The Roman Catholic Church in Yemen is part of the worldwide Roman Catholic Church, under the spiritual leadership of the Pope and curia in Rome. There are three thousand Catholics in the country, which forms part of the Roman Catholic Vicariate Apostolic of Southern Arabia which also includes several other countries in the Arabian peninsula. Most Catholics are temporary foreign workers living in the country with their families.
Three nuns who were members of the Missionaries of Charity were killed in 1998. In the same year, Yemen and the Vatican established diplomatic relations.