Cauliflower

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Cauliflower
Cauliflower.JPG
Cauliflower, cultivar unknown
Details
Species Brassica oleracea
Cultivar group Botrytis cultivar group
Origin Northeast Mediterranean
Cultivar group
members
Many; see text.
Cauliflower plants growing in a nursery in New Jersey.
Cauliflower, raw
Nutritional value per 100 g (3.5 oz)
Energy 104 kJ (25 kcal)
Carbohydrates 5 g
- Sugars 1.9 g
- Dietary fiber 2 g
Fat 0.3 g
Protein 1.9 g
Water 92 g
Thiamine (vit. B1) 0.05 mg (4%)
Riboflavin (vit. B2) 0.06 mg (5%)
Niacin (vit. B3) 0.507 mg (3%)
Pantothenic acid (B5) 0.667 mg (13%)
Vitamin B6 0.184 mg (14%)
Folate (vit. B9) 57 μg (14%)
Vitamin C 48.2 mg (58%)
Vitamin E 0.08 mg (1%)
Vitamin K 15.5 μg (15%)
Calcium 22 mg (2%)
Iron 0.42 mg (3%)
Magnesium 15 mg (4%)
Manganese 0.155 mg (7%)
Phosphorus 44 mg (6%)
Potassium 299 mg (6%)
Sodium 30 mg (2%)
Zinc 0.27 mg (3%)
Link to USDA Database entry
Percentages are roughly approximated
using US recommendations for adults.
Source: USDA Nutrient Database

Cauliflower is one of several vegetables in the species Brassica oleracea, in the family Brassicaceae. It is an annual plant that reproduces by seed. Typically, only the head (the white curd) is eaten. The cauliflower head is composed of a white inflorescence meristem. Cauliflower heads resemble those in broccoli, which differs in having flower buds.

Its name is from Latin caulis (cabbage) and flower,.[1] Brassica oleracea also includes cabbage, brussels sprouts, kale, broccoli, and collard greens, though they are of different cultivar groups.

For such a highly modified plant, cauliflower has a long history. François Pierre La Varenne employed chouxfleurs in Le cuisinier françois.[2] They were introduced to France from Genoa in the 16th century, and are featured in Olivier de Serres' Théâtre de l'agriculture (1600), as cauli-fiori "as the Italians call it, which are still rather rare in France; they hold an honorable place in the garden because of their delicacy",[3] but they did not commonly appear on grand tables until the time of Louis XIV.[4]

Classification and identification[edit]

Major groups[edit]

There are four major groups of cauliflower.[5]

Italian
Diverse in appearance, and biennial and annual in type, this group includes white, Romanesco, various green, purple, brown and yellow cultivars. This type is the ancestral form from which the others were derived.
Northwest European biennial
Used in Europe for winter and early spring harvest, this was developed in France in the 19th century, and includes the old cultivars Roscoff and Angers.
Northern European annuals
Used in Europe and North America for summer and fall harvest, it was developed in Germany in the 18th century, and includes the old cultivars Erfurt and Snowball.
Asian
A tropical cauliflower used in China and India, it was developed in India during the 19th century from the now-abandoned Cornish type,[6] and includes old varieties Early Patna and Early Benaras.

Varieties[edit]

There are hundreds of historic and current commercial varieties used around the world. A comprehensive list of about 80 North American varieties is maintained at North Carolina State University.[7]

Colors[edit]

White
White cauliflower is the most common color of cauliflower.
Orange
Orange cauliflower (B. oleracea L. var. botrytis) contains 25% more vitamin A than white varieties.[8] This trait came from a natural mutant found in a cauliflower field in Canada.[9] Cultivars include 'Cheddar' and 'Orange Bouquet'.
Green
Green cauliflower, of the B. oleracea botrytis group, is sometimes called broccoflower. It is available both with the normal curd shape and a variant spiky curd called Romanesco broccoli. Both types have been commercially available in the U.S. and Europe since the early 1990s. Green-curded varieties include 'Alverda', 'Green Goddess' and 'Vorda'. Romanesco varieties include 'Minaret' and 'Veronica'.
Purple
The purple color in this cauliflower is caused by the presence of the antioxidant group anthocyanins, which can also be found in red cabbage and red wine.[10] Varieties include 'Graffiti' and 'Purple Cape'. In Great Britain and southern Italy, a broccoli with tiny flower buds is sold as a vegetable under the name "purple cauliflower". It is not the same as standard cauliflower with a purple curd.

Nutrition[edit]

Cauliflower is low in fat, low in carbohydrates but high in dietary fiber, folate, water, and vitamin C, possessing a high nutritional density.[11]

Cauliflower contains several phytochemicals, common in the cabbage family, that may be beneficial to human health.

Boiling reduces the levels of these compounds, with losses of 20–30% after five minutes, 40–50% after ten minutes, and 75% after thirty minutes.[16] However, other preparation methods, such as steaming, microwaving, and stir frying, have no significant effect on the compounds.[16]

A high intake of cauliflower has been associated with reduced risk of aggressive prostate cancer.[17]

Cooking[edit]

Aloo gobi, an Indian dish prepared with cauliflower and potato

Cauliflower can be roasted, boiled, fried, steamed, or eaten raw. Steaming or microwaving better preserves anticancer compounds than boiling.[16] When cooking, the outer leaves and thick stalks are removed, leaving only the florets. The leaves are also edible, but are most often discarded.[18] The florets should be broken into similar-sized pieces so they are cooked evenly. After eight minutes of steaming, or five minutes of boiling, the florets should be soft, but not mushy (depending on size). Stirring while cooking can break the florets into smaller, uneven pieces.

Low carbohydrate dieters can use cauliflower as a reasonable substitute for potatoes or rice; while they can produce a similar texture, or mouth feel, they lack the starch of the originals.

Fractal dimension[edit]

Fractal pattern of Romanesco broccoli, a variant form of cauliflower

Cauliflower has been noticed by mathematicians for its distinct fractal dimension,[19][20] predicted to be about 2.8.[21]

History[edit]

The first reliable reference to cauliflower is found in the writings of the Arab Muslim scientists Ibn al-'Awwam and Ibn al-Baitar, in the 12th and 13th centuries.[22]


References[edit]

  1. ^ "Cauliflower: definition". dictionary.com. 2006. Retrieved 2008-11-22. 
  2. ^ Wheaton, Barbara Ketcham (1996) Savoring the Past: the French kitchen and table from 1300 to 1789, Touchstone, p. 118, ISBN 0684818574.
  3. ^ Wheaton, Barbara Ketcham (1996) Savoring the Past: the French kitchen and table from 1300 to 1789, Touchstone, p. 66, ISBN 0684818574.
  4. ^ Toussaint-Samat, Maguelonne (2009) A History of Food, 2nd ed., John Wiley & Sons, pp. 625f, ISBN 144430514X.
  5. ^ Crisp, P. (1982). "The use of an evolutionary scheme for cauliflowers in screening of genetic resources". Euphytica 31 (3): 725. doi:10.1007/BF00039211. 
  6. ^ Swarup, V. and Chatterjee, S.S (1972). "Origin and genetic improvement of Indian cauliflower". Economic Botany 26 (4): 381–393. doi:10.1007/BF02860710. 
  7. ^ Farnham, M. (2007). "Vegetable Cultivar Descriptions for North America:Cauliflower". Retrieved 2007-09-19. 
  8. ^ Cohen, Amanda and Koenig, Leah (November 9, 2009). "The Story Behind Orange Cauliflower". saveur.com. 
  9. ^ Dickson, M.H., Lee C.Y., Blamble A.E. (1988). "Orange-curd high carotene cauliflower inbreds, NY 156, NY 163, and NY 165". HortScience 23: 778–779. 
  10. ^ Chiu, L., Prior, R.L., Wu, X., Li, L. (July 16, 2005). "Toward Identification of the Candidate Gene Controlling Anthocyanin Accumulation in Purple Cauliflower (Brassica oleracea L. var. botrytis)". American Society of Plant Biologists Annual Meeting. p. 628. 
  11. ^ "Cauliflower Nutrient Data Table". USDA. 2003. Retrieved 15 May 2013. 
  12. ^ "Breeding Better Broccoli: Research Points To Pumped Up Lutein Levels In Broccoli". Science Daily. 8 November 2009. Retrieved 5 September 2010. 
  13. ^ "Broccoli chemical's cancer check". BBC News. 7 February 2006. Retrieved 5 September 2010. 
  14. ^ "How Dietary Supplement May Block Cancer Cells". Science Daily. 30 June 2010. Retrieved 5 September 2010. 
  15. ^ Yoshida, M.; Katashima, S; Ando, J; Tanaka, T; Uematsu, F; Nakae, D; Maekawa, A (2004). "Dietary indole-3-carbinol promotes endometrial adenocarcinoma development in rats initiated with N-ethyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine, with induction of cytochrome P450s in the liver and consequent modulation of estrogen metabolism". Carcinogenesis 25 (11): 2257–64. doi:10.1093/carcin/bgh225. PMID 15240508. 
  16. ^ a b c Warwick Medical School, University of Warwick (2007-05-15). "Research Says Boiling Broccoli Ruins Its Anti Cancer Properties.". 
  17. ^ Kirsh VA, Peters U, Mayne ST, Subar AF, Chatterjee N, Johnson CC, Hayes RB (2007). "Prospective study of fruit and vegetable intake and risk of prostate cancer". Journal of the National Cancer Institute 99 (15): 1200–9. doi:10.1093/jnci/djm065. PMID 17652276. 
  18. ^ Stephens, MJ (1998). "Secondary Edible Parts of Vegetables". Vegetarian 5. 
  19. ^ Walker, John. (2005-03-22) Fractal Food. Fourmilab.ch. Retrieved on 2013-09-03.
  20. ^ Description of the Julia sets of the cabbage fractal. Iwriteiam.nl. Retrieved on 2013-09-03.
  21. ^ Kim, Sang-Hoon. "Fractal Structure of a White Cauliflower". Journal of Korean physical society 46 (2): 474–477. arXiv:cond-mat/0409763. 
  22. ^ Fenwick, G. Roger; Heaney, Robert K.; Mullin, W. John; VanEtten, Cecil H. (1982). "Glucosinolates and their breakdown products in food and food plants". C R C Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition 18 (2): 123–201. doi:10.1080/10408398209527361. 

Further reading[edit]

  • Sharma, S.R, Singh, P.K., Chable, V. Tripathi, S.K. (2004). "A review of hybrid cauliflower development". Journal of New Seeds 6 (2–3): 151. doi:10.1300/J153v06n02_08. 

External links[edit]