries and Oceans, paying homage to LeBlanc's time as minister of the Crown with that portfolio,[15] and the sitting governor general, Michaëlle Jean, her prime minister, Stephen Harper, and LeBlanc's former prime minister, Jean Chrétien, all attended.[16]

Canada Post featured LeBlanc on a Canadian postage stamp released on February 8, 2010.[17]

Titles, styles, honours, and arms[edit]

Titles[edit]

Viceregal styles of
Roméo LeBlanc
(1995-1999)
Crest of the Governor-General of Canada.svg
Reference style His Excellency the Right Honourable
Son Excellence le très honorable
Spoken style Your Excellency
Votre Excellence
Alternative style Sir
Monsieur
  • December 18, 1927 – August 8, 1974: Mister Roméo LeBlanc
  • August 8, 1974 – February 8, 1995: The Honourable Roméo LeBlanc
  • February 8, 1995 – October 7, 1999: His Excellency the Right Honourable Roméo LeBlanc, Governor General and Commander-in-Chief in and over Canada
  • October 7, 1999 – June 24, 2009: The Right Honourable Roméo LeBlanc

Honours[edit]

Ribbon bars of Roméo LeBlanc
Appointments
LeBlanc Park in LeBlanc's hometown of Memramcook, New Brunswick
Medals
Foreign honours

Honorary military appointments[edit]

Honorary degrees[edit]

Honorific eponyms[edit]

Geographic locations

Arms[edit]

Arms of Roméo LeBlanc
ARMS.PNG
Notes
Just prior to his installation as Governor General, LeBlanc was granted a personal coat of arms that depicted his Acadian and Canadian roots.
Adopted
January 1, 1995
Crest
Four eagle feathers within a circlet of Micmac quill decration Gules
Escutcheon
Per pile rompu Gules and Argent, in chief a Star of Acadia all Or ensigned by a representation of the Royal Crown all Or
Supporters
Two dolphins Argent each gorged with a collar of maple leaves Gules and fleurs de lys Or, pendand therefrom a plate Azure, dexter surmounted by a steam locomotive wheel Or, sinister surmounted by a book Or
Compartment
Issuant from a mound set with maple leaves all Gules flanked by waves proper
Motto
SEMPER AMISSOS MEMINISSE DECET
(It is right to remember the forgotten)
Orders
The ribbon and insignia of a Companion of the Order of Canada.
DESIDERANTES MELIOREM PATRIAM
(They desire a better country)
Symbolism
The use of white recalls the LeBlanc family name, while the pile refers to the Memramcook Valley, where LeBlanc was born, and the dolphins evoke the Rivière Dauphin (now Annapolis River), where LeBlancs ancestors settled in the mid 17th century, as well as LeBlanc's maritime heritage and his service as the minister of fisheries. The star is a symbol long used by the Acadians, as are the fleurs de lys representative of LeBlanc's roots in that community, and the royal crown represents LeBlanc's appointment as the representative of the Canadian sovereign. The eagle feathers, a symbols of peace, honour the Canadian First Nations, and the number represents LeBlanc's four children. More family links are depicted in the steam locomotive wheel – representing LeBlanc's father's service on the Canadian railways – and the book evoking LeBlanc's training and work as a teacher. The compartment symbolises a multi-ethnic Canada between two seas, and recalls the Micmac origin of the word Memramcook, meaning multi-coloured landscape.[22]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Privy Council Office (October 30, 2008), Information Resources > Current Chronological List of Members of the Queen's Privy Council for Canada > 1971-1980, Queen's Printer for Canada, retrieved March 2, 2009 
  2. ^ a b c d Library and Archives Canada, Governor General Roméo LeBlanc and Mrs. Diana Fowler LeBlanc, Queen's Printer for Canada, retrieved March 2, 2009 
  3. ^ Martin, Sandra (June 24, 2009), He never, ever lost his roots, The Globe and Mail, retrieved June 24, 2009 
  4. ^ Office of the Governor General of Canada, Role and Responsibility > Former Governors General > The Right Honourable Roméo LeBlanc, Queen's Printer for Canada, retrieved February 1, 2010 
  5. ^ Gough, Joseph (2007), Managing Canada's Fisheries: From Early Days to the Year 2000, Quebec: Carleton University Press, pp. 289–360, ISBN 978-2-89448-523-1 
  6. ^ Gough 2007, pp. 368–371
  7. ^ a b c d e f Fidelis (1999), The LeBlanc Years: A Frank Assessment, Canadian Monarchist News (Toronto: Monarchist League of Canada), Autumn 1999, retrieved March 2, 2009 [dead link]
  8. ^ Martin, Don (May 28, 2009), Jean is now least boring G-Gever, National Post, retrieved June 6, 2009 [dead link]
  9. ^ Smith, David E. (1999), "The Republican Option in Canada: Past and Present", written at Toronto-Buffalo-London, in Jackson, Michael D., The Crown in Today's Federal State, Canadian Monarchist News (Toronto: Monarchist League of Canada, published 2007), Autumn-Winter 2007 (27): 12, retrieved July 26, 2009 [dead link]
  10. ^ Boyce, Peter (2008), "The Queen's Other Realms: The Crown and its Legacy in Australia, Canada and New Zealand (ISBN 9-781-86287-700-9)", written at Sydney, in Jackson, Michael D., The Senior Realms of the Queen, Canadian Monarchist News (Toronto: Monarchist League of Canada, published October 2009), Autumn 2009 (30): 10, retrieved October 22, 2009 [dead link]
  11. ^ a b c Editorial, No Garish Sun, Canadian Monarchist News (Monarchist League of Canada), Autumn 1999, retrieved March 7, 2009 [dead link]
  12. ^ Office of the Governor General of Canada, Governor General > Former Governors General > Roméo LeBlanc > Personal Causes of the Rt. Hon. Roméo LeBlanc, Queen's Printer for Canada, retrieved March 3, 2009 
  13. ^ a b c d e f g h i Office of the Governor General of Canada, Governor General > Former Governors General > Roméo LeBlanc > Highlights of the Mandate, Queen's Printer for Canada, retrieved February 3, 2010 
  14. ^ Taber, Jane (June 24, 2009), Roméo LeBlanc dies at 81, The Globe and Mail, retrieved June 26, 2009 
  15. ^ Canadian Press (July 3, 2009), 'Great gentleman of Acadia' honoured, Toronto Star, retrieved July 3, 2009 
  16. ^ Moore, Oliver (July 3, 2009), Dignitaries gather to mourn LeBlanc, The Globe and Mail, retrieved July 3, 2009 
  17. ^ Canada Post Details, January to March 2010, Volume XIX, No. 1, pp. 24-25
  18. ^ Office of the Governor General of Canada, Honours > Order of Canada > Search: Order of Canada Membership List > LeBlanc, Raymond P. > Raymond P. LeBlanc, C.M., M.D., F.R.C.S.C., Queen's Printer for Canada, retrieved February 27, 2009 
  19. ^ Office of the Governor General of Canada, Governor General > Role and Responsibilities > Insignia Worn by the Governor General, Queen's Printer for Canada, retrieved February 3, 2010 
  20. ^ "Order of New Brunswick recipients announced" (Press release). Intergovernmental and International Relations. August 1, 2005. Retrieved March 2, 2009. 
  21. ^ Government House: Awards to Canadians, Canada Gazette (Ottawa: Queen's Printer for Canada) 136 (39), September 28, 2002, retrieved February 3, 2010 
  22. ^ Office of the Governor General of Canada (October 1, 1999), Heraldry > Emblems of Canada and of Government House > Symbols of Past Governors General > The Coat of Arms of The Right Honourable Roméo LeBlanc, Queen's Printer for Canada, retrieved March 4, 2009 

External links[edit]

Government offices
Preceded by
Ray Hnatyshyn
Governor General of Canada
1995—1999
Succeeded by
Adrienne Clarkson
Political offices
20th Ministry – First cabinet of Pierre Trudeau
Cabinet Posts (5)
Predecessor Office Successor
New title Minister of Fisheries and Oceans
April 2, 1979 – June 3, 1979
James McGrath
Himself as acting minister Minister of the Environment
September 14, 1976 – April 1, 1979
styled as
Minister of Fisheries and the Environment
Leonard Stephen Marchand
Jean Marchand Minister of the Environment (acting)
July 1, 1976 – September 13, 1976
Himself as minister
Jeanne Sauvé Minister of the Environment (acting)
December 5, 1975 – January 21, 1976
Jean Marchand
n/a Minister of State (Fisheries)
August 8, 1974 – September 13, 1976
n/a
22nd Ministry – Second cabinet of Pierre Trudeau
Cabinet Posts (2)
Predecessor Office Successor
Paul James Cosgrove Minister of Public Works
September 30, 1982 – June 29, 1984
Charles Lapointe
James McGrath Minister of Fisheries and Oceans
March 3, 1980 – September 29, 1982
Pierre de Bané
Special Cabinet Responsibilities
Predecessor
Title Successor
n/a Minister responsible for the
Canada Mortgage and Housing Corporation

September 30, 1982 – June 29, 1984
n/a
Parliament of Canada
Preceded by
Guy Charbonneau
Speaker of the Canadian Senate
December 7, 1993 – November 21, 1994
Succeeded by
Gildas Molgat
Preceded by
Guy F. Crossman
Member of Parliament for Westmorland—Kent
1973 – 1984
Succeeded by
Fernand Robichaud