Romanization of Japanese

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The romanization of Japanese is the application of the Latin script to write the Japanese language. This method of writing is sometimes referred to in English as rōmaji (ローマ字?, literally, "roman letters") (Japanese pronunciation: [ɽóːmadʑi] About this sound listen ), less strictly transcribed romaji, sometimes incorrectly transliterated as romanji or rōmanji. There are several different romanization systems. The three main ones are Hepburn romanization, Kunrei-shiki Rōmaji (ISO 3602), and Nihon-shiki Rōmaji (ISO 3602 Strict). Variants of the Hepburn system are the most widely used.

Japanese is normally written in logographic characters borrowed from Chinese (kanji) and syllabic scripts (kana) which also ultimately derive from Chinese characters. Rōmaji may be used in any context where Japanese text is targeted at non-Japanese speakers who cannot read kanji or kana, such as for names on street signs and passports, and in dictionaries and textbooks for foreign learners of the language. It is also used to transliterate Japanese terms in text written in English (or other languages that use the Latin script) on topics related to Japan, such as linguistics, literature, history, and culture. Rōmaji is the most common way to input Japanese into word processors and computers, and may also be used to display Japanese on devices that do not support the display of Japanese characters.

All Japanese who have attended elementary school since World War II have been taught to read and write romanized Japanese. Therefore, almost all Japanese are able to read and write Japanese using rōmaji, although it is extremely rare in Japan to use this method to write Japanese, and most Japanese are more comfortable reading kanji/kana.

The word rōmaji literally means "roman letters", and in Japan it is more often used to refer to the Roman alphabet itself (as used in English and other European languages) than to any specific form of romanized Japanese.[citation needed]

History[edit]

The earliest Japanese romanization system was based on the Portuguese orthography. It was developed around 1548 by a Japanese Catholic named Yajiro. Jesuit presses used the system in a series of printed Catholic books so that missionaries could preach and teach their converts without learning to read Japanese orthography. The most useful of these books for the study of early modern Japanese pronunciation and early attempts at romanization was the Nippo jisho, a Japanese-Portuguese dictionary written in 1603. In general, the early Portuguese system was similar to Nihon-shiki in its treatment of vowels. Some consonants were transliterated differently: for instance, the /k/ consonant was rendered, depending on context, as either c or q, and the /ɸ/ consonant (now pronounced /h/) as f, so Nihon no kotoba ("The language of Japan") was spelled Nifon no cotoba. The Jesuits also printed some secular books in romanized Japanese, including the first printed edition of the Japanese classic The Tale of the Heike, romanized as Feiqe no monogatari, and a collection of Aesop's Fables (romanized as Esopo no fabulas). The latter continued to be printed and read after the suppression of Christianity in Japan (Chibbett, 1977).

Following the expulsion of Christians from Japan in the late 1590s and early 17th century, rōmaji fell out of use, and was only used sporadically in foreign texts until the mid-19th century, when Japan opened up again. The systems used today all developed in the latter half of the 19th century.[citation needed]

From the mid-19th century several systems were developed, culminating in the Hepburn system, named after James Curtis Hepburn who used it in the third edition of his Japanese–English dictionary, published in 1887. The Hepburn system included representation of some sounds that have since changed. For example, Lafcadio Hearn's book Kwaidan shows the older kw- pronunciation; in modern Hepburn romanization, this would be written Kaidan (lit., ghost tales.)[citation needed]

As a replacement for Japanese writing system[edit]

In the Meiji era (1868–1912), some Japanese scholars advocated abolishing the Japanese writing system entirely and using rōmaji instead. The Nihon-shiki romanization was an outgrowth of that movement. Several Japanese texts were published entirely in rōmaji during this period, but it failed to catch on. Later, in the early 20th century, some scholars devised syllabary systems with characters derived from Latin (rather like the Cherokee syllabary); these were even less popular, because they were not based on any historical use of the Latin script. Today, the use of Nihon-shiki for writing Japanese is advocated by the Oomoto sect[1] and some independent organizations.[2]

Modern systems[edit]

Hepburn[edit]

An old JNR-style sign at Toyooka Station, using Hepburn romanization for "Gembudō", but Kunrei-shiki for "Kokuhu"
Main article: Hepburn romanization

Hepburn romanization (ヘボン式ローマ字 Hebon-shiki rōmaji?, "Hepburn-style romaji") generally follows English phonology with Romance vowels. It is an intuitive method of showing Anglophones the pronunciation of a word in Japanese. It was standardized in the USA as American National Standard System for the Romanization of Japanese (Modified Hepburn), but that status was abolished on October 6, 1994. Hepburn is the most common romanization system in use today, especially in the English-speaking world.

The Revised Hepburn system of romanization uses a macron to indicate some long vowels and an apostrophe to note the separation of easily confused phonemes (usually, syllabic n ん from a following naked vowel or semivowel). For example, the name じゅんいちろう, is written with the kana characters ju-n-i-chi-ro-u, and romanized as Jun'ichirō in Revised Hepburn. Without the apostrophe, it would not be possible to distinguish this correct reading from the incorrect ju-ni-chi-ro-u. This system is widely used in Japan and among foreign students and academics.

Nihon-shiki[edit]

Nihon-shiki romanization (日本式ローマ字 Nihon-shiki rōmaji?, "Japan-style Rōmaji"), which predates the Hepburn system, was originally invented as a method for the Japanese to write their own language in Latin characters. It follows the Japanese syllabary very strictly, with no adjustments for changes in pronunciation. It is therefore the only major system of romanization that allows (almost) lossless mapping to and from kana. It has also been standardized as ISO 3602 Strict. Also known as Nippon-shiki, rendered in the Nihon-shiki style of romanization the name is either Nihon-siki or Nippon-siki.

Kunrei-shiki[edit]

Kunrei-shiki romanization (訓令式ローマ字 Kunrei-shiki rōmaji?, "Cabinet decree style Rōmaji") is a slightly modified version of Nihon-shiki which eliminates differences between the kana syllabary and modern pronunciation. For example, when the words kana かな and tsukai つかい are combined, the result is written in kana as かなづかい with a dakuten (voicing sign) ゛on the つ (tsu) kana to indicate that the tsu つ is now voiced. The づ kana is pronounced in the same way as a different kana, す (su), with dakuten, ず. Kunrei-shiki and Hepburn ignore the difference in kana and represent the sound in the same way, as kanazukai, using the same letters "zu" as are used to romanize ず. Nihon-shiki retains the difference, and romanizes the word as kanadukai, differentiating the づ kana from the ず kana, which is romanized as zu, even though they are pronounced identically. Similarly for the pair じ and ぢ, which are both zi in Kunrei-shiki and both ji in Hepburn romanization, but are zi and di respectively in Nihon-shiki. See the table below for full details.

Kunrei-shiki has been standardized by the Japanese Government and the International Organisation for Standardisation as ISO 3602. Kunrei-shiki is taught to Japanese elementary school students in their fourth year of education.

Written in Kunrei-shiki, the name of the system would be rendered Kunreisiki.

Other variants[edit]

It is possible to elaborate these romanizations to enable non-native speakers to pronounce Japanese words more correctly. Typical additions include tone marks to note the Japanese pitch accent and diacritic marks to distinguish phonological changes, such as the assimilation of the moraic nasal /n/ (see Japanese phonology).

JSL[edit]

Main article: JSL romanization

JSL is a romanization system based on Japanese phonology, designed using the linguistic principles used by linguists in designing writing systems for languages that do not have any. It is a purely phonemic system, using exactly one symbol for each phoneme, and marking pitch accent using diacritics. It was created for Eleanor Harz Jorden's system of Japanese language teaching. Its principle is that such a system enables students to better internalize the phonology of Japanese. Since it does not have any of the advantages for non-native speakers that the other rōmaji systems have, and the Japanese already have a writing system for their language, JSL is not widely used outside the educational environment.

Non-standard romanization[edit]

In addition to the standardized systems above, there are many variations in romanization, used either for simplification, in error or confusion between different systems, or for deliberate stylistic reasons.

Notably, the various mappings that Japanese input methods use to convert keystrokes on a Roman keyboard to kana often combine features of all of the systems; when used as plain text rather than being converted, these are usually known as wāpuro rōmaji. (Wāpuro is a blend of do purosessā word processor.) Unlike the standard systems, wāpuro rōmaji requires no characters from outside the ASCII character set.

While there may be arguments in favour of some of these variant romanizations in specific contexts, their use, especially if mixed, leads to confusion when romanized Japanese words are indexed. Note that this confusion never occurs when inputting Japanese characters with a word processor, because input Latin letters are transliterated into Japanese kana as soon as the IME processes what character is input.

Long vowels[edit]

In addition, the following three "non-Hepburn rōmaji" (非ヘボン式ローマ字 hi-hebon-shiki rōmaji?) methods of representing long vowels are authorized by the Japanese Foreign Ministry for use in passports.[3]

  • Oh for おお or おう (Hepburn ō).
  • Oo for おお or おう. This is valid JSL and modified Hepburn.
  • Ou for おう. This is also an example of wāpuro rōmaji.

Example words written in each romanization system[edit]

English Japanese Kana spelling Romanization
Revised Hepburn Kunrei-shiki Nihon-shiki
Roman characters ローマ字 ローマじ rōmaji rômazi rômazi
Mount Fuji 富士山 ふじさん Fujisan Huzisan Huzisan
tea お茶 おちゃ ocha otya otya
governor 知事 ちじ chiji tizi tizi
to shrink 縮む ちぢむ chijimu tizimu tidimu
to continue 続く つづく tsuzuku tuzuku tuduku

Differences among romanizations[edit]

This chart shows in full the three main systems for the romanization of Japanese: Hepburn, Nihon-shiki and Kunrei-shiki:

Hiragana Katakana Hepburn Nihon-shiki Kunrei-shiki
a
i
u
e
o
ya
yu
yo
ka
ki
ku
ke
ko
きゃ キャ kya
きゅ キュ kyu
きょ キョ kyo
sa
shi si
su
se
so
しゃ シャ sha sya
しゅ シュ shu syu
しょ ショ sho syo
ta
chi ti
tsu tu
te
to
ちゃ チャ cha tya
ちゅ チュ chu tyu
ちょ チョ cho tyo
na
ni
nu
ne
no
にゃ ニャ nya
にゅ ニュ nyu
にょ ニョ nyo
ha
hi
fu hu
he
ho
ひゃ ヒャ hya
ひゅ ヒュ hyu
ひょ ヒョ hyo
ma
mi
mu
me
mo
みゃ ミャ mya
みゅ ミュ myu
みょ ミョ myo
ya
yu
yo
ra
ri
ru
re
ro
りゃ リャ rya
りゅ リュ ryu
りょ リョ ryo
wa
i wi i
e we e
o wo o
n-n'(-m) n-n'
ga
gi
gu
ge
go
ぎゃ ギャ gya
ぎゅ ギュ gyu
ぎょ ギョ gyo
za
ji zi
zu
ze
zo
じゃ ジャ ja zya
じゅ ジュ ju zyu
じょ ジョ jo zyo
da
ji di zi
zu du zu
de
do
ぢゃ ヂャ ja dya zya
ぢゅ ヂュ ju dyu zyu
ぢょ ヂョ jo dyo zyo
ba
bi
bu
be
bo
びゃ ビャ bya
びゅ ビュ byu
びょ ビョ byo
pa
pi
pu
pe
po
ぴゃ ピャ pya
ぴゅ ピュ pyu
ぴょ ピョ pyo

This chart shows the significant differences among them.

Kana Revised Hepburn Nihon-shiki Kunrei-shiki
うう ū û
おう, おお ō ô
shi si
しゃ sha sya
しゅ shu syu
しょ sho syo
ji zi
じゃ ja zya
じゅ ju zyu
じょ jo zyo
chi ti
tsu tu
ちゃ cha tya
ちゅ chu tyu
ちょ cho tyo
ji di zi
zu du zu
ぢゃ ja dya zya
ぢゅ ju dyu zyu
ぢょ jo dyo zyo
fu hu
i wi i
e we e
o wo o
n-n'(-m) n-n'

Spacing[edit]

Japanese is written without spaces between words, and in some cases, such as concatenated compounds, it may not be completely clear where "word" boundaries ought to lie, resulting in varying romanization styles. For example, 結婚する, meaning "to marry", and composed of the noun 結婚 (kekkon, "marriage") combined with する (suru, "to do"), is romanised as kekkonsuru by some authors but kekkon suru by others.

Kana without standardised forms of romanization[edit]

There is no universally accepted style of romanization for the smaller versions of the y kana (ゃ/ャ, ゅ/ュ and ょ/ョ) when used outside the normal combinations (きゃ, きょ etc.), nor for the sokuon or small tsu kana っ/ッ when it is not directly followed by a consonant. Although these are usually regarded as merely phonetic marks or diacritics, they do sometimes appear on their own, such as at the end of sentences, in exclamations, or in some names. The detached sokuon is sometimes represented as an apostrophe or as t; for example, あっ might be written as a' or at.[citation needed]

Historical romanizations[edit]

1603: Vocabvlario da Lingoa de Iapam (1603)
1604: Arte da Lingoa de Iapam (1604–1608)
1620: Arte Breve da Lingoa Iapoa (1620)
1603 a i, j, y v, u ye vo, uo
1604 i v vo
1620 y
きゃ きょ くゎ
1603 ca qi, qui cu, qu qe,que co qia qio, qeo qua
1604 qui que quia quio
1620 ca, ka ki cu, ku ke kia kio
ぎゃ ぎゅ ぎょ ぐゎ
1603 ga gui gu, gv gue go guia guiu guio gua
1604 gu
1620 ga, gha ghi gu, ghu ghe go, gho ghia ghiu ghio
しゃ しゅ しょ
1603 sa xi su xe so xa xu xo
1604
1620
じゃ じゅ じょ
1603 za ii, ji zu ie, ye zo ia, ja iu, ju io, jo
1604 ji ia ju jo
1620 ie iu io
ちゃ ちゅ ちょ
1603 ta chi tçu te to cha chu cho
1604
1620
ぢゃ ぢゅ ぢょ
1603 da gi zzu de do gia giu gio
1604 dzu
1620
にゃ にゅ にょ
1603 na ni nu ne no nha nhu, niu nho, neo
1604 nha nhu nho
1620
ひゃ ひゅ ひょ
1603 fa fi fu fe fo fia fiu fio, feo
1604 fio
1620
びゃ びゅ びょ
1603 ba bi bu be bo bia biu bio, beo
1604
1620 bia biu
ぴゃ ぴゅ ぴょ
1603 pa pi pu pe po pia pio
1604
1620 pia
みゃ みょ
1603 ma mi mu me mo mia, mea mio, meo
1604
1620 mio
1603 ya yu yo
1604
1620
りゃ りゅ りょ
1603 ra ri ru re ro ria, rea riu rio, reo
1604 rio
1620 riu
1603 va, ua vo, uo
1604 va y ye vo
1620
1603 n, m, ~ (tilde)
1604 n
1620 n, m
1603 -t, -cc-, -cch-, -cq-, -dd-, -pp-, -ss-, -tt, -xx-, -zz-
1604 -t, -cc-, -cch-, -pp-, -cq-, -ss-, -tt-, xx-
1620 -t, -cc-, -cch-, -pp-, -ck-, -cq-, -ss-, -tt-, -xx-

Alphabet letter names in Japanese[edit]

The list below shows how to spell Latin character words or acronyms in Japanese. For example, NHK is spelled enu-eichi-kei (エヌエイチケイ). The following pronunciations are based on English letter names; otherwise, for example, A would likely be called ā (アー) in Japanese.[clarification needed]

  • A; Ē or ei (エー or エイ)
  • B; (ビー, alternative pronunciation , ベー)
  • C; Shī (シー, sometimes pronounced , スィー)
  • D; (ディー, alternative pronunciation , デー)
  • E; Ī (イー)
  • F; Efu (エフ)
  • G; (ジー)
  • H; Eichi or Etchi (エイチ or エッチ)
  • I; Ai (アイ)
  • J; or Jei (ジェー or ジェイ)
  • K; or Kei (ケー or ケイ)
  • L; Eru (エル)
  • M; Emu (エム, alternative pronunciation en(em), エン)
  • N; Enu (エヌ, sometimes pronounced en, エン)
  • O; Ō (オー)
  • P; (ピー, alternative pronunciation , ペー)
  • Q; Kyū (キュー)
  • R; Āru (アール)
  • S; Esu (エス)
  • T; (ティー, though sometimes pronounced chī, チー, and alternatively pronounced , テー)
  • U; (ユー)
  • V; Vi (ヴィ, though often pronounced bui, ブイ)
  • W; Daburyū (ダブリュー)
  • X; Ekkusu (エックス)
  • Y; Wai (ワイ)
  • Z; Zetto, zeddo, or (ゼット, ゼッド, or ズィー, though sometimes pronounced , ジー)

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Oomoto.or.jp". Oomoto.or.jp. 2000-02-07. Retrieved 2011-02-25. 
  2. ^ "Age.ne.jp". Age.ne.jp. Retrieved 2011-02-25. 
  3. ^ "Kanagawa.jp". Pref.kanagawa.jp. Retrieved 2011-02-25. 
  • Chibbett, David (1977). The History of Japanese Printing and Book Illustration. Kodansha International Ltd. ISBN 0-87011-288-0. 
  • Jun'ichirō Kida (紀田順一郎 Kida Jun'ichirō?). Nihongo Daihakubutsukan (日本語大博物館?) (in Japanese). Just System (ジャストシステム Jasuto Shisutem?). ISBN 4-88309-046-9. 
  • Tadao Doi (土井忠生?) (1980). Hōyaku Nippo Jisho (邦訳日葡辞書?) (in Japanese). Iwanami Shoten (岩波書店?). 
  • Tadao Doi (土井忠生?) (1955). Nihon Daibunten (日本大文典?) (in Japanese). Sanseido (三省堂?). 
  • Mineo Ikegami (池上岑夫?) (1993). Nihongo Shōbunten (日本語小文典?) (in Japanese). Iwanami Shoten (岩波書店?). 
  • Hiroshi Hino (日埜博?) (1993). Nihon Shōbunten (日本小文典?) (in Japanese). Shin-Jinbutsu-Ôrai-Sha (新人物往来社?). 

Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]

  • Rōmaji sōdan shitsu contains an extremely extensive and accurate collection of materials relating to rōmaji, including standards documents and HTML versions of Hepburn's original dictionaries. (Japanese)
  • The rōmaji conundrum by Andrew Horvat contains a discussion of the problems caused by the variety of confusing romanization systems in use in Japan today.