Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Manila
|Archdiocese of Manila
Arkidiyosesis ng Maynila
Arms of the Archdiocese
|Territory||City of Manila
|Area||549 km2 (212 sq mi)|
|(as of 2004)
|Members||347 over all|
|Sui iuris church||Latin Church|
|Established||February 6, 1579 (Diocese)
August 14, 1595 (Archdiocese)
|Cathedral||Cathedral Basilica of the Immaculate Conception|
|Co-cathedral||Paco Church (Pro-Cathedral; 2012-2014)
San Miguel Church (Pro-Cathedral; 1945-1958)
|Patron saint||Immaculate Conception|
|Archbishop||Luis Antonio G. Tagle|
|Auxiliary Bishops||Broderick S. Pabillo|
|Vicar General||Rolando R. de la Cruz|
Jurisdiction of the metropolitan see within the Philippines.
The Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Manila (Latin: Archidioecesis Manilensis; Tagalog: Arkidiyosesis ng Maynilà; Spanish: Arquidiócesis de Manila) is a particular church or diocese of the Catholic Church in Manila, Philippines. Its ordinary, the Archbishop of Manila, is now customarily elevated to the Cardinalate after his enthronement.
The cathedral church is the Cathedral-Basilica of the Immaculate Conception, with the Blessed Virgin Mary, under the title of Immaculate Conception as the principal patroness of the Republic of the Philippines and Filipino people.
- A people called by the Father in Jesus Christ to become a community of persons with fullness of life witnessing to the Kingdom of God by living the Paschal Mystery in the power of the Holy Spirit with Mary as companion.
Per the efforts of conquistador Martín de Goiti—who founded the City of Manila after uniting the dominions of Sulayman III of Namayan, Tondo, and Sabag, Rajah Ache Matanda of Maynila, and Lakan Dula of Tondo— the Diocese of Manila was then canonically erected on February 6, 1579 through the Papal bull Illius fulti præsidio by Pope Gregory XIII, encompassing all Spanish colonies in Asia as a suffragan of Mexico. Fray Domingo de Salazar, a Dominican from the Convent of San Sebastian in Salamanca, Spain, was selected by King Philip II of Spain as the Bishop of the new diocese and was presented to the pope.
Over the course of history and growth of Catholicism in the Philippines, the diocese was elevated and new dioceses had been carved from its territory. On August 14, 1595, Pope Clement VIII raised the diocese to the status of an archdiocese with Bishop Ignacio Santibáñez elevated as its first archbishop. Three new dioceses were created as suffragan to Manila: Nueva Caceres, Nueva Segovia, and Cebu. With the creation of these new dioceses, the territory of the archdiocese was reduced to the city of Manila and the adjoining civil provinces in proximity including Mindoro Island. It was bounded to the north by the Diocese of Nueva Segovia, to the south by the Diocese of Cebu, and to the southeast by the Diocese of Nueva Caceres.
During the Hispanic period, the Archdiocese was ruled by a succession of Spanish and Latino archbishops. The British occupation of Manila during the Seven Years' War saw the temporary of Sultan Azim ud-Din I of Sulu to Catholicism, the massive looting and destruction of ecclesiastical treasures, as well as the burning of churches by British soldiers, Sepoy mercenaries and rebellious Chinese residents in Binondo. This episode was particularly damaging to Philippine scholarship due to the fact that the monasteries holding the archives and artifacts about the precolonial Philippine Rajahnates, Datudoms, Sultanates and Huangdoms and their conversion to Catholicism; were either burnt, lost or looted by the British. An example of which would be the Boxer Codex, whose earliest owner Lord Giles of Ilchester, had inherited it from an ancestor who stole it from Manila during the British Occupation.
Nevertheless, peace was subsequently restored after the Protestant British occupation. In the time after this, the Catholic religious orders (with the exception of the Jesuits who were temporarily suppressed by the Spaniards due to their role in anti-imperialist movements in Latin America) became the powerful driving force in the Archdiocese of Manila. The local diocesan clergy resented the foreign religious orders due to their near monopoly of ecclesiastical positions. The opposition of the religious orders against an autonomous diocesan clergy independent of them lead to the martyrdom of priests Mariano Gomez, José Burgos, Jacinto Zamora collectively known as Gomburza. This inspired the Jesuit educated Jose Rizal to form the La Liga Filipina, to ask for reforms from Spain and recognition of local clergy.
After the execution of Jose Rizal and the dissolution of the La Liga Filipina, the secret societies began to destabilize and dismantle the Catholic Archdiocese of Manila in favor of the masonic and schismatic Iglesia Filipina Independiente. This coincided with a nationalist revolution orchestrated by the Katipunan. The Americans then invaded the Archdiocese of Manila and despite sharing common Masonic affiliations with the Filipino nationalists, proceeded to suppress Philippine Nationalism and destroy the Malolos Republic. The Americans then installed fellow Americans as Archbishops over Manila rather than recognize the native clergy. The Katipunan, disillusioned by the betrayal of the secret societies against them, turned to the Catholic Church, especially to the Jesuit order, who had supported Philippine nationalism right from the very beginning.
The province of Mindoro was established as an independent diocese on April 10, 1910 by virtue of a Decretum Consistoriale executed by Pope Pius X, implementing the Bull “Quae Mari Sinico” of Pope Leo XIII. Also on that date saw the creation of the Diocese of Lipa (now known as the Archdiocese of Lipa) which had jurisdiction over the provinces of Batangas, Tayabas, Marinduque and some parts of Masbate.
Eighteen years later, on May 19, 1928, Pope Pius XI established the Diocese of Lingayen, carved from Manila and Nueva Segovia. In this creation 26 parishes were separated from Manila. He also named Our Lady of Guadalupe as a patroness of the Filipino people in 1938.
December 8, 1941, marked the beginning of the Japanese occupation of the Philippines. Members of the secretive Black Dragon Society, had infiltrated all facets of Philippine life and had greatly guided the invading Japanese forces. World War 2 marked a period of irreplaceable loss to the Archdiocese of Manila. The combination of violent theft and arson done by the Japanese and the indiscriminate carpet bombing perpetuated by the convenience leaning Americans lead to the permanent loss of many of the ancient Gothic, Art-Deco and Earthquake Baroque Cathedrals found around the Archdiocese of Manila.
In the aftermath of the war, in September 1942, Pope Pius XII declared Our Lady of Immaculate Conception as the Principal Patroness of the Philippines on the Papal Bull, Impositi Nobis, along with Saints Pudentiana and Rose of Lima as secondary patrons.
July 4, 1946, marked the date of Philippine independence from America. After this point, the Archdiocese of Manila was no longer just the archdiocese of a mere colony or territory but officially became the Eclessiastical Metropolis of a sovereign nation's capital.
On December 11, 1948, the Apostolic Constitution, “Probe noscitur” further divided the Archdiocese of Manila by separating the northern part of the Archdiocese and establishing it as the Diocese of San Fernando. On November 25, 1961, the Archdiocese of Manila was again partitioned. The civil provinces of Bulacan in the north and Cavite in the south were separated from the Archdiocese, the northern part becoming the Diocese of Malolos and towards the south the Diocese of Imus.
In 2002, two more dioceses were carved out of the Archdiocese: the Diocese of Novaliches in the north and the Diocese of Parañaque in the south, which also comprised the cities of Las Piñas and Muntinlupa.
In 2003, by the recommendation of Jaime Cardinal Sin (the spiritual leader of the People Power Revolution) and by papal decree, the archdiocese was further partitioned to form three new dioceses: the dioceses of Cubao, Caloocan and Pasig.
The Archbishop notably wields voting powers in the Bank of the Philippine Islands, given the Archdiocese's 8.4655% stake in the institution.
After having been served by a single residential bishop, nineteen archbishops were appointed from Spain. In 1903, the archdiocese received its first American archbishop as appointed by the Holy See. Following the tenure of Archbishop Jeremiah James Harty from St. Louis, Missouri, the Irishman Michael J. O'Doherty was appointed, and received on September 6, 1916.
O'Doherty would lead the church in its most difficult times, when Filipinos were petitioning for sovereignty from the United States, followed by the Japanese Occupation of the Philippines during World War II.
When O'Doherty died after Philippine independence, a Filipino was chosen to become the next archbishop. Fr. Gabriel Reyes was already serving as coadjutor archbishop before being raised to the position. His successor, Archbishop (later Cardinal) Rufino Jiao Santos, became the first Filipino to become a cardinal.
Jaime Cardinal Sin became the most recognized archbishop worldwide when he challenged the authoritarian regime of Ferdinand Marcos. Having become only the third Filipino cardinal, Cardinal Sin was credited as one of the architects of the 1986 People Power movement that deposed Marcos and dismantled his government.
In 2003, Pope John Paul II appointed Archbishop Gaudencio Rosales of Lipa as the new archbishop, succeeding Cardinal Sin; he was later elevated by Pope Benedict XVI to the cardinalate on March 24, 2006.
On October 13, 2011, the Apostolic Nunciature in Manila announced the appointment of Rev Luis Antonio Tagle of Imus as the new Archbishop, assisted by two auxiliary bishops, replacing Cardinal Rosales, who had resigned at the compulsory age of retirement. Rosales retired from public ministry but bore the honorary title of Archbishop Emeritus.
Archbishops of Manila
|1||Domingo de Salazar, O. P.||February 6, 1579||December 4, 1594|
|2||Ignacio Santibáñez, O.F.M.||August 30, 1595||August 14, 1598|
|3||Miguel de Benavides, O. P.||October 7, 1602||July 26, 1605|
|4||Diego Vázquez de Mercado||March 28, 1608||June 12, 1616|
|5||Miguel García Serrano, O.S.A.||February 12, 1618||June 14, 1629|
|6||Hernando Guerrero, O.S.A.||January 9, 1634||July 1, 1641|
|7||Fernando Montero de Espinosa||May 20, 1644||1645|
|8||Miguel de Poblete||September 9, 1650||December 8, 1667|
|9||Juan López, O. P.||1672||February 12, 1674|
|10||Felipe Pardo, O. P.||October 28, 1681||December 31, 1689|
|11||Diego Camacho y Ávila||August 19, 1696||January 14, 1704|
|12||Francisco de la Cuesta, O.S.H.||August 12, 1707||1722|
|13||Carlos Bermúdez Gonzalez||1722||November 13, 1729|
|14||Juan Ángel Rodríguez, O.S.T.||May 18, 1731||June 24, 1742|
|15||Pedro de la Santísima Trinidad Martínez de Arizala, O.F.M.||February 3, 1744||May 28, 1755|
|16||Manuel Antonio Rojo del Río y Vieyra||1758||1764|
|17||Basilio Sancho de Santa Justa, S.P.||April 14, 1766||December 15, 1787|
|18||Juan Antonio Orbigo de Gallego, O.F.M.||December 15, 1788||May 17, 1797|
|19||Juan Antonio Zulaibar, O. P.||March 26, 1804||March 4, 1824|
|20||Hilarión Díez, O.S.A.||July 3, 1826||May 7, 1829|
|21||José Seguí, O.S.A.||July 5, 1830||July 4, 1845|
|22||José Aranguren, O.A.R.||January 19, 1846||April 18, 1861|
|23||Gregorio Melitón Martínez Santa Cruz||December 23, 1861||1875|
|24||Pedro Payo y Piñeiro, O.P.||January 28, 1876||January 1, 1889|
|25||Bernardino Nozaleda y Villa, O. P.||May 27, 1889||February 4, 1902|
|26||Jeremiah James Harty||June 6, 1903||May 16, 1916|
|27||Michael J. O'Doherty||September 6, 1916||October 13, 1949|
|28||Gabriel Reyes y Martelino||October 13, 1949||October 15, 1952|
|29||Rufino Cardinal Santos y Jiao||February 10, 1953||September 3, 1973|
|30||Jaime Cardinal Sin y Lachica||September 3, 1973||November 18, 2003|
|31||Gaudencio Cardinal Rosales y Borbon||November 21, 2003||December 12, 2011|
|32||Luis Antonio Cardinal Tagle y Gokim||December 12, 2011||present|
College of Consultors
Below are member priests of the College of Consultors of the Archdiocese of Manila since January 18, 2012. Auxiliary bishops also serve as vicar generals.
- Auxiliary Bishop – Most Rev. Bernardino C. Cortez, STL
- Auxiliary Bishop – Most Rev. Broderick S. Pabillo, SSL
- Vicar General and Moderator Curiae – Rev. Msgr. Rolando R. Dela Cruz, PC
- Episcopal Vicar for Chancery Matters / Chancellor – Rev. Fr. Rufino C. Sescon, Jr.
- Episcopal Vicar for Foreign Communities Concern - Rev. Msgr. Esteban U. Lo, LRMS, PC
- Episcopal Vicar for the Diocesan Clergy - Rev. Fr. Generoso M. Geronimo
- Judicial Vicar - Rev. Msgr. Geronimo F. Reyes, PC, JCD
- Oeconomus - Rev. Fr. Ramon U. Merino
- Private Secretary to the Archbishop of Manila - Rev. Fr. Reginald R. Malicdem
As of 2004, the archdiocese has registered a total of 2,719,781 baptized faithful. They are served by 475 diocesan and religious priests – with a ratio of 5,725 faithful per priest, under 85 parishes. The archdiocese also houses 369 male religious and 1,730 female religious engaged in various social, pastoral and missionary works in various areas of the archdiocese.
Formation of Priests
The archdiocese operates San Carlos Seminary, which is responsible for the formation of future priests for the archdiocese and for its suffragan dioceses. Located in Guadalupe Viejo, Makati City, it has collegiate- and theologate-level formation houses as well as formation houses for Chinese Filipino future priests (which is the Lorenzo Ruiz Mission Society) and a center for adult vocations (Holy Apostles Senior Seminary). The seminary offers civil and ecclesiastical degrees in philosophy, theology and pastoral ministry.
The archdiocese also operates Our Lady of Guadalupe Minor Seminary, a seminary for young men in the secondary school level. It is located a few blocks away from San Carlos Seminary.
Other major seminaries that serve the spiritual and pastoral needs of the archdiocese include the San Jose Seminary (under the administration of the Jesuits, located within the Ateneo de Manila University complex) and the UST Central Seminary, the Royal and Pontifical Interdiocesan Seminary of the Philippines, (under the administration of the Dominicans, located within the University of Santo Tomas campus).
- Vicariate of Nuestra Señora de Guia
- Minor Basilica and Metropolitan Cathedral of the Immaculate Conception (Manila Cathedral)
- San Agustin Church (Shrine of Nuestra Señora de Consolación y Correa) – Intramuros, Manila (administered by the Augustinian Recollects)
- Archdiocesan Shrine and Parish of Nuestra Señora de Guia – Ermita, Manila
- Our Lady of Remedies Parish – Malate, Manila
- Our Lady of the Assumption Parish – Malate, Manila
- San Vicente de Paul Parish – Ermita, Manila
- Vicariate of San José de Trozo
- Minor Basilica of the Black Nazarene / Saint John the Baptist Parish – Quiapo, Manila
- Minor Basilica of San Sebastian/Our Lady of Mount Carmel – Quiapo, Manila (administered by the Augustinian Recollects)
- San José de Trozo Parish – Santa Cruz, Manila
- National Shrine and Parish of Saint Jude Thaddeus – San Miguel, Manila
- National Shrine of Saint Michael and the Archangels – San Miguel, Manila
- Santa Cruz Parish – Santa Cruz, Manila (administered by the Congregation of the Blessed Sacrament)
- Vicariate of the Holy Spirit
- Espíritu Santo Parish – Santa Cruz, Manila
- Immaculate Conception Parish – Tayuman, Tondo, Manila
- Risen Christ Parish – Tondo, Manila
- Saint Joseph Parish – Tondo, Manila
- San José Manggagawà Parish – Tondo, Manila
- San Rafael Parish – Tondo, Manila
- San Roque de Manila Parish – Blumentritt, Santa Cruz, Manila
- Santa Monica Parish – Tondo, Manila
- Vicariate of Our Lady of Loreto
- Archdiocesan Shrine and Parish of Our Lady of Loreto – Sampaloc, Manila
- Archdiocesan Shrine of Saint Anthony of Padua – Sampaloc, Manila
- Most Holy Trinity Parish – Balicbalic, Sampaloc, Manila
- Nuestra Señora del Perpetuo Socorro Parish – Sampaloc, Manila
- Nuestra Señora de Salvación Parish – NDC Compound, Santa Mesa, Manila
- Our Lady of Fátima Parish – Bacood, Santa Mesa, Manila
- Sacred Heart of Jesus Parish – Santa Mesa, Manila
- San Roque de Sampaloc Parish – Sampaloc, Manila
- Santísimo Rosario Parish (University of Santo Tomas) – Sampaloc, Manila
- Vicariate of Sto. Niño
- Minor Basilica of San Lorenzo Ruiz/Our Lady of the Most Holy Rosary Parish – Binondo, Manila
- Santo Niño de Tondo Parish – Tondo, Manila
- Nuestra Señora de la Soledad Parish – Binondo, Manila
- Saint John Bosco Parish – Tondo, Manila
- San Pablo Apostol Parish – Tondo, Manila
- Our Lady of Peace and Good Voyage Parish – Tondo, Manila
- Our Lady of the Most Holy Rosary Parish – Binondo, Manila (Personal Parish-Chinese)
- Vicariate of San Fernando de Dilao
- San Fernando de Dilao Parish – Paco, Manila
- Our Lady of Peñáfrancia Parish – Paco, Manila
- Saint Maria Goretti Parish – Paco, Manila
- Saint Peter the Apostle Parish – Paco, Manila
- Santo Niño de Pandacan Parish – Pandacan, Manila
- Vicariate of the Holy Family
- Sagrada Familia Parish – San Andrés Bukid, Manila
- Ina ng Laging Saklolo Parish – Punta, Santa Ana, Manila
- Our Lady of the Abandoned Parish – Santa Ana, Manila
- Saint Anthony of Padua Parish – Malate, Manila
- Saint Pius X Parish – Paco, Manila
- Santísima Trinidad Parish – Malate, Manila
- Vicariate of Sta. Clara de Montefalco (Pasay City)
- Archdiocesan Shrine of Jesus the Way, the Truth, and the Life – SM Mall of Asia Complex
- Santa Clara de Montefalco Parish
- Mary, Comforter of the Afflicted Parish – Maricaban, Pasay
- Our Lady of Fatima Parish – Don Carlos Village, Pasay
- Our Lady of Sorrows Parish
- Our Lady of the Airways Parish
- Our Lady of the Blessed Sacrament Parish
- San Isidro Labrador Parish
- San Juan Nepomuceno Parish – Malibay, Pasay
- San Rafael Parish – Park Avenue, Pasay
- San Roque Parish – Cabrera, Pasay
- Archdiocesan Shrine and Quasi-Parish of Mary, Queen of Peace (EDSA Shrine) – Wack-Wack Greenhills, Ortigas Center, Mandaluyong
- Saint John the Baptist Parish (Pinaglabanan Church) - Pedro Cruz, San Juan
- Chapel of the Eucharistic Lord (SM Megamall Chapel) – Wack-Wack Greenhills, Ortigas Center, Mandaluyong
- Mary the Queen Parish – West Greenhills, San Juan
- Saint Francis of Assisi Parish - Wack-Wack Greenhills, Ortigas Center, Mandaluyong (administered by the Franciscan Capuchins)
- Santuario de San José Parish – East Greenhills, Mandaluyong (administered by the Oblates of Saint Joseph)
- Santuario del Santo Cristo Parish - Kabayanan, San Juan (administered by the Order of Preachers)
- Vicariate of San Felipe Neri (Mandaluyong City)
- Archdiocesan Shrine of the Divine Mercy - Plainview, Mandaluyong
- San Felipe Neri Parish - Población, Mandaluyong
- Our Lady of Fátima Parish – Highway Hills, Mandaluyong
- Our Lady of the Abandoned Parish – Hulo, Mandaluyong (administered by the Mission Society of the Philippines)
- Sacred Heart of Jesus Parish - Welfareville, Mandaluyong
- Saint Dominic Savio Parish (administered by the Salesians of Don Bosco)
- San Roque Parish - Barangka, Mandaluyong
- Vicariate of Ss Peter and Paul (Makati City)
- Saints Peter and Paul Parish, Población, Makati
- Holy Cross Shrine (Dambana ng Banál na Krus) – Tejeros, Makati
- National Shrine and Parish of the Sacred Heart – San Antonio, Makati
- Our Lady of La Paz Parish – La Paz, Makati City
- Saint Andrew the Apostle Parish – Bel-Air, Makati City
- Saint John Bosco Parish – San Lorenzo, Makati (administered by the Salesians of Don Bosco)
- Santo Niño de Paz Chapel – Greenbelt, Ayala Center, Makati Central Business District, Makati
- Vicariate of Our Lady of Guadalupe (Makati City)
- National Shrine and Parish of Our Lady of Guadalupe
- Mary, Mirror of Justice Parish
- Mater Dolorosa Parish
- Nuestra Señora de Gracia Parish – Gudalupe Viejo, Makati(administered by the Augustinian Recollects)
- Saint John Mary Vianney Parish
- Saint John of the Cross Parish
- Santa Teresita Parish
- Santuario de San Antonio Parish - Forbes Park, Makati (administered by the Franciscan Friars)
- Vicariate of Saint Joseph the Worker (Makati City)
- Saint Joseph the Worker Parish
- Holy Family Parish
- Our Lady of Fátima Parish
- Saint Alphonsus Mary de Liguori Parish
- San Ildefonso Parish (administered by the Salesians of Don Bosco)
- Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Manila
- "Archdiocese of Manila". Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company. 1913.
- Gregory XIII, Pope, 1502–1585. "Bull for erection of the Diocese and Cathedral Church of Manila." In The Philippine Islands, 1493–1898. Cleveland, Ohio: A.H. Clark Company, 1903-9. Vol. 4, 1576–82. Pp. 119–124.
- "Officials". The Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Manila Official Website. Retrieved on 2013-03-22.
- (2011-10-13). "Benedict XVI appoints Bishop Tagle to succeed Cardinal Rosales in Manila". Vatican Radio. Retrieved on 2013-03-22.
- "History - the First Cathedral 1581-1583. Manila Metropolitan Cathedral-Basilica Official Website. Retrieved on 2013-03-22.
- "History - The Second Cathedral 1591-1600". Manila Metropolitan Cathedral-Basilica Official Website. Retrieved on 2013-03-22.
- Roces 1977, p. 1004.
- MacArthur General Staff (1994). "The Japanese Offensive in the Philippines". Report of General MacArthur: The Campaigns of MacArthur in the Pacific Volume I. GEN Harold Keith Johnson, BG Harold Nelson, Douglas MacArthur. United States Army. p. 6. LCCN 66-60005. Retrieved 24 March 2013.
- Quezon III, Manuel L. (2007-02-07). "The Warsaw of Asia: How Manila was Flattened in WWII". Jeddah, Saudi Arabia: Arab News Online (archive.arabnews.com). Opinion. Archived from the original on 2010-08-07. Retrieved 2010-08-07.
- Pope Pius XII (1942). 34  - ocr.pdf "Acts of the Apostolic See - Insularum Philippinarum Beatissima Virgo Maria Titulo Immaculata Concepto Primaria Universalisque Patrona et Sanctae Virgines' Pudentiana ac Rosa Limanae Patronae Secundarias Declarantur", pp. 336-337. Vatican Archives. Retrieved on 2013-03-22.
- TREATY OF GENERAL RELATIONS BETWEEN THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA AND THE REPUBLIC OF THE PHILIPPINES. SIGNED AT MANILA, ON 4 JULY 1946 (pdf), United Nations, archived from the original on 2011-07-23, retrieved 2007-12-10
- Palad, Carlos Antonio (2011-12-12). "The 32nd Archbishop of Manila". Filipino Catholicism. Retrieved on 2013-03-22.