The diocese had its roots through FrenchBenedictinemonks who entered Indian Territory in 1875 to establish a Catholic presence. The Diocese of Oklahoma City was established in 1905 with Belgian Theophile Meerschaert as its first bishop. St. Joseph's Church in downtown Oklahoma City served the diocese as its first cathedral until Our Lady of Perpetual Help replaced it in 1931. In the 1930s the name was changed to the Diocese of Oklahoma City and Tulsa to reflect shifting population trends in Oklahoma. It first achieved international attention when, in 1949, it became home to the National Shrine of the Infant Jesus of Prague. On December 13, 1972, Pope Paul VI split the diocese into two, creating the Archdiocese of Oklahoma City, which ministers to Catholics in the western part of Oklahoma, and the Diocese of Tulsa, which ministers to those in the east.
† Theophile Meerschaert, Vicar Apostolic of Indian Territory in Oklahoma (1891-1905), Bishop (August 23, 1905–February 21, 1924); died in office.
† Francis Kelley, Bishop (June 25, 1924–February 1, 1948); died in office.
† Eugene J. McGuinness, Bishop of Oklahoma City-Tulsa (February 1, 1948—December 27, 1957); died in office. Named coadjutor bishop of Oklahoma City-Tulsa on November 11, 1944.
† Victor Reed, Bishop of Oklahoma City-Tulsa (January 21, 1958–September 7, 1971); died in office. Was consecrated a bishop on March 5, 1958.
John R. Quinn, Bishop of Oklahoma City-Tulsa (1971–1972), Archbishop of Oklahoma City (1972–1977); appointed archbishop of San Francisco on February 16, 1977; installed on April 26; resigned on December 27, 1995.
† Charles Salatka, Archbishop (October 11, 1977–November 24, 1992); retired. Died on March 17, 2003.