List of Roman governors of Syria

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This is a List of governors of the Roman province of Syria. From 27 BC, the province was governed by an imperial legate of praetorian rank. The province was merged with Roman Judaea in 135 AD to form Syria Palaestina until 193 AD when it was divided into Syria Coele and Syria Phoenicia. In c. 415 AD, Syria Coele was divided into Syria Prima and Syria Secunda. During the reign of Theodosius I (379 – 395), Syria Phoenicia was divided into Phoenicia Maritima and Phoenicia Libanensis.

Proconsular Governors of Roman Syria (65 BC to 27 BC)[edit]

Date Governor
65 – 62 BC Marcus Aemilius Scaurus
61 – 60 BC Lucius Marcius Philippus
59 – 58 BC Gnaeus Cornelius Lentulus Marcellinus
57 – 54 BC Aulus Gabinius
54 – 53 BC Marcus Licinius Crassus
53 – 51 BC Gaius Cassius Longinus
51 – 50 BC Marcus Calpurnius Bibulus
50/49 BC Veiento
49 – 48 BC Metellus Scipio
47 – 46 BC Sextus Julius Caesar
46 – 44 BC Caecilius Bassus
45 BC Gaius Antistius Vetus
44 BC Lucius Staius Murcus
44 – 42 BC Gaius Cassius Longinus
41 – 40 BC Lucius Decidius Saxa
40 – 39 BC Parthian occupation
39 – 38 BC Publius Ventidius Bassus
38 – 37 BC Gaius Sosius
35 BC Lucius Munatius Plancus
34/33 – 33/32 BC Lucius Calpurnius Bibulus
30 BC Quintus Didius
29 BC Marcus Valerius Messalla Corvinus
28 – 25 BC Cicero Minor

Propraetorial Imperial Legates of Roman Syria (27 BC to 135 AD)[edit]

Date Governor
25 – 23 BC Marcus Terentius Varro
23 – 13 BC Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa
13/12 – 10/9 BC Marcus Titius
9 – 7/6 BC Gaius Sentius Saturninus
7/6 – 4 BC Publius Quinctilius Varus
4 – 1 BC Unknown[1]
1 BC – 4 AD Gaius Julius Caesar Vipsanianus
4 – 5 Lucius Volusius Saturninus
6 – 12 Publius Sulpicius Quirinius
12 – 17 Quintus Caecilius Metellus Creticus Silanus
17 – 19 Gnaeus Calpurnius Piso
19 – 21 Gnaeus Sentius Saturninus
22 – 32 Lucius Aelius Lamia
32 – 35 Lucius Pomponius Flaccus
35 – 39 Lucius Vitellius
39 – 41/42 Publius Petronius
41/42 – 44/45 Gnaeus Vibius Marsus
45 – 49 Cassius Longinus
50 – 60 Gaius Ummidius Durmius Quadratus
60 – 63 Gnaeus Domitius Corbulo
63 – 67 Cestius Gallus
67 – 69 Gaius Licinius Mucianus
70 – 72 Lucius Caesennius Paetus
72 – 73 Aulus Marius Celsus
73 - 78 Marcus Ulpius Traianus
78 - 82 Lucius Ceionius Commodus
82 - 84 Titus Atilius Rufus
87 - 90 Publius Valerius Patruinus
90 - 93 Aulus Bucius Lappius Maximus
93 - 96 Gaius Octavius Tidius Tossianus L. Iavolenus Priscus
96 - 97 Marcus Cornelius Nigrinus Curiatius Maternus
97 - 100 Aulus Larcius Priscus
100 - 104 Gaius Antius Aulus Julius Quadratus
104 - 108 Aulus Cornelius Palma Frontonianus
108 - 112 Lucius Fabius Iustus
117 Publius Aelius Hadrianus
117 - 119 Lucius Catilius Severus Iulianus Claudius Reginus
129 - 136 Gaius Quinctius Certus Poblicius Marcellus

Proconsular Imperial Legates of Syria Palestina (135 AD to 193 AD)[edit]

Date Governor
135 - 136 Gnaeus Minicius Faustinus Sextus Iulius Severus
136 - 140 Sextus Iulius Maior
140 Lucius Burbuleius Optatus Ligarianus
147 - 150 Sulpicius Julianus
150 - 154 Marcus Pontius Laelianus Larcius Sabinus
154 - 157 Marcus Cassius Apollinaris
157 - 162 Lucius Attidius Cornelianus
163 - 164 Marcus Annius Libo
164 - 166 Gnaeus Julius Verus
166 - 175 Gaius Avidius Cassius
175 - 178 Publius Martius Verus
179 - 182 Publius Helvius Pertinax
183 - 185 Gaius Domitius Dexter
187 - 190 Gaius Julius Saturninus
187 - 190 Asellius Aemilianus
190 - 193 Gaius Pescennius Niger

Proconsular Imperial Legates of Syria Coele (193 AD to c. 295 AD)[edit]

Date Governor
c. 207 - 209 Marius Maximus
c. 209 - 211 Minicius Martialis
c. 216 Aurelius Mam(---)
c. 221 Antonius Seleucus
Between 225 and 235 Quintus Aradius Rufinus Optatus Aelianus
(?) 235 (? Claudius Sollemnius) Pacatianus
c. 241 Attius Rufinus
c. 241 - 249 Flavius Antiochus
c. 251 Atilius Cosminus
c. 251 Pomponius Laetianus
During the 260s Virius Lupus
c. 275 Maximinus[2]
c. 279 Julius Saturninus
Between 276 and 282 Claudius Cleobulus
Between 289 and 297 L. Aelius Helvius Dionysius
290 Charisius

Propraetorial Imperial Legates of Syria Phoenicia (193 AD to c. 295 AD)[edit]

Date Governor
193 - 194 Ti. Manilius Fuscus[3]
198 Q. Venidius Rufus Marius Maximus L. Calvinianus
c. 207 Domitius Leo Procillianus
213 D. Pius Cassius
Between 268 and 270 Salvius Theodorus
Between 284 and 305 L. Artorius Pius Maximus
292 – 293 Crispinus

Consularis Governors of Syria Coele (c. 295 AD to c. 415 AD)[edit]

Date Governor
Between 293 and 305 Latinius Primosus
305 Verinus
? 323 Dyscolius
After 324 Arrius Maximus
Between 324 and 337 Plutarchus
Between 329 and 335 Fl. Dionysius[4]
338 Nonnus[5]
388 Eustathius[6]
347 Theodorus
348 Fl. Antonius Hierocles
349 Anatolius
Before 353 Honoratus
354 Theophilus
355 Dionysius
355 - 356 Gymnasius
358 Nicentius
358 - 359 Sabinus
360 Tryphonianus
360 Italicianus
361 Siderius
363 Alexander
363 – 364 Celsus
364 Marcianus
Between 364 and 380 Protasius
Between 364 and 380 Protasius[7]
Between 365 and 368 Festus
Between 365 and 371 Aetherius
Between 370 and 374 Fl. Eutolmius Tatianus
c. 379/80 Carterius
Before 381 Domnicus
c. 382 Marcellinus
c. 382/3 Pelagius
Between 382 and 393 Timocrates
c. 384/5 Eumolpius
386 Tisamenus
387 Celsus
388 Lucianus
388 Eustathius
389 Eutropius
c. 389/90 Palladius
390 Infantius
Before 392 Capitolinus
Before 392 Iullus
? 392/3 Florentius
Before 393/4 Severus

Consularis Governors of Syria Phoenicia (c. 295 AD to c. 395 AD)[edit]

Date Governor
Between 293 and 305 Aelius Statuus
Between 293 and 303 Sossianus Hierocles
Before 305 Julius Julianus
? Between 309/313 Maximus
c. 323 Achillius
328 - 329 Fl. Dionysius
335 Archelaus
c. 337 Nonnus
342 Marcellinus
353/4 Apollinaris
Before 358 Demetrius
(?) 359/60 Euchrostius
Before 360 Julianus
360 - 361 Andronicus
Before 361 Aelius Claudius Dulcitius
361 Anatolius
c. 361/2 Polycles
362 Julianus
362 - 363 Gaianus
363 - 364 Marius
364 Ulpianus
364 - 365 Domninus
372 Leontius
380 Petrus
382 - 383 Proculus
Before 388 Eustathius
388 Antherius
388 Epiphanius
390 Domitius
391 Severianus
392 Leontius

Footnotes[edit]

  1. ^ Some consider that Lucius Calpurnius Piso "the Pontifex" was here the governor of Syria. This is based on an inscription called the Lapis Tiburtinus.
  2. ^ Martindale & Jones, pg. 1105
  3. ^ Hall, pg. 94
  4. ^ Hall, pg. 95
  5. ^ Hall, pg. 96
  6. ^ Hall, pg. 103
  7. ^ Successor to the previous Protasius – see Martindale & Jones, pg. 1106

Bibliography[edit]

  • Schürer Emil, Vermes Geza, Millar Fergus, The history of the Jewish people in the age of Jesus Christ (175 B.C.-A.D. 135), Volume I, Edinburgh 1973, p. 243-266 (Survey of the Roman Province of Syria from 63 B.C. to A.D. 70).
  • Linda Jones Hall, Roman Berytus: Beirut in late antiquity (2004)
  • Martindale, J. R.; Jones, A. H. M, The Prosopography of the Later Roman Empire, Vol. I AD 260-395, Cambridge University Press (1971)