Roman Catholicism in Russia
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A 2012 survey has determined that there are approximately 140,000 Roman Catholics in Russia (0.1% of the total Russian population), accounting for 7.2% of Germans, 1.8% of Armenians, 1.3% of Belarusians, and just under 1% of Bashkirs. The survey also found Catholics to be slightly more observant than Orthodox, with 25% praying every day versus 17% of Orthodox. In the twenty years since the Soviet collapse, the Catholic population has fallen from an early 1990s estimate of roughly 500,000 as Germans, Belarusians, Ukrainians, Poles, Lithuanians, and Latvians have died or returned to their homelands. (As shown here, these six ethnic groups have lost more than half their members between the 1989 and 2010 censuses.) Consequently, in the near future, ethnic Russians (many of whom are of part-German or other European Catholic descent) are expected to become a majority of Catholics, and the Armenian community to replace Germans as the second-largest group.
Due to the long-held views of the Russian Orthodox Church, Catholicism is not recognized by the state as a legitimately Russian religion, and Catholics have often been seen as outsiders, even if they are ethnically Russian. The Soviet Union, which persecuted all religions, also saw Catholicism as a non-Russian allegiance.
Since Rus' (the Eastern Slavic polity that later came to be Russia, Belarus and Ukraine) was converted in 988, before the Great Schism (1054), it is somewhat anachronistic to talk of the Roman Catholic versus the Eastern Orthodox Church in the origins of Russian Christianity. However, the Great Schism of 1054 was actually the culmination of a long process and the churches had been in schism before that (e.g., the Photian schism of the 9th century) and had been growing apart for centuries before that. Several 19th century Catholic historians argued that Russia became Catholic at the time of the Baptism, however this thesis has been rejected by most serious historians
Western sources indicate that Princess Olga sent an embassy to the Holy Roman Emperor Otto I. Otto charged Bishop Adaldag of Bremen with missionary work to the Rus'; Adaldag consecrated the monk Libutius of the Convent of St. Albano as bishop of Russia, but Libutius died before he ever set foot in Russia. He was succeeded by Adalbertus, a monk of the convent of St. Maximinus at Trier, but Adalbertus returned to Germany after several of his companions were killed in Russia.
Western sources also indicate that Olga's grandson, Prince Vladimir sent emissaries to Rome in 991 and that Popes John XV, and Sylvester II sent three embassies to Kiev. A German chronicler, Dithmar, relates that the Archbishop of Magdeburg consecrated a Saxon as archbishop of Russia and that the latter arrived in Russia, where he preached the Gospel and was killed there with 18 of his companions on February 14, 1002. At this same time, Bishop Reinbert of Kolberg accompanied the daughter of Boleslaus the Intrepid to her wedding when she married Vladimir's son Sviatopolk, (known to history as "the Damned" for his later murder of his half-brothers Boris and Gleb).Reinbert was arrested for his efforts to proselytize and died in prison. Bruno of Querfort was sent as a missionary bishop to the Pechenegs and spent several months in Kiev in 1008; he wrote a letter to the Holy Roman Emperor Henry II in 1009.
These embassies to and from Rus' may be the basis for the somewhat fanciful account in the Russian Primary Chronicle of Prince Vladimir sending out emissaries to the various religions around Rus' (Islam, Judaism, Western and Eastern Christianity), including to the Catholic Church in Germany, although the emissaries returned unimpressed by Western Christianity, explaining in part the eventual adoption of Orthodox Christianity.
Roman Catholicism in Rus' From the 11th century to the Council of Florence
The Russian Orthodox Church has, in fact, had a long aversion to Roman Catholicism. Metropolitan Ivan II (died 1089) responded to a proposal of Antipope Clement III for a union of the churches with a letter enumerating the heresies of the Latins (Markovich attributes this letter to Metropolitan Ivan IV who died in 1166.) Metropolitan Nicephorus I (1103–1121) also considered Catholicism a heresy; this, in fact, has been the standard view in the Russian church up to the present day and not just among the heads of the church who were often Greeks sent from Constantinople. Thus, Archbishop Nifont of Novgorod (1135–1156) in the instructional "Questions of Kirik", responded that a woman who took her children to be baptised by a Catholic (the term "Varangian", that is, Viking, is used) priest was to incur the same penance as one who took them to be blessed by a pagan sorcerer. Other sources, including the Kormchaia Kniga (the code of canon law of the medieval Russian Church) attacked Catholicism as a heresy to be shunned. Up until the time of Metropolitan Isidor (1431–1437), a Greek sent from Constantinople to preside over the Church in Rus, the metropolitans of Kiev had almost no contact with Rome.
This, however, did not mean that there was no Catholic presence in Rus'. The Teutonic Knights and the Brothers of the Sword (absorbed into the Teutonic Order in 1227), Swedes, Danes, and other Catholic powers launched a series of crusades against Pskov, Novgorod, and other towns in northwestern Russia and the Novgorodians fought hard to keep Catholicism out of the Novgorodian Land, not merely due to religious differences, but also because Catholic converts among the Finnic tribesmen and/or the Slavic populace would pay taxes to and be part of the Catholic Churches and Catholic monarchies' administrative structures. Taxes, tribute, or military levies would then go to the Scandinavian kingdoms or the Germanic city-states of Livonia, or to the Lithuanians, and thus reduce Novgorod's wealth and overall security. In the 1330s, Poland took over Volynia in present-day Ukraine and, the Novgorodian Chronicles tell us, converted the Orthodox churches there into Catholic ones. In the 1330s and 1340s, King Magnus Eriksson of Norway and Sweden launched a crusade against the Novgorodian land, preaching crusade and mustering armies in Livonia and Germany as well as in Sweden and Norway. In 1387, the Lithuanians, who had long threatened the western frontier, converted to Catholicism and united dynastically with the Poles. The Catholic Grand Princes, such as Vytautas the Great, attempted to establish separate metropolitanates in the Russian lands they controlled. The Russian church always fought against this, in large part out of fear that the new metropolitanates would be converted to Catholic provinces.
The popes, however, attempted more peaceful means of conversion as well. Pope Innocent IV sent two cardinals to Prince Aleksandr Nevsky in 1248, who famously rejected their appeal that he become Catholic. In 1255 Innocent met with success, dispatching a crown to Prince Daniil of Galich (Halych), in what is today Western Ukraine, the acceptance of which is taken to mean that Daniil accepted Catholicism. There were reports of Irish monks fleeing the Mongol onslaught on Kiev in 1240, and Dominican Order was also dispatched by Pope Alexander IV to central Russia in an effort to convert the region to Catholicism in the 14th century. The princes of Rus also married into Catholic dynasties: Prince Yaroslav Vladimirovich (Yaroslav the Wise) and other princes married their daughters to Western princes; one of these dynastic marriages was, in fact, to a Holy Roman Emperor (although the marriage was an unhappy and ultimately failed one). Prince Iziaslav Yaroslavich (1054–68; 1069–73; 1076–78) sent his son to Pope Gregory VII, asking for papal assistance and promising to make Russia a vassal of the Holy See. Gregory's reply letter is dated April 17, 1075. Grand Prince Vsevolod Yaroslavich (1078–93) established the feast of the translation of the relics of St. Nicholas to Bari in Southern Italy, a feast approved by Pope Urban II (1088–99), who in 1091 sent Bishop Teodoro to Vsevolod with relics.
One line of descent from the Russian royal family in a Catholic dynasty produced several saints from the House of Arpad in Hungary, most notably St. Elizabeth of Hungary, who was a direct descendant of Vladimir the Great.
Before 1917 there were two dioceses in Russia: in Mogilev with its episcopal see in St. Petersburg and Tiraspol with its episcopal see in Saratov. 150 Catholic parishes were present with more than 250 priests to serve around half a million Catholic believers in Russia. 
During the 70 years of the Soviet time (1917–1987) many Roman Catholic faithful lost their lives, were persecuted or sent to imprisonment for their faith. Besides being Christian, the Catholics had an additional stigma by belonging to a denomination that, unlike the Orthodox Christians, was (and still is) not considered indigenously Russian. By the end of the 1930s, there were only two functioning Roman Catholic churches in the USSR: the Church of St. Louis in Moscow and the Church of Our Lady of Lourdes in St. Petersburg.
In the aftermath of post-Civil-War famine of 1921, the Catholic Church sent the so-called Papal Famine Relief Mission to Russia, headed by the American Jesuit Edmund A. Walsh. The mission also succeeded in securing for the Vatican the Holy Relics of St. Andrew Bobola, which were then transported to Rome by the Mission's Assistant Director, Louis J. Gallagher.
There are approximately 750,000 Catholics in Russia - about 0.5% of the total population. For those of the Latin Rite there are four dioceses, including 1 archdiocese, plus an Apostolic Prefecture. Most Latin Rite Catholics are ethnic Russians or German-Russians, with smaller numbers of Poles, Ukrainians, Belarusians, Lithuanians, and Armenians There is a separate jurisdiction for those of the Byzantine Rite (see Russian Catholic Church), but it has extremely few followers.
In February 2002, the Catholic Apostolic Administrations were formed into one archdiocese in Moscow, and three dioceses in Novosibirsk, Saratov, and Irkutsk.
The Catholic Archbishop of Moscow has voiced his support for religious education in state sponsored schools, citing the examples of other countries.
Relations with the Russian Orthodox church have been rocky for nearly a millennium, and attempts at re-establishing Catholicism have met with opposition. Pope John Paul II for years expressed a desire to visit Russia, but the Russian Orthodox Church has for years resisted. In April 2002, Bishop Jerry Mazur of Eastern Siberia was stripped of his visa, forcing the appointment of a new bishop for that diocese. In 2002, five foreign Catholic priests were denied visas to return to Russia, construction of a new cathedral was blocked in Pskov, and a church in southern Russia was shot at. On Christmas Day 2005, Russian Orthodox activists planned to picket outside of Moscow's Catholic Cathedral, but the picket was cancelled. Despite the recent thawing of relations with the election of Pope Benedict XVI, there are still issues such as the readiness of the police to protect Catholics and other minorities from persecution.
A 2004 Ecumenical conference was organized for Russia's "traditional religions" Orthodox Christianity, Judaism, Islam and Buddhism, and therefore excluded Catholicism, despite the fact that the Catholic population in Russia is roughly similar in size to the Buddhists and now larger than the Jews (due to Jewish emigration). Ethnic Russian Catholics still tend to face pressure and stigma for belonging to an "alien" sect.
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- See Miroslav Labunka, “Religious Centers and Their Missions to Kievan Rus': From Olga to Volodimir.” Harvard Ukrainian Studies 12-13 (1988-1989): 159-93; Andrzej Poppe, "The Christianization and Ecclesiastical Structure of Kyivan Rus to 1300," Harvard Ukrainian Studies21, nos. 3-4 (1997): 318.
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- Catholic Dioceses in Russia
- Russian Catholic Bishops Website (Russian)
- Catholic St. Petersburg and North-Western Russia
- Most Holy Mother of God Catholic church in Vladivostok