Cauliflower

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For other uses, see Cauliflower (disambiguation).
Cauliflower
Cauliflower.JPG
Cauliflower, cultivar unknown
Species Brassica oleracea
Cultivar group Botrytis cultivar group
Origin Northeast Mediterranean
Cultivar group members Many; see text.
Cauliflower plants growing in a nursery in New Jersey.
Cauliflower, raw
Nutritional value per 100 g (3.5 oz)
Energy 104 kJ (25 kcal)
5 g
Sugars 1.9 g
Dietary fiber 2 g
0.3 g
1.9 g
Vitamins
Thiamine (B1)
(4%)
0.05 mg
Riboflavin (B2)
(5%)
0.06 mg
Niacin (B3)
(3%)
0.507 mg
(13%)
0.667 mg
Vitamin B6
(14%)
0.184 mg
Folate (B9)
(14%)
57 μg
Vitamin C
(58%)
48.2 mg
Vitamin E
(1%)
0.08 mg
Vitamin K
(15%)
15.5 μg
Trace metals
Calcium
(2%)
22 mg
Iron
(3%)
0.42 mg
Magnesium
(4%)
15 mg
Manganese
(7%)
0.155 mg
Phosphorus
(6%)
44 mg
Potassium
(6%)
299 mg
Sodium
(2%)
30 mg
Zinc
(3%)
0.27 mg
Other constituents
Water 92 g

Percentages are roughly approximated using US recommendations for adults.
Source: USDA Nutrient Database

Cauliflower is one of several vegetables in the species Brassica oleracea, in the family Brassicaceae. It is an annual plant that reproduces by seed. Typically, only the head (the white curd) is eaten. The cauliflower head is composed of a white inflorescence meristem. Cauliflower heads resemble those in broccoli, which differs in having flower buds.

Its name is from Latin caulis (cabbage) and flower,.[1] Brassica oleracea also includes broccoli, brussels sprouts, cabbage, collard greens, and kale, though they are of different cultivar groups.

For such a highly modified plant, cauliflower has a long history. François Pierre La Varenne employed chouxfleurs in Le cuisinier françois.[2] They were introduced to France from Genoa in the 16th century, and are featured in Olivier de Serres' Théâtre de l'agriculture (1600), as cauli-fiori "as the Italians call it, which are still rather rare in France; they hold an honorable place in the garden because of their delicacy",[3] but they did not commonly appear on grand tables until the time of Louis XIV.[4]

Classification and identification[edit]

Major groups[edit]

There are four major groups of cauliflower.[5]

Italian
Diverse in appearance, and biennial and annual in type, this group includes white, Romanesco, various brown, green, purple, and yellow cultivars. This type is the ancestral form from which the others were derived.
Northern European annuals
Used in Europe and North America for summer and fall harvest, it was developed in Germany in the 18th century, and includes the old cultivars Erfurt and Snowball.
Northwest European biennial
Used in Europe for winter and early spring harvest, this was developed in France in the 19th century, and includes the old cultivars Angers and Roscoff.
Asian
A tropical cauliflower used in China and India, it was developed in India during the 19th century from the now-abandoned Cornish type,[6] and includes old varieties Early Benaras and Early Patna.

Varieties[edit]

There are hundreds of historic and current commercial varieties used around the world. A comprehensive list of about 80 North American varieties is maintained at North Carolina State University.[7]

Colors[edit]

White
White cauliflower is the most common color of cauliflower.
Orange
Orange cauliflower (B. oleracea L. var. botrytis) contains 25% more vitamin A than white varieties.[8] This trait came from a natural mutant found in a cauliflower field in Canada.[9] Cultivars include 'Cheddar' and 'Orange Bouquet'.
Green
Green cauliflower, of the B. oleracea botrytis group, is sometimes called broccoflower. It is available both with the normal curd shape and a variant spiky curd called Romanesco broccoli. Both types have been commercially available in the U.S. and Europe since the early 1990s. Green-curded varieties include 'Alverda', 'Green Goddess' and 'Vorda'. Romanesco varieties include 'Minaret' and 'Veronica'.
Purple
The purple color in this cauliflower is caused by the presence of the antioxidant group anthocyanins, which can also be found in red cabbage and red wine.[10] Varieties include 'Graffiti' and 'Purple Cape'.
In Great Britain and southern Italy, a broccoli with tiny flower buds is sold as a vegetable under the name "purple cauliflower"; it is not the same as standard cauliflower with a purple curd.

Nutrition[edit]

Cauliflower is low in fat, low in carbohydrates but high in dietary fiber, folate, water, and vitamin C, possessing a high nutritional density.[11]

Cauliflower contains several phytochemicals, common in the cabbage family, that may be beneficial to human health.

Boiling reduces the levels of these compounds, with losses of 20–30% after five minutes, 40–50% after ten minutes, and 75% after thirty minutes.[13] However, other preparation methods, such as steaming, microwaving, and stir frying, have no significant effect on the compounds.[13]

Cooking[edit]

Aloo gobi, an Indian dish prepared with cauliflower and potato

Cauliflower can be roasted, boiled, fried, steamed, or eaten raw. When cooking, the outer leaves and thick stalks are removed, leaving only the florets. The leaves are also edible, but are most often discarded.[14] The florets should be broken into similar-sized pieces so they are cooked evenly. After eight minutes of steaming, or five minutes of boiling, the florets should be soft, but not mushy (depending on size). Stirring while cooking can break the florets into smaller, uneven pieces.

Low carbohydrate dieters can use cauliflower as a reasonable substitute for potatoes or rice; while they can produce a similar texture, or mouth feel, they lack the starch of the originals.

Fractal dimension[edit]

Fractal pattern of Romanesco broccoli, a variant form of cauliflower

Cauliflower has been noticed by mathematicians for its distinct fractal dimension,[15][16] predicted to be about 2.8.[17]

History[edit]

The oldest record of cauliflower dates back to the 6th century B.C. Pliny wrote about it in the 2nd century after Christ. In the 12th century, three varieties were described in Spain as introductions from Syria, where it had doubtless been grown for more than a thousand years. It is found in the writings of the Arab botanists Ibn al-'Awwam and Ibn al-Baitar, in the 12th and 13th centuries when its origins were said to be Cyprus.[18][19][20]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Cauliflower: definition". dictionary.com. 2006. Retrieved 2008-11-22. 
  2. ^ Wheaton, Barbara Ketcham (1996) Savoring the Past: the French kitchen and table from 1300 to 1789, Touchstone, p. 118, ISBN 0684818574.
  3. ^ Wheaton, Barbara Ketcham (1996) Savoring the Past: the French kitchen and table from 1300 to 1789, Touchstone, p. 66, ISBN 0684818574.
  4. ^ Toussaint-Samat, Maguelonne (2009) A History of Food, 2nd ed., John Wiley & Sons, pp. 625f, ISBN 144430514X.
  5. ^ Crisp, P. (1982). "The use of an evolutionary scheme for cauliflowers in screening of genetic resources". Euphytica 31 (3): 725. doi:10.1007/BF00039211. 
  6. ^ Swarup, V. and Chatterjee, S.S (1972). "Origin and genetic improvement of Indian cauliflower". Economic Botany 26 (4): 381–393. doi:10.1007/BF02860710. 
  7. ^ Farnham, M. (2007). "Vegetable Cultivar Descriptions for North America:Cauliflower". Retrieved 2007-09-19. 
  8. ^ Cohen, Amanda and Koenig, Leah (November 9, 2009). "The Story Behind Orange Cauliflower". saveur.com. 
  9. ^ Dickson, M.H., Lee C.Y., Blamble A.E. (1988). "Orange-curd high carotene cauliflower inbreds, NY 156, NY 163, and NY 165". HortScience 23: 778–779. 
  10. ^ Chiu, L., Prior, R.L., Wu, X., Li, L. (July 16, 2005). "Toward Identification of the Candidate Gene Controlling Anthocyanin Accumulation in Purple Cauliflower (Brassica oleracea L. var. botrytis)". American Society of Plant Biologists Annual Meeting. p. 628. 
  11. ^ "Cauliflower Nutrient Data Table". USDA. 2003. Retrieved 15 May 2013. 
  12. ^ "Breeding Better Broccoli: Research Points To Pumped Up Lutein Levels In Broccoli". Science Daily. 8 November 2009. Retrieved 5 September 2010. 
  13. ^ a b Warwick Medical School, University of Warwick (2007-05-15). "Research Says Boiling Broccoli Ruins Its Anti Cancer Properties.". 
  14. ^ Stephens, MJ (1998). "Secondary Edible Parts of Vegetables". Vegetarian 5. 
  15. ^ Walker, John. (2005-03-22) Fractal Food. Fourmilab.ch. Retrieved on 2013-09-03.
  16. ^ Description of the Julia sets of the cabbage fractal. Iwriteiam.nl. Retrieved on 2013-09-03.
  17. ^ Kim, Sang-Hoon. "Fractal Structure of a White Cauliflower". Journal of Korean physical society 46 (2): 474–477. arXiv:cond-mat/0409763. 
  18. ^ "Cabbage Flowers for Food". Aggie Horticulture. Texas AgriLife Extension Service, Texas A&M System. Retrieved 12 October 2014. 
  19. ^ Fenwick, G. Roger; Heaney, Robert K.; Mullin, W. John; VanEtten, Cecil H. (1982). "Glucosinolates and their breakdown products in food and food plants". C R C Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition 18 (2): 123–201. doi:10.1080/10408398209527361. 
  20. ^ "History of Cauliflower". cauliflowerfestival.com. Retrieved 12 October 2014. 

Further reading[edit]

  • Sharma, S.R, Singh, P.K., Chable, V. Tripathi, S.K. (2004). "A review of hybrid cauliflower development". Journal of New Seeds 6 (2–3): 151. doi:10.1300/J153v06n02_08. 

External links[edit]