Transnistria

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
  (Redirected from Roman Catholicism in Transnistria)
Jump to: navigation, search
For other uses, see Transnistria (disambiguation).
Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic

  • Република Молдовеняскэ
    Нистрянэ
     (Moldovan)

    Republica Moldovenească Nistreană

  • Приднестрóвская Молдáвская Респýблика (Russian)
    Pridnestrovskaya Moldavskaya Respublika

  • Придністровська Молдавська Республіка (Ukrainian)
    Prydnistrovska Moldavska Respublika
Flag Emblem
Anthem: 
Мы славим тебя, Приднестровье (Russian)
My slavim tebya, Pridnestrovye  (transliteration)
We sing the praises of Transnistria

Capital
and largest city
Tiraspol Coat-of-Arms.gif Tiraspol
46°50′N 29°37′E / 46.833°N 29.617°E / 46.833; 29.617
Official languages
Official scripts Cyrillic (Moldovan alphabet)
Ethnic groups (2005)
Government Semi-presidential republic
 -  President Yevgeny Shevchuk
 -  Prime Minister Tatiana Turanskaya
Legislature Supreme Council
Partially recognized state
 -  Independence declared 2 September 1990 
 -  War of Transnistria 2 March – 21 July 1992 
 -  Recognition 3 non-UN membersc 
Area
 -  Total 4,163 km2
1,607 sq mi
 -  Water (%) 2.35
Population
 -  2014 estimate 505,153[2]
 -  2004 census 555,347
 -  Density 124.6/km2
345/sq mi
Currency Transnistrian rubled (PRB)
Time zone EET (UTC+2)
 -  Summer (DST) EEST (UTC+3)
Calling code +373e
Internet TLD nonef
a. Russian is the main official language and the lingua franca.
b. Called Moldovan in Transnistria.
c. Limited to the breakaway Republic of Abkhazia, Nagorno-Karabakh Republic and South Ossetia (see Community for Democracy and Rights of Nations).
d. Moldovan leu used in those areas under Moldovan control and in the security zone.
e. +373 5 and +373 2.
f. .ru and .md sometimes used.
Transnistrian region of Moldova, landlocked along the border with Ukraine
Political map of Transnistria with the differences between the Autonomous Dniestrian Territory de jure and the Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic de facto.
General map of Transnistria.

Transnistria (also called Trans-Dniestr or Transdniestria) is a breakaway state located mostly on a strip of land between the River Dniester and the eastern Moldovan border with Ukraine. Since its declaration of independence in 1990, and especially after the War of Transnistria in 1992, it has been governed as the Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic (PMR, also known as Pridnestrovie), a state with limited recognition that claims territory to the east of the River Dniester, and also to the city of Bender and its surrounding localities on the west bank, in the historical region of Bessarabia. The names "Transnistria" and "Pridnestrovie" both refer to the Dniester River.

Unrecognised by any United Nations member state, Transnistria is designated by the Republic of Moldova as the Transnistria autonomous territorial unit with special legal status (Unitatea teritorială autonomă cu statut juridic special Transnistria),[3] or Stînga Nistrului ("Left Bank of the Dniester").[4][5][6]

After the dissolution of the USSR, tensions between the newly created Moldova and the de facto sovereign state of Pridnestrovie (which unlike the rest of Moldova did not wish to separate from the Soviet Union) escalated into a military conflict that started in March 1992 and was concluded by a ceasefire in July 1992. As part of that agreement, a three-party (Russia, Moldova, Transnistria) Joint Control Commission supervises the security arrangements in the demilitarized zone, comprising twenty localities on both sides of the river. Although the ceasefire has held, the territory's political status remains unresolved: Transnistria is an unrecognized but independent[7][8][9][10] presidential republic with its own government, parliament, military, police, postal system, and currency. Its authorities have adopted a constitution, flag, national anthem, and coat of arms. However, after a 2005 agreement between Moldova and Ukraine, all Transnistrian companies that seek to export goods through the Ukrainian border must be registered with the Moldovan authorities.[11] This agreement was implemented after the European Union Border Assistance Mission to Moldova and Ukraine (EUBAM) started its activity in 2005.[12] Most Transnistrians also have Moldovan citizenship,[13] but many Transnistrians also have Russian and Ukrainian citizenship.

Because of the Russian military contingent present in Transnistria, the European Court of Human Rights considers Transnistria "under the effective authority or at least decisive influence of Russia".[14]

Transnistria, Nagorno-Karabakh, Abkhazia, and South Ossetia are post-Soviet "frozen conflict" zones.[15][16] These four unrecognized states maintain friendly relations with each other and form the Community for Democracy and Rights of Nations.[17] [18] [19]

Names[edit]

Main article: Names of Transnistria

The region is also known in English as "Trans-Dniestr"[20] or "Transdniestria".[21] Etymologically, these names are adaptations of the Romanian colloquial name of the region, "Transnistria" meaning "beyond the River Dniester".

The documents of the government of Moldova refer to the region as Stînga Nistrului (in full, Unitățile Administrativ-Teritoriale din Stînga Nistrului) meaning "Left Bank of the Dniester" (in full, "Administrative-territorial unit(s) of the Left Bank of the Dniester").

The name of the region according to the Transnistrian authorities is Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic (PMR) (Russian: Приднестровская Молдавская Республика, ПМР, Pridnestrovskaya Moldavskaya Respublika; Moldovan Cyrillic alphabet: Република Молдовеняскэ Нистрянэ, РМН, Romanian: Republica Moldovenească Nistreană; Ukrainian: Придністровська Молдавська Республіка, ПМР, Prydnistrovs'ka Moldavs'ka Respublika). The short form of this name is Pridnestrovie (Russian: Приднестровье, Pridnestrovye; Moldovan Cyrillic alphabet: Нистрения,[22] Nistrenia; Ukrainian: Придністров'я, Prydnistrovya). "Pridnestrovie" is a transliteration of the Russian "Приднестровье" meaning "[a land] by the [River] Dniester".

History[edit]

Antiquity and Middle Ages[edit]

Indo-European tribes had for millennia inhabitated the area where Transnistria now is when it was a borderland between Dacia and Scythia. The Tyragetae (a Getae Thracian tribe) inhabited the area around the River Dniester (called "Tyras" in ancient documents) as well as the Scythians. Early Germanic and Turkic tribes were present in the area during their attacks and invasions of the Roman Empire.

From 56 AD, the coastal area around the city of Tyras was occupied by the Romans for nearly four centuries, forming part of the province of Lower Moesia. Tyras enjoyed great development during Roman times: there is a series of its coins with heads of emperors from Domitian to Alexander Severus. But in the second half of the fourth century the area was continuously attacked by barbarians and the Roman legionaries left Tyras.

In the early Middle Ages, Slavic tribes of Tivertsi and Ulichs[23] populated larger areas, including Transnistria, followed by Turkic nomads such as the Petchenegs[24] and Cumans.

Possibly an early part of Kievan Rus', after the Mongol invasion of Europe in 1241, the territory was briefly under Mongol control (yet probably without any permanent settlements) and later under the Crimean Khanate.[25][26][27]

Early modern period[edit]

From the 15th century, northern Transnistria (current districts of Camenca and Ribnita) belonged to the Grand Duchy of Lithuania,[28][29][30][31][32] and later to the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth (1569–1793) which encouraged the migration of peasants into the territory from the neighboring populated areas (from north and from west). Prince of Moldavia Gheorghe Duca (1665–66, 1668–72, 1678–84) built a court at Țicanova on the east bank of the Dniester, and one at Nimirov on the Southern Bug, last mentioned in Moldavian hands in 1765.[33][34] The localities Dubăsari, Rașcov, Vasilcău, as well as four other currently in Ukraine are mentioned in 17th-18th centuries as fairs for the Dniester-Bug region. In 1769, a document dated at Bender mentions the then title of the Mitropolitan of Moldavia as Mitropolitan of Proilavia, of Tamarova, of Hotin, and of all the borders of the Danube, of the Dniester, and the Han's Ukraine,[35] the latter being a common reference to the then sparsely populated Dniester–Southern BugDniepr area.

Before becoming part of the Russian Empire in 1792 (southern part) and 1793 (northern part) the largest groups living between the Dniester and the Bug rivers were Moldavian, Ruthenian (Ukrainian) and Tatar peasants.[36] The Russian census of 1793 of the Ochakov region (southern part of the Dniester-Bug area) mentions a totality of 67 villages, of which 49 are mentioned as Moldavian and 18 as Tatar.[37] The first candidate for the governor of the new Russian region was the Moldavian boyar of Greek ancestry Alexandru I. Mavrocordat.[38] The northern part of Transnistria had Ruthenian (Ukrainian) and Moldavian villages.

Russian Empire[edit]

In 1792, the region became part of the Russian Empire as a result of the sixth Russo-Turkish War. In that year, the general Alexander Suvorov founded modern Tiraspol as a Russian border fortress.[39] Until the Russian Revolution of 1917, the current Transnistria was divided between the imperial guberniyas of Podolia, Kherson, and Bessarabia. Most of the territory which now is Transnistria was part of the larger New Russia region,[40] hence it saw a strong colonization process, with a multitude of ethnicities being settled: lands were given to enserfed peasantry from Russia and Ukraine in Nova Serbia, while Jews and Germans were brought in to facilitate economic development.

Soviet and Romanian administration[edit]

Moldavian ASSR (orange) and Romania, 1924–1940

Transnistria became an autonomous political entity in 1924 with the proclamation of the Moldavian ASSR, which included today's Transnistria (4,000 km2) as well as an adjacent area (9,000 km2) around the city of Balta in modern-day Ukraine, but nothing from Bessarabia, which at the time formed part of Romania. One of the reasons for the creation of the Moldavian ASSR was the desire of the Soviet Union at the time to eventually incorporate Bessarabia.[citation needed] The Moldavian SSR, organised by a decision of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR on 2 August 1940, was formed out of a part of Bessarabia (taken from Romania on 28 June, after the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact) and out of a part of the Moldavian ASSR roughly equivalent to present-day Transnistria.

In 1941, after Axis forces invaded the Soviet Union during the Second World War, they defeated the Soviet troops in the region and occupied it. Romania controlled the entire region between Dniester and Southern Bug rivers, including the city of Odessa as local capital.[41]

The Romanian-administered territory – called the Transnistria Governorate – with an area of 44.000 km2 and a population of 2.3 million inhabitants, was divided into 13 counties: Ananiev, Balta, Berzovca, Dubasari, Golta, Jugastru, Movilau, Oceacov, Odessa, Ovidiopol, Rîbnița, Tiraspol and Tulcin. This enlarged Transnistria was home to nearly 200,000 Romanian/Moldovan-speaking residents.

The Romanian administration of Transnistria attempted to stabilise the situation in the area under Romanian control, implementing a process of Romanianization.[42]

During the Romanian occupation of 1941–44, between 150,000 and 250,000 Ukrainian and Romanian Jews had been deported to Transnistria and the majority were executed or died from other causes in ghettos and concentration camps of the Governorate.[43]

After the Red Army reconquered the area in 1944, Soviet authorities executed, exiled or imprisoned hundreds of the Moldavian SSR inhabitants in the following months on charges of collaboration with the "German-fascist occupiers". A later campaign was directed against the rich peasant families, which were deported to Kazakhstan and Siberia as well. Over the course of two days, 6–7 July 1949, a plan named "Operation South" saw the deportation of over 11,342 families by the order of the Moldovian Minister of State Security, I. L. Mordovets.[44]

Secession[edit]

In the 1980s, Mikhail Gorbachev's policies of perestroika and glasnost in the Soviet Union allowed political liberalization at a regional level. This led to the creation of various informal movements in the Moldavian SSR, and the resurgence of pro-Romanian nationalism among ethnic Moldovans.[45] The most prominent of these movements was the Popular Front of Moldova. In the spring of 1988, PFM demanded that the Soviet authorities declare Moldovan the only state language, return to the use of the Latin alphabet, and recognize the shared ethnic identity of Moldovans and Romanians. The more radical factions of the Popular Front espoused extreme anti-minority, ethnocentric and chauvinist positions,[46][47] calling for minority populations, particularly the Slavs (mainly Russians and Ukrainians) and Gagauz, to leave or be expelled from Moldova.[48]

On 31 August 1989, the Supreme Soviet of the Moldavian SSR adopted Moldovan as the only official language with Russian retained only for secondary purposes, returned Moldovan to the Latin alphabet, and declared a shared Moldovan-Romanian linguistic identity. As plans for major cultural changes in Moldova were made public, tensions rose further. Ethnic minorities felt threatened by the prospects of removing Russian as the official language, the possible future reunification of Moldova and Romania, and the ethnocentric rhetoric of the Popular Front. The Yedinstvo (Unity) Movement, established by the Slavic population of Moldova, pressed for equal status to be given to both Russian and Moldovan.[49]

Soviet symbols are still used in Transnistria.

The nationalist Popular Front won the first free parliamentary elections in the Moldavian SSR in the spring of 1990,[50] and its agenda started slowly to be implemented. On 2 September 1990, the Pridnestrovian Moldavian Soviet Socialist Republic was proclaimed as a Soviet republic by an ad hoc assembly, the Second Congress of the Peoples' Representatives of Transnistria. Violence escalated when in October 1990 the Popular Front called for volunteers to form armed militias to stop a Gagauz autonomy referendum. In response, volunteer militias were formed in Transnistria. In April 1990, nationalist mobs attacked ethnic Russian members of parliament, while the Moldovan police refused to intervene or restore order.[51]

In the interest of preserving a unified Moldavian SSR within the USSR and preventing the situation escalating further, then Soviet President Mikhail Gorbachev, while citing the restriction of civil rights of ethnic minorities by Moldova as the cause of the dispute, declared the Transnistria proclamation to be lacking legal basis and annulled it by presidential decree on 22 December 1990.[52][53] Nevertheless, no significant action was taken against Transnistria and the new authorities were slowly able to establish control of the region.

War of Transnistria[edit]

Main article: War of Transnistria

The War of Transnistria followed armed clashes on a limited scale which broke out between Transnistrian separatists and Moldova as early as November 1990 at Dubăsari. Volunteers, including Cossacks, came from Russia and Ukraine to help the separatist side.[54] In mid-April 1992, under the agreements on the split of the military equipment of the former Soviet Union negotiated between the former 15 republics in the previous months, Moldova created its own Defence Ministry. According to the decree of its creation, most of the 14th Soviet Army's military equipment was to be retained by Moldova.[55] Starting from 2 March 1992, there was concerted military action between Moldova and Transnistria. Throughout early 1992 the fighting intensified. The former Soviet 14th Guards Army entered the conflict in its final stage, opening fire against Moldovan forces;[55] since then, Moldova has exercised no effective control or influence on Transnistrian authorities. A ceasefire agreement was signed on 21 July 1992 and has held to the present day.

Further negotiations[edit]

The Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE) is trying to facilitate a negotiated settlement. Under OSCE auspices, on 8 May 1997, the Moldovan President Petru Lucinschi and the Transnistrian president Igor Smirnov, signed the "Memorandum on the principles of normalizations of the relations between the Republic of Moldova and Transnistria", also known as the "Primakov Memorandum", sustaining the establishment of legal and state relations, although the memorandum's provisions were interpreted differently by the governments of Moldova and Transnistria.

In November 2003, Dmitry Kozak, a counselor of the Russian president Vladimir Putin, proposed a memorandum on the creation of an asymmetric federal Moldovan state, with Moldova holding a majority and Transnistria being a minority part of the federation.[56] Known as "the Kozak memorandum", it did not coincide with the Transnistrian position, which sought equal status between Transnistria and Moldova, but gave Transnistria veto powers over future constitutional changes; this encouraged Transnistria to sign it. Vladimir Voronin was initially supportive of the plan, but refused to sign it after internal opposition and international pressure from the OSCE and US, and after Russia had endorsed the Transnistrian demand to maintain a Russian military presence for the next 20 years as a guarantee for the intended federation.[57]

Talks were started in 2006 to deal with the problems, but without results for many years. In February 2011 the so-called "5 + 2 Talks" (thus named because they were carried out by Transnistria, Moldova, Ukraine, Russia and OSCE, plus the US and the EU as external observers) were started again in Vienna.[58]

Following the precedent set by the accession of Crimea to the Russian Federation, in March 2014 the head of the Transnistrian parliament asked to join the Russian Federation.[59][60][61]

Geography[edit]

Transnistria is landlocked and borders Bessarabia (i.e., the rest of Moldova, for 411 km) to the West, and Ukraine (for 405 km) to the East. It is a narrow valley stretching in the North-South direction along the bank of the Dniester river, which forms a natural boundary along most of the border with (the rest of) Moldova. Tiraspol, the capital and largest city of Transnistria, has about 160,000 inhabitants.

The territory controlled by the PMR is mostly, but not completely, coincident with the left (eastern) bank of Dniester. It includes ten cities and towns, and 69 communes, with a totality of 147 localities (counting the unincorporated ones as well). Six communes on the left bank (Cocieri, Molovata Nouă, Corjova, Pîrîta, Coșnița, and Doroțcaia) remained under the control of the Moldovan government after the War of Transnistria in 1992, as part of the Dubăsari District. They are situated north and south of the city of Dubăsari, which itself is under PMR control. The village of Roghi of Molovata Nouă Commune is also controlled by the PMR (Moldova controls the other nine of the ten villages of the six communes).

On the west bank, in Bessarabia, the city of Bender and four communes (containing a total of six villages) to its east, south-east, and south, on the opposite bank of the river Dniester from the city of Tiraspol (Proteagailovca, Gîsca, Chițcani, and Cremenciug) are controlled by the PMR.

The localities controlled by Moldova on the eastern bank, the village of Roghi, and the city of Dubăsari (situated on the eastern bank and controlled by the PMR) form a security zone along with the six villages and one city controlled by the PMR on the western bank, as well as two (Varnița and Copanca) on the same west bank under Moldovan control. The security situation inside it is subject to the Joint Control Commission rulings.

The main transportation route in Transnistria is the road Tiraspol-Dubăsari-Rîbnița. North and south of Dubăsari it passes through the lands of the villages controlled by Moldova (Doroțcaia, Cocieri, Roghi, while Vasilievca is entirely situated east of the road). Conflict erupted on several occasions when the PMR prevented the villagers from reaching their farmland east of the road.[62][63][64]

Transnistrians are able to travel (normally without difficulty) in and out of the territory under PMR control to neighbouring Moldovan-controlled territory, to Ukraine, and on to Russia, by road or (when service is not interrupted by political tensions) on two international trains, the year-round Moscow-Chișinău, and the seasonal Saratov-Varna. International air travellers rely on the airport in Chișinău, the Moldovan capital, or the airport in Odessa, in Ukraine.

Administrative divisions[edit]

Districts of Transnistria.

Transnistria is subdivided into five districts (raions) and one municipality, the City of Tiraspol (which is entirely surrounded by but administratively distinct from Slobozia District), listed below from north to south (Russian names and transliterations are appended in parentheses). In addition, another municipality, the City of Bender, situated on the western bank of the Dniester, in Bessarabia, and geographically outside Transnistria, is not part of the territorial unit of Transnistria as defined by the Moldovan central authorities, but it is controlled by the PMR authorities, which consider it part of PMR's administrative organization:

Name Area (km2) Population
Census 2004
Camenca District (Кáменка, Kamenka) 436 27,284
Rîbnița District (Рыбница, Rybnitsa) 850 82,699
Dubăsari District (Дубоссáры, Dubossary) 381 37,449
Grigoriopol District (Григориóполь, Grigoriopol') 822 48,000
Slobozia District (Слободзéя, Slobodzeya) 873 95,742
City of Tiraspol (Тирáсполь) 205 159,163
City of Bender (Tighina; Бендéры) 97 105,010

Political status[edit]

All UN member states consider Transnistria a legal part of the Republic of Moldova. Only the partially recognised states of South Ossetia and Abkhazia recognize it as a sovereign entity after it declared independence from Moldova in 1990 with Tiraspol as its declared capital.

Between 1929 and 1940, Tiraspol was the capital of the Moldavian ASSR, an autonomous republic within Ukrainian SSR, which existed from 1924 to 1940.

Although exercising no direct control over the territory, the Moldovan government passed the "Law on Basic Provisions of the Special Legal Status of Localities from the Left Bank of the Dniester" on 22 July 2005, which established part of Transnistria (territory of Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic without Bender and without territories, which are under control of Moldova) as an autonomous territorial unit within the Republic of Moldova. The law was passed without any prior consultation with Transnistrian authorities, who called it a provocation and have since ignored it.

Transnistrian population – about 555,000 people (2009). 90% of the population of Transnistria are citizens of the unrecognized Transnistria.[65] Transnistrians have dual or triple citizenship, including:

  • Citizens of Moldova[66] – around 300,000 people (including dual citizens of Russia (around 20,000[67]) or EU states (around 80%) Romania,[68][69] Bulgaria, Czech Republic)
  • Citizens of Russia – around 150,000 people (including around 15,000 dual citizens of Belarus, Israel, Turkey); without quantity of dual citizenship Russia and Moldova (around 20,000)
  • Citizens of Ukraine – around 100,000 people[70] There are around 20,000–30,000 people with dual citizenship (Moldova and Ukraine, or Russia and Ukraine) or triple citizenship (Moldova, Russia and Ukraine). They are included in the number of Ukrainian citizens[71]
  • Persons without citizenship – around 20,000–30,000 people.

There are unsettled border issues between Transnistria and Moldova. Nine villages from the Dubăsari District, including Cocieri and Doroțcaia which geographically belong to Transnistria, have been under the control of the central government of Moldova after the involvement of local inhabitants on the side of Moldovan forces during the War of Transnistria. These villages along with Varnița and Copanca, near Bender and Tiraspol, are claimed by the PMR. One city and six villages on the west bank are controlled by the PMR, but are considered by Moldova as a separate municipality (Bender and two villages) or part of the Căușeni District (four villages).

Tense situations have periodically surfaced due to these territorial disputes, such as in 2005, when Transnistrian forces entered Vasilievca,[72] in 2006 around Varnița, and in 2007 in Dubăsari-Cocieri area, when a confrontation between Moldovan and Transnistrian forces occurred, however without any casualties.

International relations[edit]

A Transnistrian passport.

Transnistria's minister of foreign affairs is Nina Shtanski.

Politics[edit]

The Transnistrian parliament building in Tiraspol, fronted by a statue of Vladimir Lenin

PMR has a multi-party system and a unicameral parliament named the Supreme Council. Its legislature has 43 members elected by Single-member district plurality.[73] The president is elected to a five-year term by popular vote.

Igor Smirnov was the President of Transnistria since the declaration of independence in 1990 for four consecutive terms. He ran for president in 2011 also, but was defeated in the first round.

The majority in the Parliament of Transnistria belongs to the Renewal movement which defeated the Republic party affiliated with Igor Smirnov in 2005 and performed even better in 2010 elections. Its leader, Yevgeni Shevchuk, won the 2011 presidential elections.

There is disagreement over whether elections in Transnistria are free and fair. The political regime has been described as one of 'super-presidentialism'.[74] In the latest presidential election, the registration of opposition candidate Andrey Safonov was delayed until a few days before the vote, so that he had little time to conduct an election campaign.[75][76] Some sources consider election results suspicious. In 2001, in one region it was reported that Igor Smirnov collected 103.6% of the votes.[77] The PMR government said 'the government of Moldova launched a campaign aimed at convincing international observers not to attend' an election held on 11 December 2005 – but CIS election monitors had ignored that and had declared the ballot democratic.

Tiraspol City Soviet.

The opposition Narodovlastie party and Power to the People movement were outlawed at the beginning of 2000[78] and eventually dissolved.[79][80]

A list published by the European Union bans travel to the EU for some members of the Transnistrian leadership.[81]

In 2007, the registration of a Social Democratic Party was allowed. This party, led by former separatist leader and member of the PMR government Andrey Safonov, allegedly favors a union with Moldova.

In September 2007, the leader of the Transnistrian Communist Party, Oleg Horjan, was sentenced to a suspended sentence of 1½ years imprisonment for organizing unsanctioned actions of protest.[82]

According to the 2006 referendum, carried out by the PMR government, 97.2% of the population voted in favor of "independence from Moldova and free association with Russia."[83] EU and several other countries refused to recognise the referendum results.

Transnistria border customs dispute[edit]

On 3 March 2006, Ukraine introduced new customs regulations on its border with Transnistria. Ukraine declared that it would import goods from Transnistria only with documents processed by Moldovan customs offices as part of the implementation of the joint customs protocol agreed between Ukraine and Moldova on 30 December 2005. Transnistria and Russia termed the act an "economic blockade".

The United States, the European Union and OSCE approved the Ukrainian move, while Russia saw it as a means of political pressure. On 4 March, Transnistria responded by blocking the Moldovan and Ukrainian transport at the borders of Transnistria. The Transnistrian block was lifted after two weeks. However, the Moldovan/Ukrainian block remains in place, and holds up progress in status settlement negotiations between the sides.[84] In the months after the regulations, exports from Transnistria declined drastically. Transnistria declared a "humanitarian catastrophe" in the region, while Moldova called the declaration "deliberate misinformation".[85] Cargoes of humanitarian aid were sent from Russia in response.

Russian military presence in Transnistria[edit]

A 1,200 member Russian military contingent is present in Transnistria. The status of this contingent is disputed. The 1992 cease-fire agreement between Moldova and Transnistria established a Russian peace-keeper presence in Transnistria. Russian troops stationed in Moldova proper since the time of the USSR were fully withdrawn to Russia by January 1993.

On 21 October 1994, Russia and Moldova signed an agreement that committed Russia to the withdrawal of the troops in three years from the date of entry into force of the agreement;[86] this did not come into effect, however, because the Russian Duma did not ratify it.[10] The Treaty on Conventional Armed Forces in Europe (CFE) included a paragraph about the removal of Russian troops from Moldova's territory and was introduced into the text of the OSCE Summit Declaration of Istanbul (1999) in which Russia had committed itself to pulling out its troops from Transnistria by the end of 2002.[87] However, even after 2002, the Russian parliament did not ratify the Istanbul accords. On 19 July 2004, after it finally passed through parliament President Vladimir Putin signed the Law on the ratification of the CFE Treaty in Europe, which committed Russia to remove the heavy armaments limited by this Treaty.[88] During 2000–2001, although the CFE Treaty was not fully ratified, to comply with it, Moscow withdrew 125 pieces of Treaty Limited Equipment (TLE) and 60 railway wagons containing ammunition from the Transnistrian region of Moldova. In 2002, Russia withdrew 3 military equipment trains (118 railway wagons) and 2 of ammunition (43 wagons) from the Transnistrian region of Moldova, and in 2003, 11 rail convoys transporting military equipment and 31 transporting ammunitions. According to the OSCE Mission to Moldova, of a total of 42,000 tons of ammunitions stored in Transnistria, 1,153 tons (3%) was transported back to Russia in 2001, 2,405 tons (6%) in 2002 and 16,573 tons (39%) in 2003.

Andrei Stratan, the Minister of Foreign Affairs of Moldova stated in his speech during the 12th OSCE Ministerial Council Meeting in Sofia on 6–7 December 2004 that "The presence of Russian troops on the territory of the Republic of Moldova is against the political will of Moldovan constitutional authorities and defies the unanimously recognized international norms and principles, being qualified by Moldovan authorities as a foreign military occupation illegally deployed on the territory of the state".[89][90] As of 2007 however, Russia insists that it has already fulfilled those obligations. It states the remaining troops are serving as peacekeepers authorized under the 1992 ceasefire, are not in violation of the Istanbul accords and will remain until the conflict is fully resolved.[91]

In a NATO resolution on 18 November 2008, Russia was urged to withdraw its military presence from the "Transdnestrian region of Moldova".[92]

In 2011, U.S. Senator John McCain said in a visit to Moldova that Moscow is violating the territorial integrity of Moldova and Georgia and one of the "fundamental norms" of "international behavior".[93]

Demographics[edit]

Demographic evolution in Transnistria.
Rîbnița, northern Transnistria.

In 2004, Transnistrian authorities organized a separate census from the 2004 Moldovan Census.[94]

In total, in the areas controlled by the PMR government, there were 555,347 people, including 177,785 Moldovans (32.10%) 168,678 Russians (30.35%) 160,069 Ukrainians (28.81%) 13,858 Bulgarians (2.50%) 4,096 Gagauzians (0.74%), 1,791 Poles (0.32%), 1,259 Jews (0.23%), 507 Roma (0.09%) and 27,454 others (4.94%).[95]

Of these, 439,243 lived in Transnistria itself, and 116,104 lived in localities controlled by the PMR government, but formally belonging to other districts of Moldova: the city of Bender (Tighina), the communes of Proteagailovca, Gîsca, Chițcani, Cremenciug, and the village of Roghi of commune Molovata Nouă.

Moldovans were the most numerous ethnic group, representing an overall majority in the two districts in the central Transnistria (Dubăsari District, 50.15%, and Grigoriopol District, 64.83%) a 47.82% relative majority in the northern Camenca District, and a 41.52% relative majority in the southern (Slobozia District). In Rîbnița District they were a 29.90% minority, and in the city of Tiraspol, they constituted a 15.24% minority of the population.

Russians were the second numerous ethnic group, representing a 41.64% relative majority in the city of Tiraspol, a 24.07% minority in Slobozia, a 19.03% minority in Dubăsari, a 17.22% minority in Râbnița, a 15.28% minority in Grigoriopol, and a 6.89% minority in Camenca.

Ukrainians were the third numerous ethnic group, representing a 45.41% relative majority in the northern Rîbnița District, a 42.55% minority in Camenca, a 32.97% minority in Tiraspol, a 28.29% minority in Dubăsari, a 23.42% minority in Slobozia, and a 17.36% minority in Grigoriopol.

Bulgarians were the fourth largest ethnic group in Transnistria, albeit much less numerous than the three larger ethnicities. Most Bulgarians in Transnistria are Bessarabian Bulgarians, descendants of expatriates who settled in Bessarabia in the 18th–19th century. The major centre of Bulgarians in Transnistria is the large village of Parcani (situated between the cities of Tisaspol and Bender), which had an absolute Bulgarian majority and a total population of around 10,000.

In Bender (Tighina) and the other non-Transnistria localities under PMR control, ethnic Russians represented a 43.43% relative majority, followed by Moldovans at 26.15%, Ukrainians at 17.08%, Bulgarians at 2.89%, Gagauzians at 1.03%, Jews at 0.34%, Poles at 0.17%, Roma at 0.13%, and others at 7.78%.

At the census of 1989, the population was 679,000 (including all the localities in the security zone, even those under Moldovan control). The ethnic composition of the region has been unstable in recent history, with the most notable change being the decreasing share of Moldovan and Jewish population segments and increase of the Russian. For example, the percentage of Russians grew from 13.7% in 1926 to 25.5% in 1989 and further to 30.4% in 2004, while the Moldovan population decreased from 44.1% in 1926 to 39.9% in 1989 and 31.9% in 2004. Only the proportion of Ukrainians remained reasonably stable – 27.2% in 1926, 28.3% in 1989 and 28.8 in 2004.

Religion[edit]

PMR official statistics show that 91 percent of the Transnistrian population adhere to Eastern Orthodox Christianity, with 4 percent adhering to Roman Catholicism.[97] Roman Catholics are mainly located in Northern Transnistria, where a notable Polish minority is living.[98]

Transnistria's government has supported the restoration and construction of new orthodox churches. It affirms that the republic has freedom of religion and states that 114 religious beliefs and congregations are officially registered. However, as recently as 2005, registration hurdles were met with by some religious groups, notably the Jehovah's Witnesses.[99] In 2007, the US-based Christian Broadcasting Network denounced the persecution of Protestants in Transnistria.[100]

Economy[edit]

Transnistria has a mixed economy. Following a large scale privatization process in the late 90s,[101] most of the companies in Transnistria are now privately owned. The economy is based on a mix of heavy industry (steel production) electricity production and manufacturing (textile production) which together account for about 80% of the total industrial output.[102]

Transnistria's central bank.

Transnistria has its own central bank, which issues Transnistrian currency, the Transnistrian ruble. It is convertible at a freely floating exchange rate but only in Transnistria.

Transnistria's economy is frequently described as dependent on contraband[103] and gunrunning,[104][105][106] with some labelling it a mafia state.[107] These allegations are denied by the Transnistrian government, and sometimes downplayed by the officials of Russia and Ukraine.[108]

Economic history[edit]

After World War II, Transnistria was heavily industrialised, to the point that, in 1990, it was responsible for 40% of Moldova's GDP and 90% of its electricity,[109] although it accounted for only 17% of Moldova's population. After the collapse of the Soviet Union, Transnistria wanted to return to a "Brezhnev-style planned economy".[110] However, several years later, it decided to head toward a market economy.

Macroeconomics[edit]

According to the government of Transnistria, the 2007 GDP was 6789 mln Transnistrian roubles (appx US$799 million) and the GDP per capita was about US$1,500. The GDP increased by 11.1% and inflation rate was 19.3%.[111] Transnistria's government budget for 2007 was US$246 million, with an estimated deficit of about US$100 million[112] which the government planned to cover with income from privatizations.[113] Budget for 2008 is US$331 million, with an estimated deficit of about US$80 million.[114]

In 2004, Transnistria had debts of US$1.2 billion (two-thirds of which are with Russia) which was per capita about six times higher than in Moldova (without Transnistria).[115] In March 2007 the debt to Gazprom for the acquisition of natural gas has increased to US$1.3 billion. On 22 March 2007 Gazprom sold Transnistria's gas debt to the Russian businessman Alisher Usmanov, who controls Moldova Steel Works, the largest enterprise in Transnistria. Transnistria's president Igor Smirnov has announced that Transnistria will not pay its gas debt because "Transdnistria has no legal debt [to Gazprom]".[116][117] In November 2007, the total debt of Transnistria's public sector was up to US$1.64 billion.[114]

According to a 2007 interview with Yevgeny Shevchuk, the then-speaker of the Transnistrian Supreme Soviet, Transnistria is in a difficult economic situation. Despite a 30% tax increase in 2007, the pension fund is still lacking money and emergency measures must be taken.[118] However, Shevchuk mentioned that the situation is not hopeless and it cannot be considered a crisis, as a crisis means three-month delays in payment of pensions and salaries.[119]

External trade[edit]

In 2006, the Transnistrian Republican Bank reported exports of US$422.0 million and imports of US$738.4 million. Compared to 2005, export decreased 27.2% and import decreased 13.7%. The trade deficit reached US$316.3 million.[120] Over 50% of the export goes to the CIS, mainly to Russia, but also to Belarus, Ukraine, and Moldova (whom Transnistrian authorities consider foreign).[101][102] Main non-CIS markets for the Transnistrian goods are Italy, Egypt, Greece, Romania, and Germany.[101] The CIS accounts for over 60% of the imports, while the share of the EU is about 23%. The main imports are non-precious metals, food products and electricity.

Economic sectors[edit]

The leading industry is steel, due to the Moldova Steel Works (part of the Russian Metalloinvest holding) in Rîbnița, which accounts for about 60% of the budget revenue of Transnistria.[83] The largest company in the textile industry is Tirotex, which claims to be the second largest textile company in Europe.[121] The energy sector is dominated by Russian companies. The largest power company Moldavskaya GRES (Kuchurgan power station) which is in Dnestrovsc and owned by Inter RAO UES,[122] and the gas transmission and distribution company Tiraspoltransgas is probably controlled by Gazprom, although Gazprom has not confirmed the ownership officially. The banking sector of Transnistria consists of 8 commercial banks, including Gazprombank. The oldest alcohol producer KVINT, located in Tiraspol, produces and exports brandy, wines and vodka.

Human rights[edit]

The human rights record of Transnistria has been criticised by several governments and international organizations.[which?] The 2007 Freedom in the World report, published by the US-based Freedom House, described Transnistria as a "non-free" territory, having an equally bad situation in both political rights and civil liberties.[123]

According to the U.S. Department of State report referring to year 2006:[124]

The right of citizens to change their government was restricted.... Authorities reportedly continued to use torture and arbitrary arrest and detention.... In Transnistria authorities limited freedom of speech and of the press....Authorities usually did not permit free assembly.... In the separatist region of Transnistria the authorities continued to deny registration and harassed a number of minority religions groups.... The separatist region remained a significant source and transit area for trafficking in persons.... Homosexuality was illegal, and gays and lesbians were subject to governmental and societal discrimination.

Incidents[edit]

In the best-known political trial,[clarification needed] Ilie Ilașcu was convicted in 1993 of killing two Transnistrian officials, and initially sentenced to death by Transnistria's Supreme Court; however, this was commuted to a life prison sentence. Three other members of his group were sentenced to terms of 12 to 15 years' imprisonment, and confiscation of their property. Ilașcu was released in 2001, after the intervention of the European Court of Human Rights against Moldova and Russia, while the other three were released in 2004 and 2007, having served the full term of their sentences. The ECHR stated that authorities had violated the right of freedom and safety of all four members of the group, and that the treatment Ilie Ilașcu suffered qualifies as torture. As part of the ruling the court also stated that they believed that Transnistria was "under the effective authority or at least decisive influence of Russia".[125] The court also ordered Moldova and Russia – which backs Transnistria – to pay the four a total of €750,000 (US$1,000,000) in compensation for the deprivation of their freedom and for torture and inhumane treatment while in custody.[126] The members of Ilașcu's group were forced into exile after their release from prison.

In March 2007, several opponents of Transnistria's government were arrested after they made public appeals during a protest rally against its policy.[127] On 19 March 2007, Transnistrian authorities also arrested Ștefan Urîtu, the leader of Moldovan Helsinki Committee for Human Rights, and two other local political activists. They were later released.[128]

On 13 May 2007, separatist authorities detained the mayor of Corjova Valeriu Mițul and Iurie Coțofan, a Dubăsari district councillor.[129] According to the Moldovan InfoTag news agency, Transnistrian authorities blockaded the polling station at Corjova village, not allowing residents to participate in the Moldovan elections of 3 June 2007.[130] At the same occasion, Iurie Coțofană, a local antiseparatist councilor was arrested and beaten. Valentin Beșleag, a candidate for mayoral office in Corjova was arrested in 2 June for carrying electoral material from Moldova.[131]

In April 2010, the journalist Ernest Vardanean was arrested, being accused of espionage in favour of Moldova[132]

A similar case was that of Ilie Cazac from Bender, arrested in 19 March 2010 for high treason and espionage in favour of Moldova, and of Elena Dobrovițcaia, also from Bender, who was arrested because her mother went to a hospital in Chișinău instead of presenting herself at the request of the authorities from Bender.[133] As the parents of Ilie Cazac did not receive news about him, they started a hunger strike in June 2010 in front of the Russian Embassy in Chișinău.[134][135] At the meeting with Ilie Cazac, on 2 November 2011, the UN High Commissioner for Human Rights, Navanethem Pillay, said that the United Nations strongly backs the people detained in the Transnistrian region, noting that the UN had also advocated the release of Ilie Cazac.[136]

Media[edit]

Main article: Media in Transnistria

There is a regular mix of modern news media in Transnistria with a number of television stations, newspapers, and radio stations.

According to the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE) the media climate in Transnistria is restrictive and the authorities continue a long-standing campaign to silence independent opposition voices and groups.[137]

According to a U.S. Department of State report for 2006, "Both of the region's major newspapers were controlled by the authorities. There was one independent weekly newspaper in Bender and another in the northern city of Rîbnița.... Separatist authorities harassed independent newspapers for critical reporting of the Transnistrian regime.... Most television and radio stations and print publication were controlled by Transnistrian authorities, which largely dictated their editorial policies and finance operations. Some broadcast networks, such as the TSV television station and the INTER-FM radio station, were owned by Transnistria's largest monopoly, Sheriff, which also holds a majority in the region's legislature.... In July 2005 the Transnistrian Supreme Soviet amended the election code to prohibit media controlled by the Transnistrian authorities from publishing results of polls and forecasts related to elections."[138]

Moldovan schools[edit]

Public education in the Romanian language is done using the Soviet-originated Moldovan Cyrillic alphabet. The usage of the Latin script was restricted to only 6 schools. Four of these schools were forcibly closed by the authorities, who claimed this was due to the refusal of the schools to apply for official accreditation.[139] These schools were later registered as private schools and reopened. This process may have been accelerated by pressure from the European Union.[140]

The OSCE mission to Moldova has urged local authorities in the Transnistrian city of Rîbnița to return a confiscated building to the Moldovan Latin script school in the city. The unfinished building was nearing completion in 2004, when Transnistria took control of it during that year's school crisis.[141]

In November 2005 Ion Iovcev, the principal of a Romanian-language school in Transnistria and active advocate for human rights as well as a critic of the Transnistrian leadership, received threatening calls that he attributed to his criticism of the separatist regime.[138]

Military[edit]

As of 2007, the armed forces and the paramilitary of Transnistria were composed of 4,500–7,500 soldiers, divided into four motorized infantry brigades in Tiraspol, Bender, Rîbnița, and Dubăsari.[142] They have 18 tanks, 107 armoured carriers, 73 guns, 46 anti-aircraft installations, and 173 tank destroyer units. The air force is composed of 9 Mi-8T helicopters, 6 Mi-24 helicopters, 2 Mi-2 helicopters, and several airplanes of An-2, An-26 and Yak-18 models.

Arms control and disarmament[edit]

Following the collapse of the former Soviet Union, the Russian 14th Army left 40,000 tonnes of weaponry and ammunition. In later years there were concerns[who?] that the Transnistrian authorities would try to sell these stocks internationally, and intense pressure was applied to have these removed by the Russian Federation.

In 2000 and 2001, the Russian Federation withdrew by rail 141 self-propelled artillery and other armoured vehicles and destroyed locally 108 T-64 tanks and 139 other pieces of military equipment limited by the Treaty on Conventional Armed Forces in Europe (CFE). During 2002 and 2003 Russian military officials destroyed a further 51 armoured vehicles, all of which were types not limited by the CFE Treaty. The OSCE also observed and verified the withdrawal of the 48 trains with military equipment and ammunition in 2003. However, no further withdrawal activities have taken place since March 2004 and a further 20,000 tons of ammunition, as well as some remaining military equipment are still to be removed.

In the autumn of 2006, the Transnistria leadership agreed to let an OSCE inspectorate examine the munitions and further access agreed moving forward.

Recent weapons inspections were permitted by Transnistria and conducted by the OSCE. The onus of responsibility rests on the Russian Federation to remove the rest of the supplies.

Transnistrian authorities declared that they are not involved in the manufacture or export of weapons. The OSCE and European Union officials stated in 2005 that there is no evidence that Transnistria "has ever trafficked arms or nuclear material" and much of the alarm is due to Moldovan government's attempts to pressure Transnistria.[143]

In 2007, foreign experts working on behalf of the United Nations said that the historically low levels of transparency and continued denial of full investigation to international monitors have reinforced negative perceptions of the Transnistrian regime, although recent cooperation by Transnitrian authorities may have reflected a shift in the attitude of Transnistria.[144] Their report stated that the evidence for the illicit production and trafficking of weapons into and from Transnistria has in the past been exaggerated, although the trafficking of light weapons is likely to have occurred before 2001 (the last year when export data showed US$900,000 worth of 'weapons, munitions, their parts and accessories' exported from Transnistria). The report also states that the same holds true for the production of such weapons, which is likely to have been carried out in the 1990s primarily to equip Transnistrian forces.

The OSCE mission spokesman Claus Neukirch spoke about this situation: "There is often talk about sale of armaments from Transnistria, but there is no convincing evidence."[145]

In 2010, Viktor Kryzhanovskyi, Ukraine's special envoy on Transnistria, stated that there was no ongoing arms trafficking or drug trafficking through the Transnistrian section of Ukrainian-Moldovan border at the time.[146]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Constitution of Transnistria
  2. ^ "Moldova". Citypopulation. 1 January 2014. Retrieved 17 April 2014. 
  3. ^ Law № 173 from 22.07.2005 "About main notes about special legal status of settlements of left bank of Dnestr (Transnistria)": Moldovan, Russian
  4. ^ "CIA World factbook Moldova. territorial unit: Stinga Nistrului (Transnistria)". cia.gov. Retrieved 30 June 2012. 
  5. ^ Herd, Graeme P.; Jennifer D. P. Moroney (2003). Security Dynamics in the Former Soviet Bloc. Routledge. ISBN 0-415-29732-X. 
  6. ^ Zielonka, Jan (2001). Democratic Consolidation in Eastern Europe. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-924409-X. 
  7. ^ Jos Boonstra, Senior Researcher, Democratisation Programme, FRIDE. Moldova, Transnistria and European Democracy Policies, 2007
  8. ^ Gerald Hinteregger, Hans-Georg Heinrich (editors), Russia – Continuity and Change, Hinteregger, Gerald; Heinrich Hans-Georg (2004). Russia – Continuity and Change. (editors). Springer. p. 174. ISBN 3-211-22391-6. 
  9. ^ Rosenstiel, Francis; Edith Lejard; Jean Boutsavath; Jacques Martz (2002). Annuaire Europeen 2000/European Yearbook 2000. Martinus Nijhoff Publishers. ISBN 90-411-1844-6. 
  10. ^ a b Barry Bartmann, Tozun. Bahcheli (2004). De Facto States: The Quest for Sovereignty. Routledge. ISBN 0-7146-5476-0. 
  11. ^ European Union Border Assistance Mission to Moldova and Ukraine (EUBAM), November 2007
  12. ^ "Background - EU Border Assistance Mission to Moldova and Ukraine". Eubam.org. Retrieved 30 May 2013. 
  13. ^ Der n-tv Atlas. Die Welt hinter den Nachrichten. Bertelsmann Lexikon Institut. 2008. page 31
  14. ^ Grand Chamber judgment in the case of Ilașcu and others v. Moldova and Russia, European Court of Human Rights, 349, 8 July 2004
  15. ^ OSCE: De Gucht Discusses Montenegro Referendum, Frozen Conflicts, GlobalSecurity.org, Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty, May 2006
  16. ^ Vladimir Socor, Frozen Conflicts in the Black Sea-South Caucasus Region at the Wayback Machine (archived June 5, 2013), IASPS Policy Briefings, 1 March 2004
  17. ^ Абхазия, Южная Осетия и Приднестровье признали независимость друг друга и призвали всех к этому же (in Russian). Newsru. 17 November 2006. Retrieved 26 March 2014. 
  18. ^ "Head of Foreign Ministry of the Republic of South Ossetia congratulated Minister of Foreign Affairs of the PMR with Sixth Anniversary of Creation of Community for Democracy and Rights of Nations". The Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the PMR. 15 June 2012. Retrieved 26 March 2014. 
  19. ^ Vichos, Ioannis F. ""Moldova’s Energy Strategy and the "Frozen Conflict" of Transnistria"". Ekemeuroenergy.org. [dead link]
  20. ^ Regions and territories: Trans-Dniester, BBC News, 2007-03-07
  21. ^ The black hole that ate Moldova: A glimpse inside Transdniestria, Economist, 3 May 2007
  22. ^ 07 Декабрь 2011, admin. "Union of Moldavians in Transnistria: We have no grounds to distrust Smirnov". Strategiya-pmr.ru. Retrieved 30 May 2013. 
  23. ^ The Laurentian Codex of the Primary Chronicle ([1]) contains the following lines (translated): Ulichi, Tivertsy lived along the Dniester; a lot of them settled on the Danube; settled along the Dniester down to the sea, their cities can be found unto this day.
  24. ^ Porphyrogenitus, Constantine. De Administrando Imperio ca. 950. Retrieved 2006-12-27.
  25. ^ Trifunov, David (28 February 2014). "From Genghis Khan to the Charge of the Light Brigade, Crimea is no stranger to conflict". GlobalPost. Retrieved 30 March 2014. 
  26. ^ Khrushchev, Sergei (21 March 2014). "Crimea: Whose land is this? Part 1". Al Jazeera (English). Retrieved 30 March 2014. 
  27. ^ Atwood, Christopher Pratt (2004). "Encyclopedia of Mongolia and the Mongol Empire - Crimea and the Mongol Empire.". Encyclopedia of Mongolia and the Mongol Empire. New York: Facts On File. 
  28. ^ George Reichersdorf: Moldaviæ quæ olim Daciæ pers, chorographia, Georgio a Reichersdorf Transilvano auctore, Viennæ 1541.
  29. ^ Bronovius and Georg Werner: Transylvania, Moldavia and Chersonesus Tauricæ. Published by Arnold Mylius, Cologne, 1595.
  30. ^ Antonio Bonfini (1434–1503): Rerum Ungaricarum decades quatuor cum dimidia
  31. ^ Giovanni Botero (1540–1617): Relazioni universali, Venice, 1591
  32. ^ Giovanni Antonio Magini (1555–1617): Geographie universae, Venice, 1596.
  33. ^ N. Iorga, Românii de peste Nistru, "Basarabia", nr. 11/1992, page 87
  34. ^ Viorel Dolha, "Totul despre Transnistria", Aiarad.ro
  35. ^ E.Șt. Holban, Figuri basarabene, "Basarabia", nr.1/1992
  36. ^ Andrew Wilson: "The Ukrainians: Engaging the Eastern Diaspora" (Westview Press, 1998)
  37. ^ E. Lozovan, Românii orientali de la Nistru la Vladivostok, "Neamul Românesc", nr.1/1991, page 32
  38. ^ N. Iorga, Românii de peste Nistru, "Basarabia", nr.11/1992, page 89
  39. ^ About Transdnistrea at the Wayback Machine (archived October 15, 2007)[dead link] World Window NGO. Retrieved 2006-12-27.
  40. ^ The Politics of State Building: Centre-Periphery Relations in Post-Soviet Ukraine, Roman Solchanyk, Europe-Asia Studies, Vol. 46, No. 1 (1994), pp. 47–68
  41. ^ "Map of Romania in 1941–1944". Retrieved 30 June 2012. 
  42. ^ Dallin, Alexander (1957). "Romanization". Odessa, 1941-1944: A Case Study of Soviet Territory Under Foreign Rule. Center for Romanian Studies. pp. 87–90. ISBN 9789739839112. Retrieved 18 March 2014. 
  43. ^ "Romania and The Nazi-Soviet war, 1941-1944". United States Holocaust Memorial Museum. Retrieved 18 March 2014. 
  44. ^ Casu, Igor. "Stalinist terror in Soviet Moldavia, by Igor Casu". Usm-md.academia.edu. Retrieved 30 May 2013. 
  45. ^ Timeline: Moldova BBC Country Profile: Moldova
  46. ^ Chechnya: Tombstone of Russian Power, Anatol Lieven, Yale University Press, 1999, ISBN 0-300-07881-1, pp 246
  47. ^ Can Liberal Pluralism Be Exported?, Will Kymlicka, Magdalena Opalski, Oxford University Press, 2001, ISBN 0-19-924063-9, pp 208
  48. ^ The painful past retold Social memory in Azerbaijan and Gagauzia, Hülya Demirdirek, Postkommunismens Antropologi, University of Copenhagen, 12–14 April 1996.
  49. ^ Andrei Panici. Romanian Nationalism in the Republic of Moldova, Global Review of Ethnopolitics, vol. 2 no. 2 (January 2003), p.37–51.
  50. ^ Hare, Paul (1999). "Who are the Moldovans?". In Paul Hare, Mohammed Ishaq, Judy Batt. Reconstituting the market: the political economy of microeconomic transformation. Taylor & Francis. p. 402. ISBN 90-5702-328-8. Retrieved 30 October 2009. 
  51. ^ Modern Hatreds: The Symbolic Politics of Ethnic War, Stuart J. Kaufman, Cornell University Press, 2001, ISBN 0-8014-8736-6, pp. 143
  52. ^ ;Kolsto, et al. "The Dniester Conflict: Between Irredentism and Separatism," Europe-Asia Studies, Vol. 45, No. 6 (1993): 108.
  53. ^ "Ukaz Prezidenta Soiuza Sovetskikh Sotsialisticheskikh Respublik O Merakh po Normalizatsii Obstanovki v SSR Moldova," Sovetskaia Moldova, no. 295 (17249), 1990-12-23, 1.
  54. ^ (Russian) Несколько хронологических данных о начале и эволюции войны
  55. ^ a b (Russian) Mikhail Bergman, Вождь в чужой шкуре. (Russian)
  56. ^ Moldova Matters: Why Progress is Still Possible on Ukraine's Southwestern Flank, Pamela Hyde Smith, The Atlantic Council of the United States, March 2005
  57. ^ Netherlands Institute of International Relations – The OSCE Moldova and Russian diplomacy 2003[dead link] page 109
  58. ^ "Talk conditions of Transnistria on March 2011". Osw.waw.pl. 2 March 2011. Retrieved 30 June 2012. 
  59. ^ "Transnistria wants to merge with Russia". Vestnik Kavkaza. Retrieved 18 March 2014. 
  60. ^ "Moldova's Trans-Dniester region pleads to join Russia". Bbc.com. 1 January 1970. Retrieved 18 March 2014. 
  61. ^ <%= item.timeFlag %>. "Dniester public organizations ask Russia to consider possibility of Transnistria accession". En.itar-tass.com. Retrieved 18 March 2014. 
  62. ^ Trygve Kalland and Claus Neukirch, Moldovan Mission seeks solution to Dorotcaia's bitter harvest, Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe, 2005-08-10
  63. ^ New checkpoint to appear in Moldova conflict zone after clash, RIA Novosti, 2007-01-13
  64. ^ (Romanian) Locuitorii satului Vasilievca de pe malul stâng al Nistrului trăiesc clipe de coșmar, Deutsche Welle, 2005-03-17.
  65. ^ Republica Pridnestrovie 
  66. ^ CHISINAU overstates the number of Moldovan citizens living in Transnistria, MD: Press, 2006 
  67. ^ 170,000 with citizenship Russia, Profvesti, 21 April 2013 
  68. ^ http://www.rosbalt.ru/exussr/2013/04/02/1112828.html, RU: Rosbalt, 2 April 2013 
  69. ^ Romanian passport received 80 percent of Moldovans, MD: NBM 
  70. ^ Double citizenship Moldova and Romania in 2013. Citizenship Russia or Ukraine in PMR, RU: Rosbalt, 2 April 2013 
  71. ^ Transdniestrian Ukrainians will continue to vote in the territory of the Republic of Moldova, RU: NR2 
  72. ^ "Transnistrian Militia Withdrew Its Posts from Vasilievca", Azi (MD), retrieved 18 October 2006 
  73. ^ "PMR Supreme Council (Parliament of Transnistria's official website)". Vspmr.org. 17 June 2012. Retrieved 30 June 2012. 
  74. ^ Moldova and the Dniestr Region: Contest Past, Frozen Present, Speculative Futures? Herd, Graeme P.; Conflict Studies Research Centre; 2005; Accessed 25 May 2007;
  75. ^ "Tiraspol not willing to register opposition representative in electoral race". Politicom.moldova.org. 21 November 2006. Retrieved 30 June 2012. 
  76. ^ Andrey Safonov will be able to enter the election for the seat of president[dead link]
  77. ^ "US Department of State, Country Report on Human Rights Practices in Moldova – 2003". State.gov. 25 February 2004. Retrieved 30 June 2012. 
  78. ^ Original Communism, Sorin Ozon, Romanian Center for Investigative Journalism, 13 July 2006[dead link].Accessed:31 October 2010.
  79. ^ Țăranu, A; Grecu, M. The policy of linguistic cleansing in Transnistria at the Wayback Machine (archived May 29, 2006), page 26-27. Retrieved 2006-12-27.
  80. ^ (Russian) Министерство юстиции ПМР вынесло предупреждение общественному движению "Власть народу! За социальную справедливость!" и "Партии народовластия" (Ministry of Justice of PMR warned Power to the People movement and Narodovlastie party), Ольвия Пресс, 27-02-01.
  81. ^ Council Decision 2006/96/CFSP of 14 February 2006 implementing Common Position 2004/179/CFSP concerning restrictive measures against the leadership of the Transnistrian region of the Republic of Moldova European Union Law – Official Journal. 2006-02-02. Retrieved 2006-12-27.
  82. ^ "Transnistrian Communist Pary leader released on probation". Transnistria.md. 26 September 2007. Retrieved 30 June 2012. 
  83. ^ a b Moldova Strategic Conflict Assessment (SCA)[dead link], Stuart Hensel, Economist Intelligence Unit.
  84. ^ "Olvia Press: "Valeri Litskai: A situation based on pressure and threats cannot be considered favorable for the revival of contacts"". Olvia.idknet.com. Retrieved 30 June 2012. 
  85. ^ "Russia's humanitarian assistance is a planned propagandist action, Chișinău claims". Politicom.moldova.org. 23 March 2006. Retrieved 30 June 2012. 
  86. ^ "Nezavisimaya Moldova", 25 October 1994; Informative Report of FAM of RM, nr.2, October 1994, pp. 5–6
  87. ^ Mihai Grecu, Anatol Țăranu, Trupele Ruse în Republica Moldova (Culegere de documente și materiale). Chișinău, 2004, p. 600.
  88. ^ "Interfax", Moscow, in Russian, 0850 gmt, 7 July 2004
  89. ^ Mihai Gribincea, "Russian troops in Transnistria–a threat to the security of the Republic of Moldova", Institute of Political and Military Studies, Chișinău, Moldova Russia continues to 'sustain the Dniestr region as a quasi-independent entity through direct and indirect means'
  90. ^ MC.DEL/21/04, 2004-12-06
  91. ^ Interfax. NATO must recognize Russia's compliance with Istanbul accords[dead link] 2007-07-14. Retrieved 2007-11-18.
  92. ^ iBi Center (18 November 2008). "NATO-resolution. 11. b". Nato-pa.int. Retrieved 30 June 2012. 
  93. ^ "McCain Backs Demand For Russian Troop Withdrawal From Transdniester". Rferl.org. 13 June 2011. Retrieved 30 May 2013. 
  94. ^ Trends in Europe and North America (Explanatory Notes)[dead link], United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (UNECE).
  95. ^ "Official data from 2004 census and comparison with the 1989 census, by Olvia Press". Olvia.idknet.com. Retrieved 30 June 2012. 
  96. ^ http://www.mepmr.org
  97. ^ "World Directory of Minorities and Indigenous Peoples – Transnistria (unrecognised state): Overview". Refworld. United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees. Retrieved 30 June 2012. 
  98. ^ "Ethnic map of Transnistria", CEU monitor (JPEG), Google [dead link]
  99. ^ "Moldova", International Religious Freedom Report, US: Department of State Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights, and Labor, 2005 
  100. ^ Lane, Gary (6 April 2007), "Christians Face Abuse from Corrupt Regime", CBN News [dead link].
  101. ^ a b c Moldova: Regional tensions over Transdniestria (PDF), International Crisis Group, 17 June 2004 
  102. ^ a b Transnistria, Center for Economic Polices of IDIS "Viitorul" 
  103. ^ [=contraband&words[]=moldova "An illegal business that's smoking"]. Business New Europe. 18 April 2012. Retrieved 3 September 2013. 
  104. ^ "Ющенко: Украина недополучает из-за контрабанды из Приднестровья". Korrespondent. 23 March 2006. Retrieved 3 September 2013. 
  105. ^ "Hotbed of weapons deals". The Washington Times. 18 January 2004. Retrieved 3 September 2013. 
  106. ^ СВИРИДЕНКО, АЛЕКСАНДР; НЕПРЯХИНА, НАТАЛИЯ (10.03.2006). "Приднестровье самоизолировалось". Kommersant-Ukraine. Retrieved 3 September 2013.  Check date values in: |date= (help)[dead link]
  107. ^ Bulavchenko, Aliona (8 February 2002). ДНЕСТРОВСКИЕ ПОРОГИ. Zerkalo Nedeli (in Russian). Retrieved 2 January 2014. 
  108. ^ Queremos zonas de libre comercio tanto al Este como hacia el Oeste El Pais. 4 Jun., 2013.
  109. ^ Mackinlay, John; Cross, Peter, eds. (2003), Regional Peacekeepers: The Paradox of Russian Peacekeeping, United Nations University Press, p. 135, ISBN 92-808-1079-0 
  110. ^ Dunlop, John B (Autumn 1993), "Will a Large-Scale Migration of Russians to the Russian Republic Take Place over the Current Decade?", International Migration Review 27 (3): 605–29 , citing "Russian Radio", Russia and CIS Today, WPS, 21 September 1992, p. 976/16 
  111. ^ Доклад "Социально-экономическое развитие Приднестровской Молдавской Республики" за года (уточнение) [Socio-economical development of the Pridnestrovian Moldovan Republic], Statistical service of the Ministry of Economy of Transnistria, 2007 
  112. ^ Transnistrian parliament adopts region's budget for 2007, MD: Conflict [dead link]
  113. ^ "Privatization will solve the budget problem", PMR News (RU: Tiras), 21 February 2007 .[dead link]
  114. ^ a b "Евгений Шевчук: бюджет Приднестровья–отражение реальной ситуации в экономике". RU: Nr2. Retrieved 30 June 2012. 
  115. ^ Popescu, Nicu (2005–6), Democracy in Secessionism: Transnistria and Abkhazia's Domestic Policies (PDF), International Policy Fellowship Program  Check date values in: |date= (help)
  116. ^ "Moscow's Hand Tired of Giving", Kommersant, 6 April 2007 
  117. ^ ""Газпром" передал Приднестровье Алишеру Усманову", Nezavisimaya Gazeta (RU), 23 March 2007 
  118. ^ "Shevchuk answering a question about 2007 Transnistrian budget". VSPMR. Retrieved 30 June 2012. 
  119. ^ "Shevchuk explaining that economical situation is not critical". VSPMR. Retrieved 30 June 2012. 
  120. ^ Transnistrian Republican Bank, Tiraspol: CBPMR, 2007 .[dead link]
  121. ^ "Tirotex official website". Tirotex.com. Retrieved 30 June 2012. [dead link]
  122. ^ "Annual Report of Inter RAO UES" (PDF). Retrieved 30 June 2012. 
  123. ^ Freedom House, 2007 "Freedom in the World" report[dead link]
  124. ^ United States Department of State: Country Reports on Human Rights Practices – 2006
  125. ^ Grand Chamber judgment in the case of Ilașcu and others v. Moldova and Russia, European Court of Human Rights, 349, 2004-06-08
  126. ^ International Herald Tribune, Pro-Russian separatists in Moldova release last political prisoner, 2007-06-04.
  127. ^ "Transnistrian power wielding forces hold over ten opponents of breakaway regime". Politicom.moldova.org. 13 March 2007. Retrieved 30 June 2012. 
  128. ^ (Romanian) Separatiștii transnistreni l-au arestat pe Ștefan Urîtu și doi membri ai unui ONG local[dead link]
  129. ^ Ineffectiveness of peacekeeping mechanism leads to incidents in Moldova's security zone[dead link]
  130. ^ Republic of Moldova (11 July 2002). "Prokuratura initials proceedings on Corjova case". Infotag.md. Retrieved 30 May 2013. 
  131. ^ Amnesty International report about the arrest of Besleag[dead link]
  132. ^ "Report about Vardanean case in Jurnal de Chișinău". Jurnal.md. 9 April 2010. Retrieved 30 May 2013. 
  133. ^ Social Print this story. "Bender woman held hostage by Transnistrian authorities". Azi.md. Retrieved 30 May 2013. 
  134. ^ "Publika TV (Romanian) The parents of Ilie Cazacu telling that they will start hunger strike". Publika.md. Retrieved 30 May 2013. 
  135. ^ Social Print this story. "Ilie Cazac's parents did not seek help from the police". Azi.md. Retrieved 30 May 2013. 
  136. ^ "Moldovan premier meets UN High Commissioner for Human Rights". Allmoldova.com. 2 November 2011. Retrieved 30 May 2013. 
  137. ^ OSCE – Media in Transdniestria
  138. ^ a b United States Department of State report for 2006
  139. ^ Statement by the Ministry of Education, Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic, on the question of children's educational rights insurance, published by Olvia-Press 2004-07-15
  140. ^ "Several Transnistrian officials were banned from traveling through EU" (PDF). Retrieved 30 May 2013. 
  141. ^ Ribnitsa's authorities must return the confiscated school building, says OSCE Mission Head
  142. ^ km.ru, Приднестровье показало мускулы[dead link], 06.09.2007 (Russian)
  143. ^ Lobjakas, Ahto (11 October 2005). "Western Diplomats Say Reports Of Smuggling From Transdniester Likely Exaggerated". RFE/RL. Retrieved 30 May 2013. 
  144. ^ UNDP: 2006 Small arms and light weapons survey of Moldova, SEESAC 1 July 2007, ISBN 86-7728-014-6
  145. ^ Conflict Studies Research Centre, Moldova & The Dniestr Region: Contested Past, Frozen Present, Speculative Futures?, Graeme P. Herd.
  146. ^ Kravchenko, Vladimir (19 March 2010). Спецпредставитель Украины: Заявления Молдовы о транзите наркотиков и оружия через Приднестровье — безосновательны. Zerkalo Nedeli (in Russian). Retrieved 2 January 2014. 

External links[edit]

Local links[edit]