Roma (Romani subgroup)
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Roma are a subgroup of the Romani people (also known as Gypsies although this term is considered pejorative), who live primarily in Central and Eastern Europe, as well as in the Balkans and Western Anatolia, and as recent immigrants in Western Europe and the Americas. Roma is also used as a synonym for the whole Romani people.
Southeastern Europe 
Romani people constitute the second largest minority and third largest ethnic group (after Bulgarians and Turks) in Bulgaria. According to the 2001 census, there were 370,908 Roma in Bulgaria, equivalent to 4.7% of the country's total population, but as over 700,000 persons did not declare their ethnic group in the 2011 census, the overall number of the Gypsies is estimated at 500,000 as of 2011, or 6,8% of the population. The Roma are the third largest ethnic group in Bulgaria.
There were 300,000 Roma in Greece, according to Greek Helsinki Monitor in 1999. Government estimates count 200,000 Roma. The Roma minority comprise around 1,8% to 2,8% of the total Greek population.
According to the last census from 2002, there were 53,879 ethnic Roma in the Republic of Macedonia or 2.66% of population. Another sources claim to be between 80,000 and 260,000 Roma in Macedonia or approximately 4 to 12% of the total population. Municipality Šuto Orizari is the only municipality in the world with a Romani majority and the only municipality where Romani is the official language. Due to the demographics, both Romani and Macedonian are official in Šuto Orizari, the municipality being officially bilingual. The mayor of the municipality, Elvis Bajram, is an ethnic Rom, the son of Amdi Bajram, a Macedonian MP and member of the ruling coalition government. Another prominent Macedonian Roma is the singer Esma Redžepova.
There is a sizable minority of Romani people in Romania, of 619,000 people or 3.2% of the total population (2011 census). The Roma are the most socially-disadvantaged minority group in Romania, even though there are a variety of governmental and non-governmental programs for integration and social advancement, including the National Agency for the Roma and Romania's participation in the Decade of Roma Inclusion. As an officially-recognised ethnic minority, the Romani people also have guaranteed representation in Parliament and official recognition of their language in localities where they make up more than 20% of the population.
According to the 2002, census, there were 108,193 Roma in Serbia or 1.44% of the population. Of those, 79,136 Roma are concentrated in Central Serbia and 29,057 in Vojvodina. The actual total of Roma in Serbia is generally thought to be much higher, due to the fact that many Roma do not wish to identify themselves as Roma.
In Kosovo, the Roma are seen by many Albanians as being allied with Serbian national interests. The Kosovo Liberation Army has targeted Roma as well as Serbs. In 2008 American magazine Business Week featured Romani problems.
Central Europe 
Czech Republic and Slovakia 
According to the last census in Slovakia (2001), there were 89,920 persons counted as Roma, or 1.7% of the population. In the Czech Republic Roma probably make 2–3% of population or an estimated 200–300 thousand – although in the last census (2001), Romani ethnicity officially enrolled only 11,746 persons.
|The factual accuracy of parts of this article (those related to citation) may be compromised due to out-of-date information. (January 2013)|
In the Czech Republic, 75% of Romani children are educated in schools for people with learning difficulties, and 70% are unemployed (compared with a national rate of 6%). In Slovakia, Romani children are 28 times as likely to be sent to a special school than non-Roma; Romani unemployment stands at 80%.
In 2007, the Grand Chamber of the European Court of Human Rights ruled 13-4 in the case "D.H. and Others v. Czech Republic" that the city of Ostrava did violate the European Convention on Human Rights (ECHR) by placing a disproportionate number of Roma children in "special schools" for the learning impaired.
The number of Romani people in Hungary is disputed. In the 2001 census only 190,000 people called themselves Roma, but sociological estimates yield much higher numbers, about 5%-10% of the total population. Since World War II, the number of Roma has increased rapidly, multiplying sevenfold in the last century. Today, every fifth or sixth newborn is Roma. Estimates based on current demographic trends project that in 2050, 20.9% of the population will be Romani.
The Roma (called cigányok or romák in Hungarian) suffer particular problems in Hungary, for example in the educational system, only 61% of Hungarian Roma aged 15 and above have completed primary education, while only 13% have completed secondary education. Currently, around 90% of Romani children complete primary education. A research of sample schools however suggests that the drop-out rate among Roma is still almost twice as high as among non-Roma.
The share of Romani students entering secondary education has increased greatly, with the percentage of Romani children not pursuing any secondary education dropping from 49% to 15% between 1994 and 1999. But that increase is almost exclusively due to increased enrollment in the lowest levels of education, which provide only limited chances for employment. Whereas almost half the Hungarian secondary school students enroll in vocational secondary schools or comprehensive grammar schools, which provide better chances, only one in five Romani children does so. Moreover, the drop-out rate in secondary schools is significant.
The separation of Romani children into segregated schools and classes is also a problem, and has been on the rise over the past 15 years. Segregated schools are partly the result of "white flight", with non-Romani parents sending their children to schools in neighboring villages or towns when there are many Romani students in the local school. But Romani children are also frequently placed in segregated classes even within "mixed" schools. Many other Romani children are sent to classes for pupils with learning disabilities. The percentage of Romani children in special schools rose from about 25% in 1975 to 42% in 1992, with a 1997 survey showing little change – whereas a National Institute for Public Education report says that "most experts agree that a good number of Romani children attending special schools are not even slightly mentally disabled".
The Romani are much less numerous and less controversial in Poland than in other European countries where major sociopolitical issues revolve around them. Estimates of the Romani population in Poland range from 15,000 to 50,000. Czechoslovakia's Romani population, by contrast, numbered 500,000 in the 1980s, when Poland became a transit point on the illegal migration route to Germany. Emigration of Polish Romani to Germany in the late 1980s reduced Poland's Romani population by as much as 75 percent. Although some negative stereotypes, the acts of violence and discrimination against this most visible minority are very rare in Poland. The exception was so called Mława pogrom. The Polish government has adopted no comprehensive policy on Romani but instead had treated violent act against them as isolated incident.
Former Soviet Union 
In Tsarist Russia there were no laws discriminating against the Roma, as there were towards Jews. They did suffer, however, as did other ethnic groups, during the Soviet period, especially under Joseph Stalin.
An official 2002 census in Russia lists the Romani population as approximately 183,000 (0.1% of the population). However, this census was based on a verbal declaration of ethnicity. Many Roma may have declared other ethnicities (Russian, Ukrainian, Moldavian, etc.) in fear of discrimination. The census also didn't always reach people in obscure areas and people living in Russia illegally. Some estimate their actual population to be anywhere from 600,000 to 1 million.
There are a number of different groups of Roma throughout Russia. They include the following:
- Ruska Roma (Russian: русские цыгане), whose ancestors arrived in Russia in the 17th century. Many of these Roma occupy urban areas, and often live in apartments. Others live in villages. They all speak Russian and most of them also speak Romani.
- Vlaxitka Roma, living mostly in the Southern areas of Russia.
- Servitka Roma, who has arrive in Russia from Ukraine.
- Lotva (Russian: лотва), Roma from Lithuania and the Pskov Oblast, who are also considered Ruska Roma.
- Kalderash (Russian: Кэлдэрари/Котлари/котляры), living mostly in villages.
- Modyars/Mogyars (Russian: Мадьяры), who used to reside in an area of the Carpathian Mountains that was annexed to Ukraine in 1945. Most of these Roma speak Hungarian, as well as Ukrainian, Russian, Belarusian and Romani.
The presence of Roma in Ukraine was first documented in the early 15th century. Roma maintained their social organizations and folkways, shunning non-Romani contacts, education and values, often as a reaction to anti-Romani attitudes and persecution. They adopted the language and faith of the dominant society being Orthodox in most of Ukraine, Catholic in western Ukraine and Transcarpathia, Muslim in Crimea.
During WWII Nazi policies to exterminate Roma were implemented. By July 1943 the Romanian authorities transported 25,000 Roma to Transnistria, along the Southern Bug River, where half perished because of the brutal treatment. In Ukraine it is estimated that 12,000 were killed in Babi Yar in Kiev. Other massacres took place in Crimea, Podilia, Galicia and Volhynia.
According to the Soviet census of 1926 there were 13,600 Roma in the Ukrainian SSR, 2,500 whom lived in cities. In Crimea there were 1600. According to the 1970 census there were 30,100 Roma in Ukrainian SSR, (up from 28,000 in 1959). In 1979, there were 34,500. The estimate of the World Romani Union is considerably higher.
Material culture has not differed from the dominant society except in dress. They have a rich folk tradition. Roma themes can be found in Ukrainian literature.
Near East 
Roma in Turkey descend from the times of the Byzantine Empire. With the expanse of the Ottoman Empire Turkish Roma settled in Rumelia (Southern Europe under the Ottoman rule). The descendants of the Ottoman Roma today are known as Xoraxane Roma. There are officially about 500,000 Roma in Turkey. By different Turkish Roma and Non-Turkish estimates the number of Roma is up to 5,000,000.
Western Europe 
Roma in the Holocaust 
The Roma were stripped of German citizenship by the Nürnberg laws and were soon made part of the Final Solution, with some Roma transported to share the fate of the Jews in the Warsaw Ghetto. Roma were massacred by the Einsatzgruppen in Eastern Europe and the Soviet Union, and were deported to concentration camps. The extermination of the Roma by the Nazis and their allies has been named in the Romani language the Porajmos, loosely translated as "the devouring". Estimates of the total number of Roma killed during the Holocaust range from 220,000 to 1.5 million.
More than 20,000 Roma were deported to the Auschwitz death camp where Dr. Josef Mengele took a special interest in them, studying medical conditions including "noma" which ate away the cheeks of malnourished Roma children. In early August 1944, Auschwitz administration decided to exterminate the entire Roma population of the camp, and with Mengele's assistance about 3,000 people were sent to the gas chamber.
See also 
- Romani people by country
- History of the Romani people
- Romani society and culture
- Romani music
- Romani contemporary art
- Hancock, Ian, 2001, Ame sam e rromane džene / We are the Romani People, The Open Society Institute, New York, page 2
- Matras, Yaron, Romani: A Linguistic Introduction, Cambridge University Press, 2002, page 5
- O'Nions, Helen (2007). Minority rights protection in international law: the Roma of Europe. Ashgate Publishing, Ltd. p. 6. ISBN 9781409490920.
- "Population as of 1 March 2001 divided by provinces and ethnic group" (in Bulgarian). National Statistical Institute. 2001. Retrieved 2006-06-18.
- S. Adam Cardais (July 2008). "Eastern Europe's Roma: 'Tacit Apartheid'". Businessweek.com.
- "Population by ethnicity". Census. Croatian Bureau of Statistics. 2001. Retrieved 2011-11-04.
- Younge, Gary (2003-01-08). "Shame of a continent". The Guardian (London). Retrieved 2010-05-22.
- CASE OF D.H. AND OTHERS v. THE CZECH REPUBLIC (Application no. 57325/00) JUDGMENT. Grand Chamber, European Court of Human Rights. Strasbourg, France. 2007-11-13.
- Romani World
- "Monitoring Education for Roma. A Statistical Baseline for Central, Eastern, and South Eastern Europe." (PDF). Open Society Institute, Education Support Program (ESP). 2006. Retrieved 2007-04-20.
- "Equal access to quality education for Roma, Hungary" (PDF). Open Society Institute, EU Monitoring and Advocacy Program (EUMAP). 2007. pp. 206–207. Retrieved 2007-04-20.[dead link]
- Equal access to quality education for Roma, Hungary, pp. 208–209
- Equal access to quality education for Roma, Hungary, pp. 187, 212-213
- "Legislative review for the Hungarian roma education policy note". National Institute for Public Education. 2004. Retrieved 2007-04-20.
- U.S. Library of Congress Country study
- Всероссийская перепись населения 2002 года. Национальный состав населения по регионам России (2002 Russian Census. Ethnic composition.) (Russian)
- http://www.radikal.com.tr/haber.php?haberno=188686 Merkezin çalışmasında Türkiye'de resmi rakamlara göre 500 bin, tahminen de iki milyon civarında Roman olduğu yer alıyor.
- "Türkiye’deki Çingene nüfusu tam bilinmiyor. 2, hatta 5 milyon gibi rakamlar dolaşıyor Çingenelerin arasında.": Article from Hürryet
- Roma, according to latest estimations of some experts, number between 4 and 5 million. European Roma Information Office
- Guerin, Pat (2007). "Some thoughts on Roma Immigration and Irish Society". In Micheál Ó hAodha. The Nomadic Subject: Postcolonial Identities on the Margins. Cambridge Scholars. p. 43. ISBN 978-1-84718-286-9. Retrieved 2009-11-20.
- Robert Jay Lifton, The Nazi Doctors (1986), pp. 185–186, 323.