Roma in Ukraine
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The presence of a Romani minority in Ukraine was first documented in the early 14th century. Roma maintained their social organizations and folkways, shunning non-Romani contacts, education and values, often as a reaction to anti-Romani attitudes and persecution. They adopted the language and faith of the dominant society being Orthodox in most of Ukraine, Catholic in Western Ukraine and Transcarpathia, and Islam in Crimea.
During World War II the Nazis and their allies implemented their policies of the extermination of the Roma people in Ukraine. By July 1943 the Romanian authorities transported 25,000 nomad Roma from Romania to Transnistria, along the Bug river, where half perished because of the brutal treatment. In Ukraine it is estimated that 12,000 were killed by the Nazis in Babi Yar in Kiev. Other World War II massacres took place in Crimea, Podilia, Galicia and Volhynia.
- Census 1887: 12,000 Roma in Russian Ukraine (without Galicia and Transcarpathia who comprise the highest Ukrainian Romani population)
- Census 1922: 60,000 Roma in Ukrainian SSR (without Galicia and Transcarpathia)
- Census 1959: 28,000 Roma in Ukrainian SSR
- Census 1970: 30,100 Roma in Ukrainian SSR.
- Census 1979: 34,500 Roma in Ukrainian SSR
- Census 2001: 47,600 Roma in Ukraine. The estimate of the World Romani Union and the Council of Europe is considerably higher (around 400,000). The Roma organizations estimate the number at over 400,000 persons.
Roma are scattered throughout Ukraine, but their largest concentration is in Transcarpathia. Half live in cities. 35% consider Romani their mother tongue. Material culture has not differed from the dominant society except in dress. They have a rich folk tradition. Roma themes can be found in Ukrainian literature.
The term Rom/Roma (Ukrainian: Ромá) is not generally used, accepted or understood in Ukraine, even by the Roma themselves. They are referred to by the generic term "Tsyhany" (Ukrainian: Цигaни)
See also 
- Encyclopedia of Ukraine Vol. 2 (G-K) Toronto, 1988
- УКРАЇНСЬКІ ЦИГАНИ
- : In reality, by the preliminary estimates of communication within our nation, only the East of Ukraine has approximately 150 thousand Romani nationals, and we are sure that the Romani population on the territory of Ukraine reaches more than 400 thousand people.
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