Romani people

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Not to be confused with Romanians, an unrelated ethnic group and nation.
For other uses, see Romani.
Romani people
Rromane dźene
Flag of the Romani people.svg
Romani flag created in 1933 and accepted by the 1971 World Romani Congress
Total population
2 million ~ 12 million[1][2][3]
Also see Romani people by country
Regions with significant populations
 United States 1,000,000
(0.32%)[4]
 Brazil 800,000
(0.41%)[5]
 Spain 650,000
(1.62%)[6]
 Romania 621,573
(3.3%)[7]
 Turkey 500,000
(0.72%)[8]
 France 500,000
(0.79%)[9]
 Bulgaria 370,908
(4.67%)[10]
 Hungary 205,720
(2.02%)[11]
 Greece 200,000
(1.82%)[12]
 Slovakia 189,920
(1.71%)[13]
 Russia 182,766
(0.13%)[14]
 Serbia 147,604
(2.05%)[15]
 Italy 130,000
(0.22%)[16]
 Germany 120,000
(0.15%)[17]
 United Kingdom 90,000
(0.15%)[18]
 Macedonia 53,879
(2.85%)[19]
 Mexico 53,000
(0.05%)[20]
 Sweden 50,000 – 100,000[21]
 Ukraine 47,587
(0.098%)[22]
 Portugal 30,000 – 50,000
(0.3%)
Languages
Romani, languages of native region
Religion
Christianity[23]
Islam[23]
Shaktism[23]
Related ethnic groups
Dom, Lom, Domba; other Indo-Aryans
Part of a series on
Romani people
Flag of the Romani people
Romani Wagon in Germany in 1935
Recent Romani wagon in Grandborough (Grandbourough Fields Road is a popular spot for travelling people)

The Romani are a diasporic ethnicity of Indian origin, living mostly in Europe and the Americas.[24][25] Romani are widely known among Anglophonic people by the exonym "Gypsies" (or Gipsies). They are called throughout the world by various names as Romany, Romowie, Roma, Zigeuner, Cyganie, Cigáni, or Gitano. In their own language, Romani, they are known collectively as Roma, Romane or Rromane (depending on the dialect).[citation needed]

Romani are widely dispersed, with their largest concentrated populations in Europe—especially Central and Eastern Europe and Anatolia, Iberia, and Southern France. They originated in India and arrived in Mid-West Asia, then Europe, at least 1,000 years ago,[26] either separating from the Dom people or, at least, having a similar history;[27] the ancestors of both the Romani and the Dom left North India sometime between the sixth and eleventh century.[26]

Since the nineteenth century, some Romani have also migrated to the Americas. There are an estimated one million Roma in the United States;[4] and 800,000 in Brazil, most of whose ancestors emigrated in the nineteenth century from eastern Europe. Brazil also includes Romani descended from people deported by the government of Portugal during the Inquisition in the colonial era.[28] In migrations since the late nineteenth century, Romani have also moved to Canada and countries in South America.[29]

The Romani language is divided into several dialects, which add up to an estimated number of speakers larger than two million.[30] The total number of Romani people is at least twice as large (several times as large according to high estimates). Many Romani are native speakers of the language current in their country of residence, or of mixed languages combining the two; those varieties are sometimes called Para-Romani.[31]

Names[edit]

Romani usage[edit]

In the Romani language, rom is a masculine noun, meaning "man, husband", with the plural roma. Romani is the feminine adjective, while romano is the masculine adjective. Some Romanies use Rom or Roma as an ethnic name, while others (such as the Sinti, or the Romanichal) do not use this term as a self-ascription for the entire ethnic group.[32]

Sometimes, rom and romani are spelled with a double r, i.e., rrom and rromani. In this case rr is used to represent the phoneme /ʀ/ (also written as ř and rh), which in some Romani dialects has remained different from the one written with a single r. The rr spelling is common particularly in Romania, in order to distinguish from the endonym/homonym for Romanians (sg. român, pl. români).[33]

English usage[edit]

In the English language (according to the Oxford English Dictionary), Rom is a noun (with the plural Roma or Roms) and an adjective, while Romani (Romany) is also a noun (with the plural Romanies or Romanis) and an adjective. Both Rom and Romani have been in use in English since the 19th century as an alternative for Gypsy. Romani was initially spelled Rommany, then Romany, while today the Romani spelling is the most popular spelling. Occasionally, the double r spelling (e.g., Rroma, Rromani) mentioned above is also encountered in English texts.

The term Roma is increasingly encountered during recent decades[34][35] as a generic term for the Romani people,[36] although it is sometimes considered pejorative.[37][38][39][40][41][42][43] Because all Romanies use the word Romani as an adjective, the term began to be used as a noun for the entire ethnic group.[44] Today, the term Romani is used by most organizations—including the United Nations, the Council of Europe, and the US Library of Congress.[33] The standard assumption is that the demonyms of the Romani people, Lom and Dom share the same origin.[45][46]

Gypsy[edit]

See also: Gypsy (term)

The English term Gypsy (or Gipsy) originates from the Middle English gypcian, short for Egipcien. It is ultimately derived from the Greek Αἰγύπτιοι (Aigyptioi), via Middle French and Latin. This designation owes its existence to the belief, common in the Middle Ages, that the Romanies, or some related group (such as the middle eastern Dom people), were itinerant Egyptians.[47] According to one narrative they were exiled from Egypt as punishment for allegedly harbouring the infant Jesus.[48]

This exonym is sometimes written with capital letter, to show that it designates an ethnic group.[49] The term 'gypsy' appears when international research programmes, documents and policies on the community are referred to.[citation needed] However, the word is often considered derogatory because of its negative and stereotypical associations.[37][38][39][40][41][42][50]

As described in Victor Hugo's novel The Hunchback of Notre Dame, the medieval French referred to the Romanies as egyptiens. The term has come to bear pejorative connotations. The word Gypsy in English has become so pervasive that many Romani organizations use it in their own organizational names.

In North America, the word gypsy is most commonly used as a reference to Romani ethnicity,[51] though lifestyle and fashion are at times also referenced by using this word.[52] The Spanish term gitano and the French term gitan have been sometimes thought to have the same origin as a reference to Egypt,[53] though they are much more likely to have been derived from Athinganoi, the name of a medieval Christian sect that became associated with the Gypsies in Europe (whether of the same Romani group or a different one).[54][55][56][57]

Population and subgroups[edit]

Romani population[edit]

Main article: Romani populations

For a variety of reasons, many Romanies choose not to register their ethnic identity in official censuses. There are an estimated four million Romani people in Europe (as of 2002),[58] although some high estimates by Romani organizations give numbers as high as 14 million.[59] Significant Romani populations are found in the Balkans, in some Central European states, in Spain, France, Russia and Ukraine. Several million more Romanies may live out of Europe, in particular in the Middle East and in the Americas.[citation needed]

A tent of Romani nomads in Hungary, 19th century

Romani subgroups[edit]

As a result of the caste system, inherited from India, and their movement on Asia, Europe, America and Australia, many designations can be given to individual Roma groups. [60][61]

Interior of a gipsy's house in Brazil c. 1820, by Debret
Camping gypsies near Düsseldorf, Germany, c. 1905, by Emil Volkers

All-encompassing self-description is always "Rom".[62] Even when some groups are not using an endonym "Roma", they all acknowledge a common origin and a dichotomy Roma-Gadjo.[63]

Other groups, using different endonyms are, for example:

Other Romani sub-groups include:

Some groups which are commonly thought of as Romani, either by surrounding populations or by Romani groups, do not consider themselves to be Romani. This applies to the Balkan Egyptians and the Ashkali.[80]

Two Romani women in Spain, by Francisco Iturrino

History[edit]

Origins[edit]

Findings suggest an Indian origin for Roma.[81][82] Because Romani groups didn't keep chronicles of their history or have oral accounts of it, most hypotheses about Romani's migration early history are based on linguistic theory.[83] There is also no known record of a migration from India to Europe from medieval times that can be connected indisputably to Roma.[84] However, the linguistic findings about their Indian origin have been corroborated by genetic studies, carried out on a number of Romani populations[85][86][87] Some genetic studies specifically link them to the Jat people of modern-day northern India and Pakistan.[88][89][90]

Shahnameh legend[edit]

An illustration of "Bahrām V Gōr and the Indian princess in the black pavilion."

According to a legend reported in Shahnameh and repeated by several modern authors, the Sasanian king Bahrām V Gōr learned towards the end of his reign (421–39) that the poor could not afford to enjoy music, and he asked the king of India to send him ten thousand luris, men and women, lute playing experts. When the luris arrived, Bahrām gave each one an ox and a donkey and a donkey-load of wheat so that they could live on agriculture and play music gratuitously for the poor. But the luris ate the oxen and the wheat and came back a year later with their cheeks hollowed with hunger. The king was angered with their having wasted what he had given them, ordered them to pack up their bags on their asses and go wandering around the world.[91]

Linguistic evidence[edit]

The linguistic evidence has indisputably shown that roots of Romani language lie in India: the language has grammatical characteristics of Indian languages and shares with them a big part of the basic lexicon, for example, body parts or daily routines.[92]

More exactly, Romani shares the basic lexicon with Hindi and Punjabi. It shares many phonetic features with Marwari, while its grammar is closest to Bengali.[93]

Romani and Domari share some similarities: agglutination of postpositions of the second Layer (or case marking clitics) to the nominal stem, concordmarkers for the past tense, the neutralisation of gender marking in the plural, and the use of the oblique case as an accusative.[94][95] This has prompted much discussion about the relationships between these two languages. Domari was once thought to be the "sister language" of Romani, the two languages having split after the departure from the Indian subcontinent, but more recent research suggests that the differences between them are significant enough to treat them as two separate languages within the Central zone (Hindustani) group of languages. The Dom and the Rom therefore likely descend from two different migration waves out of India, separated by several centuries.[27][96]

Numerals in the Romani, Domari and Lomavren languages, with Hindi and Persian forms for comparison.[97] Note that Romani 7–9 are borrowed from Greek.

Hindi Romani Domari Lomavren Persian
1 ek ekh, jekh yika yak, yek yak, yek
2 do duj lui du, do
3 tīn trin tærən tərin se
4 cār štar štar išdör čahār
5 pāñc pandž pandž pendž pandž
6 che šov šaš šeš šaš, šeš
7 sāt ifta xaut haft haft
8 āţh oxto xaišt hašt hašt
9 nau inja na nu nuh, noh
10 das deš des las dah
20 bīs biš wīs vist bist
100 sau šel saj saj sad

Genetic evidence[edit]

Genetic findings in 2012 suggest the Romani originated in northwest India and migrated as a group.[81][82][98] According to a genetic study in 2012, the ancestors of present scheduled tribes and scheduled caste populations of northern India, traditionally referred to collectively as the Ḍoma, are the likely ancestral populations of modern European Roma.[99] In December 2012, additional findings appeared to confirm the "Roma came from a single group that left northwestern India about 1,500 years ago.[dubious ]"[82] They reached the Balkans about 900 years ago, and then spread throughout Europe. The team found that, despite some isolation, the Roma were "genetically similar to other Europeans."[81][82] Contemporary populations suggested as sharing a close relationship to the Romani are the Dom people of Western Asia and North Africa, and the Banjara of India.[100]

Genetic evidence supports the mediaeval migration from India. The Romani have been described as "a conglomerate of genetically isolated founder populations",[101] while a number of common Mendelian disorders among Romanies from all over Europe indicates "a common origin and founder effect".[101][102] A study from 2001 by Gresham et al. suggests "a limited number of related founders, compatible with a small group of migrants splitting from a distinct caste or tribal group".[103] The same study found that "a single lineage ... found across Romani populations, accounts for almost one-third of Romani males."[103] A 2004 study by Morar et al. concluded that the Romani population "was founded approximately 32–40 generations ago, with secondary and tertiary founder events occurring approximately 16–25 generations ago".[104] The discovery in 2009 of the "Jat mutation" that causes a type of glaucoma in Romani populations suggests that the Romani people are the descendants of the Jat people found in the Indian subcontinent.[88][105] This relation to Jats had earlier been suggested by Michael Jan de Goeje in 1883.[106] The 2009 glaucoma study, however, contradicts an earlier study that compared the most common haplotypes found in Romani groups with those found in Jat Sikhs and Jats from Haryana and found no matches.[107]

Possible migration route[edit]

They may have emerged from the modern Indian state of Rajasthan,[108] migrating to the northwest (the Punjab region, Sindh and Baluchistan of the Indian subcontinent) around 250 BC. In the centuries spent here, there may have been close interaction with these established groups such as the Rajputs and the Jats. Their subsequent westward migration, possibly in waves, is now believed to have occurred beginning in about AD 500.[dubious ][82] It has also been suggested that emigration from India may have taken place in the context of the raids by Mahmud of Ghazni.[109] As these soldiers were defeated, they were moved west with their families into the Byzantine Empire. The 11th century terminus post quem is due to the Romani language showing unambiguous features of the Modern Indo-Aryan languages,[110] precluding an emigration during the Middle Indic period.

The migration of the Romanies through the Middle East and Northern Africa to Europe

Arrival in Europe[edit]

Though according to a 2012 genomic study, the Romani reached the Balkans as early as the 12th century,[111] the first historical records of the Romani reaching south-eastern Europe are from the 14th century: in 1322, an Irish Franciscan monk, Symon Semeonis encountered a migrant group, "the descendants of Cain", outside the town of Heraklion (Candia), in Crete. Symon's account is probably the earliest surviving description by a Western chronicler of the Romani people in Europe. In 1350, Ludolphus of Sudheim mentioned a similar people with a unique language whom he called Mandapolos, a word which some theorize was derived from the Greek word mantes (meaning prophet or fortune teller).[112] Around 1360, a fiefdom, called the Feudum Acinganorum was established in Corfu, which mainly used Romani serfs and to which the Romani on the island were subservient.[113][114] By 1424, they were recorded in Germany;[citation needed] and by the 16th century, Scotland and Sweden.[citation needed] Some Romani migrated from Persia through North Africa,[citation needed] reaching the Iberian Peninsula in the 15th century.[citation needed] The two currents met in France.[citation needed]

First arrival of the Romanies outside Bern in the 15th century, described by the chronicler as getoufte heiden (“baptized heathens”) and drawn with dark skin and wearing Saracen-style clothing and weapons (Spiezer Schilling, p. 749)

Early Modern history[edit]

An 1852 Wallachian poster advertising an auction of Romani slaves in Bucharest.

Their early history shows a mixed reception. Although 1385 marks the first recorded transaction for a Romani slave in Wallachia, they were issued safe conduct by Sigismund of the Holy Roman Empire in 1417.[115] Romanies were ordered expelled from the Meissen region of Germany in 1416, Lucerne in 1471, Milan in 1493, France in 1504, Catalonia in 1512, Sweden in 1525, England in 1530 (see Egyptians Act 1530), and Denmark in 1536.[115] In 1510, any Romani found in Switzerland were ordered to be put to death, with similar rules established in England in 1554, and Denmark in 1589, whereas Portugal began deportations of Romanies to its colonies in 1538.[115]

Later, a 1596 English statute, however, gave Romanies special privileges that other wanderers lacked; France passed a similar law in 1683. Catherine the Great of Russia declared the Romanies "crown slaves" (a status superior to serfs), but also kept them out of certain parts of the capital.[116] In 1595, Ştefan Răzvan overcame his birth into slavery, and became the Voivode (Prince) of Moldavia.[115]

Romani could be kept as slaves in Wallachia and Moldavia, until abolition in 1856.[117] Elsewhere in Europe, they were subject to ethnic cleansing, abduction of their children, and forced labor. In England, Romani were sometimes expelled from small communities or hanged; in France, they were branded and their heads were shaved; in Moravia and Bohemia, the women were marked by their ears being severed. As a result, large groups of the Romani moved to the East, toward Poland, which was more tolerant, and Russia, where the Romani were treated more fairly as long as they paid the annual taxes.[118]

Modern history[edit]

Romani began emigrating to North America in colonial times, with small groups recorded in Virginia and French Louisiana. Larger-scale Roma emigration to the United States began in the 1860s, with groups of Romnaichal from Great Britain. The largest number immigrated in the early 1900s, mainly from the Vlax group of Kalderash. Many Romani also settled in South America.

Sinti and other Romani about to be deported from Germany, May 22, 1940.

World War II[edit]

Main article: Porajmos

During World War II, the Nazis and the Ustaša embarked on a systematic genocide of the Romani, a process known in Romani as the Porajmos.[119] Romanies were marked for extermination and sentenced to forced labor and imprisonment in concentration camps.

They were often killed on sight, especially by the Einsatzgruppen (mobile killing units) on the Eastern Front.[120] The total number of victims has been variously estimated at between 220,000 to 1,500,000; even the lowest number would make the Porajmos one of the largest mass killings in history.[121]

Post-1945[edit]

In Czechoslovakia, they were labeled a "socially degraded stratum," and Romani women were sterilized as part of a state policy to reduce their population. This policy was implemented with large financial incentives, threats of denying future welfare payments, with misinformation, or after administering drugs (Silverman 1995; Helsinki Watch 1991).

An official inquiry from the Czech Republic, resulting in a report (December 2005), concluded that the Communist authorities had practiced an assimilation policy towards Romanies, which "included efforts by social services to control the birth rate in the Romani community". "The problem of sexual sterilisation carried out in the Czech Republic, either with improper motivation or illegally, exists," said Czech Public Defender of Rights, recommending state compensation for women affected between 1973 and 1991.[122] New cases were revealed up until 2004, in both the Czech Republic and Slovakia. Germany, Norway, Sweden and Switzerland “all have histories of coercive sterilization of minorities and other groups.” [123]

Society and traditional culture[edit]

A Gipsy Family, facsimile of a woodcut in the Cosmographia of Sebastian Münster (Basle, 1552)

The traditional Romanies place a high value on the extended family. Virginity is essential in unmarried women. Both men and women often marry young; there has been controversy in several countries over the Romani practice of child marriage. Romani law establishes that the man's family must pay a bride price to the bride's parents, but only traditional families still follow this rule.

Once married, the woman joins the husband's family, where her main job is to tend to her husband's and her children's needs, as well as to take care of her in-laws. The power structure in the traditional Romani household has at its top the oldest man or grandfather, and men in general have more authority than women. Women gain respect and authority as they get older. Young wives begin gaining authority once they have children.

Romani social behavior is strictly regulated by Hindu purity laws[citation needed] ("marime" or "marhime"), still respected by most Roma (and by most older generations of Sinti). This regulation affects many aspects of life, and is applied to actions, people and things: parts of the human body are considered impure: the genital organs (because they produce emissions), as well as the rest of the lower body. Clothes for the lower body, as well as the clothes of menstruating women, are washed separately. Items used for eating are also washed in a different place. Childbirth is considered impure, and must occur outside the dwelling place. The mother is considered impure for forty days after giving birth.

Death is considered impure, and affects the whole family of the dead, who remain impure for a period of time. In contrast to the practice of cremating the dead, Romani dead must be buried.[124] Cremation and burial are both known from the time of the Rigveda, and both are widely practiced in Hinduism today (although the tendency for higher caste groups is to burn, while lower caste groups in South India tend to bury their dead).[125] Some animals are also considered impure, for instance cats because they lick their hindquarters. Horses, in contrast, are not considered impure because they cannot.[126]

Belonging and exclusion[edit]

Main articles: Romanipen and Gadjo (non-Romani)

Romanipen (also romanypen, romanipe, romanype, romanimos, romaimos, romaniya) is a complicated term of Romani philosophy that means totality of the Romani spirit, Romani culture, Romani Law, being a Romani, a set of Romani strains.

An ethnic Romani is considered to be a Gadjo (non-Romani) in the Romani society if he has no Romanipen. Sometimes a non-Romani may be considered to be a Romani if he has Romanipen; usually this is an adopted child. As a concept, Romanipen has been the subject of interest to numerous academic observers. It has been hypothesized that it owes more to a framework of culture rather than simply an adherence to historically received rules.[127]

Religion[edit]

Christian Romanies during the pilgrimage at Saintes-Maries-de-la-Mer in France, 1980s

Beliefs[edit]

The ancestors of modern day Romani people were previously Hindu, but adopted Christianity or Islam depending on their respective regions they had migrated through.[128] Muslim Roma are found in Turkey, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Albania, Egypt, Kosovo, Republic of Macedonia, Bulgaria and form a very significant proportion of the Romani people.

Deities and saints[edit]

Blessed Ceferino Giménez Malla is considered a patron saint of the Romani people in Roman Catholicism.[129] Saint Sarah, or Kali Sara, has also been venerated as a patron saint in the same manner as the Blessed Ceferino Giménez Malla, but a transition has occurred in the 21st century, whereby Kali Sara is understood as an Indian deity brought from India by the refugee ancestors of the Roma people, thereby removing any Christian association. Saint Sarah is progressively being considered as "a Romani Goddess, the Protectress of the Roma" and an "indisputable link with Mother India".[130][131]

Ceremonies and practices[edit]

Romanies often adopt the dominant religion of their host country in the event that a ceremony associated with a formal religious institution is necessary, such as a baptism or funeral (their particular belief systems and indigenous religion and worship remain preserved regardless of such adoption processes). The Roma continue to practice "Shaktism", a practice with origins in India, whereby a female consort is required for the worship of a god. Adherence to this practice means that for the Roma who worship a Christian God, prayer is conducted through the Virgin Mary, or her mother, Saint Anne—Shaktism continues over one thousand years after the people's separation from India.[132]

Besides the Roma elders, who serve as spiritual leaders, priests, churches, or bibles do not exist among the Romanies—the only exception is the Pentecostal Roma.[132]

Balkans[edit]

For the Roma communities that have resided in the Balkans for numerous centuries, often referred to as "Turkish Gypsies", the following histories apply for religious beliefs:

  • Bulgaria

In northwestern Bulgaria, in addition to Sofia and Kyustendil, Islam is the dominant faith; however in the independent Bulgarian state, a major conversion to Eastern Orthodox Christianity has occurred. In southwestern Bulgaria (Pirin Macedonia), Islam is also the dominant religion, with a smaller section of the population, declaring themselves as “Turks”, continuing to mix ethnicity with Islam.[133]

  • Romania

According to the 2002 census, the majority of Romani minority living in Romania are Orthodox Christians, while 6.4% are Pentecostals, 3.8% Roman Catholics, 3% Reformed, 1.1% Greek Catholics, 0.9% Baptists, 0.8% Seventh-Day Adventists.[134] In Dobruja, there is a small community that are Muslim and also speak Turkish.[133]

  • Greece

The descendants of groups, such as Sepečides or Sevljara, Kalpazaja, Filipidži and others, living in Athens, Thessaloniki, central Greece and Aegean Macedonia are mostly Orthodox Christians, with Islamic beliefs held by a minority of the population. Following the Peace Treaty of Lausanne of 1923, many Muslim Roma moved to Turkey in the subsequent population exchange between Turkey and Greece.[133]

Muslim Romanies in Bosnia and Herzegovina (around 1900)
  • Albania

The majority of Albania's Roma people are Muslims.[135]

  • Macedonia

The majority of Roma people are followers of Islam.[133]

  • Serbia

Most Roma people in Serbia are Muslim, but the Gurbeti community, as it has been designated, are Christian.[133][not in citation given]

  • Kosovo

The vast majority of the Roma population in what has become Kosovo is Muslim.[133]

  • Bosnia, Montenegro and Herzegovina

Islam is the dominant religion amongst the Roma.[133]

  • Croatia

Following the Second World War, a large number of Muslim Roma relocated to Croatia (the majority moving from Kosovo).[133]

Other regions[edit]

In Ukraine and Russia the Roma populations are also Muslim as the families of Balkan migrants continue to live in these locations. Their ancestors settled on the Crimean peninsula during the 17th and 18th centuries, but then migrated to Ukraine, southern Russia and the Povolzhie (along the Volga River). Formally, Islam is the religion that these communities align themselves with and the people are recognized for their staunch preservation of the Romani language and identity.[133]

Most Eastern European Romanies are Roman Catholic, Eastern Orthodox, or Muslim.[citation needed] Those in Western Europe and the United States are mostly Roman Catholic or Protestant—in southern Spain, many Romanies are Pentecostal, but this is a small minority that has emerged in contemporary times.[132] In Egypt, the Romanies are split into Christian and Muslim populations.[citation needed]

Music[edit]

Main article: Romani music
Young Hungarian Romani performing a traditional dance

Romani music plays an important role in Central and Eastern European countries such as Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Serbia, Montenegro, Bulgaria, the Republic of Macedonia, Albania, Hungary, Slovenia and Romania, and the style and performance practices of Romani musicians have influenced European classical composers such as Franz Liszt and Johannes Brahms. The lăutari who perform at traditional Romanian weddings are virtually all Romani.

Probably the most internationally prominent contemporary performers in the lăutari tradition are Taraful Haiducilor. Bulgaria's popular "wedding music", too, is almost exclusively performed by Romani musicians such as Ivo Papasov, a virtuoso clarinetist closely associated with this genre and Bulgarian pop-folk singer Azis.

Many famous classical musicians, such as the Hungarian pianist Georges Cziffra, are Romani, as are many prominent performers of manele. Zdob şi Zdub, one of the most prominent rock bands in Moldova, although not Romanies themselves, draw heavily on Romani music, as do Spitalul de Urgenţă in Romania, Shantel in Germany, Goran Bregović in Serbia, Darko Rundek in Croatia, Beirut and Gogol Bordello in the United States.

Another tradition of Romani music is the genre of the Romani brass band, with such notable practitioners as Boban Marković of Serbia, and the brass lăutari groups Fanfare Ciocărlia and Fanfare din Cozmesti of Romania.

The distinctive sound of Romani music has also strongly influenced bolero, jazz, and flamenco (especially cante jondo) in Europe. European-style gypsy jazz ("jazz Manouche" or "Sinti jazz") is still widely practiced among the original creators (the Romanie People); one who acknowledged this artistic debt was guitarist Django Reinhardt. Contemporary artists in this tradition known internationally include Stochelo Rosenberg, Biréli Lagrène, Jimmy Rosenberg, and Tchavolo Schmitt.

The Romanies of Turkey have achieved musical acclaim from national and local audiences. Local performers usually perform for special holidays. Their music is usually performed on instruments such as the darbuka, gırnata and cümbüş.[136]

Contemporary art and culture[edit]

Language[edit]

Main article: Romani language

Most Romani speak one of several dialects of the Romani language,[137][not in citation given] an Indo-Aryan language. They also will often speak the languages of the countries they live in. Typically, they also incorporate loanwords and calques into Romani from the languages of those countries, especially words for terms that the Romani language does not have. Most of the Ciganos of Portugal, the Gitanos of Spain, the Romanichal of the UK, and Scandinavian Travellers have lost their knowledge of pure Romani, and respectively speak the mixed languages Caló,[138] Angloromany, and Scandoromani.

Persecutions[edit]

Main article: Antiziganism

Historical persecution[edit]

One of the most enduring persecutions against the Romani people was the enslaving of the Romanies. Slavery existed on the territory of present-day Romania from before the founding of the principalities of Moldavia and Wallachia in 13th–14th century, until it was abolished in stages during the 1840s and 1850s.[139] Legislation decreed that all the Romanies living in these states, as well as any others who would immigrate there, were slaves.[140] Most of the slaves were of Roma (Gypsy) ethnicity.

The exact origins of slavery in the Danubian Principalities are not known. There is some debate over whether the Romani people came to Wallachia and Moldavia as free men or as slaves. Historian Nicolae Iorga associated the Roma people's arrival with the 1241 Mongol invasion of Europe and considered their slavery as a vestige of that era, the Romanians taking the Roma from the Mongols as slaves and preserving their status. Other historians consider that they were enslaved while captured during the battles with the Tatars. The practice of enslaving prisoners may also have been taken from the Mongols.[139] While it is possible that some Romani people were slaves or auxiliary troops of the Mongols or Tatars, the bulk of them came from south of the Danube at the end of the 14th century, some time after the foundation of Wallachia. By then, the institution of slavery was already established in Moldavia and possibly in both principalities, but the arrival of the Roma made slavery a widespread practice. The Tatar slaves, smaller in numbers, were eventually merged into the Roma population.[141]

The arrival of some branches of the Romani people in Western Europe in the 15th century was precipitated by the Ottoman conquest of the Balkans. Although the Romanies themselves were refugees from the conflicts in southeastern Europe, they were mistaken by the local population in the West, because of their foreign appearance, as part of the Ottoman invasion (the German Reichstags at Landau and Freiburg in 1496-1498 declared the Romanies as spies of the Turks). In Western Europe, this resulted in a violent history of persecution and attempts of ethnic cleansing until the modern era. As time passed, other accusations were added against local Romanies (accusations specific to this area, against non-assimilated minorities), like that of bringing the plague, usually sharing their burden together with the local Jews.[142]

One example of official persecution of the Romani is exemplified by The Great Roundup of Spanish Romanies (Gitanos) in 1749. The Spanish monarchy ordered a nationwide raid that led to separation of families and placement of all able-bodied men into forced labor camps.

Later in the 19th century, Romani immigration was forbidden on a racial basis in areas outside Europe, mostly in the English-speaking world (in 1885 the United States outlawed the entry of the Roma) and also in some South American countries (in 1880 Argentina adopted a similar policy).[142]

Deportation of Roma from Asperg, Germany, 1940

Holocaust[edit]

Main article: Porajmos

The persecution of the Romanies reached a peak during World War II in the Porajmos, the genocide perpetrated by the Nazis during the Holocaust. In 1935, the Nuremberg laws stripped the Romani people living in Nazi Germany of their citizenship, after which they were subjected to violence, imprisonment in concentration camps and later genocide in extermination camps. The policy was extended in areas occupied by the Nazis during the war, and it was also applied by their allies, notably the Independent State of Croatia, Romania and Hungary.

Because no accurate pre-war census figures exist for the Romanis, it is impossible to accurately assess the actual number of victims. Ian Hancock, director of the Program of Romani Studies at the University of Texas at Austin, proposes a figure of up to a million and a half, while an estimate of between 220,000 and 500,000 was made by Sybil Milton, formerly senior historian of the U.S. Holocaust Memorial Museum.[143] In Central Europe, the extermination in the Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia was so thorough that the Bohemian Romani language became extinct.

Forced assimilation[edit]

In the Habsburg Monarchy under Maria Theresa (1740–1780), a series of decrees tried to force the Romanies to permanently settle, removed rights to horse and wagon ownership (1754), renamed them as "New Citizens" and forced Romani boys into military service if they had no trade (1761), forced them to register with the local authorities (1767), and prohibited marriage between Romanies (1773). Her successor Josef II prohibited the wearing of traditional Romani clothing and the use of the Romani language, punishable by flogging.[144]

In Spain, attempts to assimilate the Gitanos were under way as early as 1619, when Gitanos were forcibly settled, the use of the Romani language was prohibited, Gitano men and women were sent to separate workhouses and their children sent to orphanages. Similar prohibitions took place in 1783 under King Charles III, who prohibited the nomadic lifestyle, the use of the Calo language, Romani clothing, their trade in horses and other itinerant trades. The use of the word gitano was also forbidden to further assimilation. Ultimately these measures failed, as the rest of the population rejected the integration of the Gitanos.[144][145]

Other examples of forced assimilation include Norway, where a law was passed in 1896 permitting the state to remove children from their parents and place them in state institutions.[146] This resulted in some 1,500 Romani children being taken from their parents in the 20th century.[147]

Contemporary issues[edit]

Roma estimate percentage of population in Europe[148]
Country Percent
Bulgaria
  
10.33%
Slovakia
  
9.17%
Romania
  
8.32%
Serbia
  
8.18%
Hungary
  
7.05%
Turkey
  
3.83%
Albania
  
3.18%
Montenegro
  
2.95%
Moldova
  
2.49%
Greece
  
2.47%
Czech Republic
  
1.96%
Spain
  
1.62%
Kosovo
  
1.47%
Distribution of the Romani people in Europe (2007 Council of Europe "average estimates", totalling 9.8 million)[149]
The Romani settlement at Letanovský Mlyn, Slovakia
Main article: Modern Antiziganism

Discrimination against the Romani people has continued to the present day,[150][151] although efforts are being made to address them.[152] Amnesty International reports continued instances of Antizigan discrimination during the 20th Century, particularly in Romania, Serbia,[153] Slovakia,[154] Hungary,[155] Slovenia,[156] and Kosovo.[157] The European Union has recognized that the discrimination the Romani people face needs to be addressed and with the national Roma integration strategy they are encouraging member states to work towards greater Romani inclusion and upholding the rights of the Romani in the European union.[158]

The Romanis of Kosovo have been severely persecuted by ethnic Albanians since the end of the Kosovo War, and the region's Romani community is regarded to be for the most part annihilated.[159]

Czechoslovakia carried out a policy of sterilization of Romani women, starting in 1973.[160] The dissidents of the Charter 77 denounced it in 1977-78 as a genocide, but the practice continued through the Velvet Revolution of 1989.[161] A 2005 report by the Czech government's independent ombudsman, Otakar Motejl, identified dozens of cases of coercive sterilization between 1979 and 2001, and called for criminal investigations and possible prosecution against several health care workers and administrators.[162]

In 2008, following the brutal rape and subsequent murder of an Italian woman in Rome at the hands of a young man from a local Romani encampment,[163] the Italian government declared that Italy's Romani population represented a national security risk and that swift action was required to address the emergenza nomadi (nomad emergency).[164] Specifically, officials in the Italian government accused the Romanies of being responsible for rising crime rates in urban areas. One police raid in 2007 freed many of the children belonging to a Romani gang who used to steal by day, and who were locked in a shed by night by members of the gang.[165]

The 2008 deaths of Cristina and Violetta Djeordsevic, two Roma children who drowned while Italian beach-goers remained unperturbed, brought international attention to the relationship between Italians and the Roma people. Reviewing the state of play in 2012, one Belgian magazine observed:

On International Roma Day, which falls on 8 April, the significant proportion of Europe's 12 million Roma who live in deplorable conditions will not have much to celebrate. And poverty is not the only worry for the community. Ethnic tensions are on the rise. In 2008, Roma camps came under attack in Italy, intimidation by racist parliamentarians is the norm in Hungary. Speaking in 1993, Václav Havel prophetically remarked that "the treatment of the Roma is a litmus test for democracy": and democracy has been found wanting. The consequences of the transition to capitalism have been disastrous for the Roma. Under communism they had jobs, free housing and schooling. Now many are unemployed, many are losing their homes and racism is increasingly rewarded with impunity.[166]

Forced repatriation[edit]

In the summer of 2010 French authorities demolished at least 51 illegal Roma camps and began the process of repatriating their residents to their countries of origin.[167] This followed tensions between the French state and Roma communities, which had been heightened after French police opened fire and killed a traveller who drove through a police checkpoint, hitting an officer, and attempted to hit two more officers at another checkpoint. In retaliation a group of Roma, armed with hatchets and iron bars, attacked the police station of Saint-Aignan, toppled traffic lights and road signs and burned three cars.[168][169] The French government has been accused of perpetrating these actions to pursue its political agenda.[170] EU Justice Commissioner Viviane Reding stated that the European Commission should take legal action against France over the issue, calling the deportations "a disgrace". Purportedly, a leaked file dated 5 August, sent from the Interior Ministry to regional police chiefs included the instruction: "Three hundred camps or illegal settlements must be cleared within three months, Roma camps are a priority."[171]

Fictional representations[edit]

Vincent van Gogh: The Caravans – Gypsy Camp near Arles (1888, oil on canvas)

Many fictional depictions of Romani people in literature and art present romanticized narratives of their supposed mystical powers of fortune telling or their supposed irascible or passionate temper paired with an indomitable love of freedom and a habit of criminality. Particularly notable are classics like the story Carmen by Prosper Mérimée and the opera based on it by Georges Bizet, Victor Hugo's The Hunchback of Notre Dame, Herge's The Castafiore Emerald and Miguel de Cervantes' La Gitanilla.

The Romani were also heavily romanticized in the Soviet Union, a classic example being the 1975 Tabor ukhodit v Nebo. A more realistic depiction of contemporary Romani in the Balkans, featuring Romani lay actors speaking in their native dialects, although still playing with established clichés of a Romani penchant for both magic and crime, was presented by Emir Kusturica in his Time of the Gypsies (1988) and Black Cat, White Cat (1998). The films of Tony Gatlif, a French director of Romani ethnicity, like Les Princes (1983), Latcho Drom (1993) and Gadjo Dilo (1997) also portray gypsy life.

In contemporary literature[edit]

The Romani ethnicity is often used for characters in contemporary fantasy literature. In such literature, the Romani are often portrayed as possessing archaic occult knowledge passed down through the ages. This frequent use of the ethnicity has given rise to 'gypsy archetypes' in popular contemporary literature.[citation needed] A UK example is the Freya Trilogy by Elizabeth Arnold.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

Notes
  1. ^ "Rom". Encyclopædia Britannica Online. Retrieved 2010-09-15. "According to Encyclopaedia Britannica, estimates of the total world Romani population range from two million to five million." 
  2. ^ "Online version". Retrieved 2010-09-15. "Lewis, M. Paul (ed.), 2009. Ethnologue: Languages of the World, Sixteenth edition. Dallas, Tex.: SIL International. Ian Hancock's 1987 estimate for "all Gypsies in the world" was 6 to 11 million." 
  3. ^ "EU demands action to tackle Roma poverty". BBC News. 2011-04-05. 
  4. ^ a b Webley, Kayla (October 13, 2010). "Hounded in Europe, Roma in the U.S. Keep a Low Profile". Time. "Today, estimates put the number of Roma in the U.S. at about one million." 
  5. ^ The Special Secretariat for the Promotion of Racial Equality estimates the number of "ciganos" (Romanis) in Brazil at 800,000 (2011). The 2010 IBGE Brazilian National Census encountered gypsy camps in 291 of Brazil's 5,565 municipalities."Falta de políticas públicas para ciganos é desafio para o governo". R7. 2011. Retrieved 2012-01-22. 
  6. ^ "The Situation of Roma in Spain" (PDF). Open Society Institute. 2002. Archived from the original on 2007-12-01. Retrieved 2010-09-15. "The Spanish government estimates the number of Gitanos at a maximum of 650,000." 
  7. ^ "Rezultatele finale ale Recensământului din 2011 - Tab8. Populaţia stabilă după etnie – judeţe, municipii, oraşe, comune" (in Romanian). National Institute of Statistics (Romania). 5 July 2013. Retrieved 18 December 2013.  However, various organizations claim that there are 2 million Romanis in Romania. See [1]
  8. ^ "Roma rights organizations work to ease prejudice in Turkey". EurasiaNet. 22 July 2005. Retrieved 2010-09-15. "There are officially about 500,000 Roma in Turkey." 
  9. ^ "Situation of Roma in France at crisis proportions". EurActiv Network. 7 December 2005. Retrieved 2010-09-15. "The Romani population in France is officially estimated at around 500,000." 
  10. ^ "Population By Districts And Ethnic Group As Of 01.03.2001". 05.01.2004. Retrieved 2010-09-15. "Census 2001 in Bulgaria: 370,908 Roma" 
  11. ^ "Population by national/ethnic groups". Hungarian Central Statistical Office. Retrieved 2010-09-15. "Census 2001 in Hungary: 205,720 Roma/Bea" 
  12. ^ "The Romani population in Greece is officially estimated at 200,000". Hellenic Republic National Commission For Human Rights. Retrieved 2010-09-15. "Census 2001 in Hungary: 205,720 Roma/Bea" 
  13. ^ Census 2001 in Slovakia
  14. ^ "National Composition Of Population And Citizenship" (Excel). perepis2002.ru. Retrieved 2010-09-16. "Census 2002 in Russia: 182,766 Roma." 
  15. ^ http://webrzs.stat.gov.rs/WebSite/userFiles/file/Aktuelnosti/Prezentacija_Knjiga1.pdf
  16. ^ Demographics of Italy#Languages Estimated by Ministero degli Interni del Governo Italiano.
  17. ^ [2] Berlin-Institut für Bevölkerung und Entwicklung: Roma in Deutschland
  18. ^ [3] Ethnologue.com
  19. ^ "The 2002-census reported 53,879 Roma and 3,843 'Egyptians'". Republic of Macedonia, State Statistical Office. Retrieved 2010-09-17. 
  20. ^ "Catemaco gypsies". Catemaco.info. Retrieved 2013-03-12. 
  21. ^ Sametingen. Information about minorities in Sweden (Swedish)
  22. ^ State statistics committee of Ukraine - National composition of population, 2001 census (Ukrainian)
  23. ^ a b c Gall, Timothy L. (ed). Worldmark Encyclopedia of Culture & Daily Life: Vol. 4 - Europe. Cleveland, OH: Eastword Publications Development (1998); pp. 316, 318 : "Religion: An underlay of Hinduism with an overlay of either Christianity or Islam (host country religion) "; "Roma religious beliefs are rooted in Hinduism. Roma believe in a universal balance, called kuntari... Despite a 1,000-year separation from India, Roma still practice 'shaktism', the worship of a god through his female consort... "
  24. ^ Hancock, Ian F (2002). How Indian are Romanies, p. XX. ISBN 978-1-902806-19-8. Retrieved 2014-03-12. "While a nine century' removal from India has diluted Indian biological cconnection to the extent that for some Romanian groups, it may be hardy representative today, Sarren (1976:72) concluded that, we still remain together, genetically, to Asian than European around us;" 
  25. ^ Hancock, Ian F (2002). We Are the Romani People, p. XX. ISBN 978-1-902806-19-8. Retrieved 2008-07-31. "There are Romanies everywhere, even in China or Singapore, but by far the greatest number live in Europe and in North and South America." 
  26. ^ a b Kenrick, Donald (2007). Historical Dictionary of the Gypsies (Romanies) (2nd ed.). Scarecrow Press. p. xxxvii. "The Gypsies, or Romanies, are an ethnic group that arrived in Europe around the 14th century. Scholars argue about when and how they left India, but it is generally accepted that they did emigrate from northern India some time between the 6th and 11th centuries, then crossed the Middle East and came into Europe." 
  27. ^ a b Professor Yaron Matras (December 2012). "Domari". [romani] project. School of Languages, Linguistics and Cultures The University of Manchester. Retrieved 26 December 2012. "The two were once thought to be ‘sister languages’ which split after leaving the Indian subcontinent, but more recent research suggests that the differences between them are much older. The Dom and the Rom are therefore more likely to be descendents of different migration waves, sharing primarily a caste-identity, but not necessarily a language. There are however some remarkable similarities between Romani and Domari, which appear to suggest a similar history." 
  28. ^ Corrêa Teixeira, Rodrigo. "A historia dos ciganos no Brasil" (PDF). Archived from the original on July 2011. Retrieved 2012-08-29. 
  29. ^ Sutherland, Ann, "Gypsies: The Hidden Americans", # Waveland Press (July 1986)# ISBN 0-88133-235-6, # ISBN 978-0-88133-235-3
  30. ^ Yaron Matras (2002). Romani: A Linguistic Introduction. Cambridge University Press. p. 239. ISBN 978-0-521-63165-5. Retrieved 2009-07-16. 
  31. ^ "Romani" (PDF). Encyclopedia of Language and Linguistics. Oxford: Elsevier. p. 1. Retrieved 2009-08-30. "In some regions of Europe, especially the western margins (Britain, the Iberian peninsula, Scandinavia), Romani-speaking communities have given up their language in favor of the majority language, but have retained Romani-derived vocabulary as an in-group code. Such codes, for instance Angloromani (Britain), Caló (Spain), or Rommani (Scandinavia) are usually referred to as Para-Romani varieties." 
  32. ^ Hancock, Ian F (2002). We Are the Romani People, p. XIX. ISBN 978-1-902806-19-8. Retrieved 2008-07-31 .
  33. ^ a b Hancock, Ian F (2002). We Are the Romani People, p. XXI. ISBN 978-1-902806-19-8. Retrieved 2008-07-31 .
  34. ^ p. 52 in Elena Marushiakova and Vesselin Popov's "Historical and ethnographic background; gypsies, Roma, Sinti" in Will Guy [ed.] Between Past and Future: The Roma of Central and Eastern Europe [with a Foreword by Dr. Ian Hancock], 2001, UK: University of Hertfordshire Press.
  35. ^ p. 13 in Illona Klimova-Alexander's The Romani Voice in World Politics: The United Nations and Non-State Actors (2005, Burlington, VT.: Ashgate).
  36. ^ Xavier Rothéa. "Les Roms, une nation sans territoire?" (in French). Retrieved 2008-07-31. 
  37. ^ a b The new Partridge dictionary of slang and unconventional English (Reprint. ed.). London [u.a.]: Routledge. 2007. p. 943. ISBN 0415259371. 
  38. ^ a b Merriam-Webster's pocket guide to English usage. Springfield, MA: Merriam-Webster. 1998. p. 178. ISBN 0877795142. 
  39. ^ a b Garner, Bryan A. (2009). Garner's modern American usage (3rd ed.). New York: Oxford University Press. p. 405. ISBN 0195382757. 
  40. ^ a b Baskin, [by] H.E. Wedeck with the assistance of Wade. Dictionary of gypsy life and lore. New York: Philosophical Library. ISBN 0806529857. 
  41. ^ a b Garner, Bryan A. A dictionary of modern legal usage (3rd ed.). New York: Oxford University Press. p. 400. ISBN 0195384202. 
  42. ^ a b Dictionary of race, ethnicity and culture (1. publ., [Nachdr.]. ed.). London: Sage. 2002. p. 291. ISBN 0761969004. 
  43. ^ O'Nions, Helen (2007). Minority rights protection in international law: the Roma of Europe. Ashgate Publishing, Ltd. p. 6. ISBN 9781409490920. 
  44. ^ Hancock, Ian F (2002). We Are the Romani People, p. XX. ISBN 978-1-902806-19-8. Retrieved 2008-07-31 .
  45. ^ "Dom: The Gypsy community in Jerusalem". The Institute for Middle East Understanding. February 13, 2007. Retrieved 2010-09-17. 
  46. ^ Douglas Harper (February 13, 2007). "Etymology of Romani". Online Etymology Dictionary. Retrieved 2010-09-17. 
  47. ^ Soulis, G. (1961). The Gypsies in the Byzantine Empire and the Balkans in the Late Middle Ages. Dumbarton Oaks Papers, Trustees for Harvard University, 15, 141-165.
  48. ^ Fraser 1992.
  49. ^ Hancock, Ian (1995). A Handbook of Vlax Romani. Slavica Publishers. p. 17. 
  50. ^ Report in Roma Educational Needs in Ireland
  51. ^ American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language, Fourth Edition, definition 1 and 2
  52. ^ American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language, Fourth Edition, definition 3 and 4
  53. ^ "gitan" (in French). Dictionnaire de l'Académie française. Retrieved 2007-08-26. "Nom donné aux bohémiens d'Espagne ; par ext., synonyme de Bohémien, Tzigane. Adjt. Une robe gitane." 
  54. ^ Starr, J. (1936). An Eastern Christian Sect: the Athinganoi. Dumbarton Oaks Papers, Trustees for Harvard University, 29, 93-106.
  55. ^ White, Karin (1999). "Metal-workers, agriculturists, acrobats, military-people and fortune-tellers: Roma (Gypsies) in and around the Byzantine empire". Golden Horn 7 (2). Retrieved 2007-08-26. 
  56. ^ Bates, Karina. "A Brief History of the Rom". Archived from the original on 2007-08-10. Retrieved 2007-08-26. 
  57. ^ "Book Reviews" (PDF). Population Studies 48 (2): 365–372. July 1994. doi:10.1080/0032472031000147856. 
  58. ^ 3.8 million according to Pan and Pfeil, National Minorities in Europe (2004), ISBN 978-3-7003-1443-1, p. 27f.
  59. ^ Council of Europe compilation of population estimates
  60. ^ Milena, Hübshmanová (2003). "Roma – Sub Ethnic Groups". Rombase. Karl-Franzens-Universität Graz. "The endless and countless number of designations which were and still are given to individual groups of Roma during the course of their extra-Indian history is a result of the Indian archetype of caste (kinship-professional) reproduction and, in addition, the movement of the Roma to different political and ethno-linguistic milieus of Asia, Europe, America and Australia." 
  61. ^ Horvátová, Jana (2002). Kapitoly z dějin Romů [Chapters from Romani history] (in český). Praha: Lidové noviny. p. 12. "Mnohočetnost romských skupin je patrně pozůstatkem diferenciace Romů do původních indických kast a podkast. / The multitude of Roma groups is apparently a relic of Roma differentiation to Indian castes and subcastes." 
  62. ^ Milena, Hübshmanová (2003). "Roma – Sub Ethnic Groups". Rombase. Karl-Franzens-Universität Graz. "A basic, probably the most original and in its way all-inclusive autonymum is the ethnic name (ethnonymum) Rom." 
  63. ^ Milena, Hübshmanová (2003). "Roma – Sub Ethnic Groups". Rombase. Karl-Franzens-Universität Graz. "Although today, Roma living in various lands around the world use different "autonyma" for their societies (Sinti, Kale, Manouche, etc.), all acknowledge a common origin and basic identity with Roma. This is mainly so with reference to the Rom-Gadžo (non-Rom) dichotomy." 
  64. ^ a b c d e Jurová, Anna (2003). "From Leaving The Homeland to the First Assimilation Measures". In Vaščka, Michal; Jurásková, Martina; Nicholson, Tom. ČAČIPEN PAL O ROMA - A Global Report on Roma in Slovakia (Slovak Republic: Institute for Public Affairs): 17. Retrieved September 7, 2013. "the Sinti lived in German territory, the Manusha in France, the Romanitsel in England, the Kale in Spain and Portugal, and the Kaale in Finland." 
  65. ^ Milena, Hübshmanová (2003). "Roma – Sub Ethnic Groups". Rombase. Karl-Franzens-Universität Graz. "Kale is an autonymous term used by Roma in Finland." 
  66. ^ a b Milena, Hübshmanová (2003). "Roma – Sub Ethnic Groups". Rombase. Karl-Franzens-Universität Graz. "Spanish and Finnish Cale / Kale probably have nothing in common; their identical autonymum is a coincidence." 
  67. ^ a b Milena, Hübshmanová (2003). "Roma – Sub Ethnic Groups". Rombase. Karl-Franzens-Universität Graz. "The name Cale (pronounced something like "Calley") in itself designates the Roma of Spain. (...) this term, which means "black" (...)" 
  68. ^ Milena, Hübshmanová (2003). "Roma – Sub Ethnic Groups". Rombase. Karl-Franzens-Universität Graz. "The Spanish Cale use the term Cale for their language. The Cale language is para-Romani" 
  69. ^ "The Legend of the Romani Cymreig / Welsh Romani". Romani Cymru - Romany Wales Project. ValleyStream Media. 1980–2010. "The Kale, who became the Welsh Gypsies, probably came from Spain, through France and landed in Cornwall, eventually making their way to Wales." 
  70. ^ a b c Milena, Hübshmanová (2003). "Roma – Sub Ethnic Groups". Rombase. Karl-Franzens-Universität Graz. "A sub-group of Sinti are the Manouche. They live mainly in France. The etymology of the name Manouche is Indian. The term manouche means a human being (in Sanskrit, in neo-Indian languages and in Romani)." 
  71. ^ Jurová, Anna (2003). "From Leaving The Homeland to the First Assimilation Measures". In Vaščka, Michal; Jurásková, Martina; Nicholson, Tom. ČAČIPEN PAL O ROMA - A Global Report on Roma in Slovakia (Slovak Republic: Institute for Public Affairs): 17. Retrieved September 7, 2013. "The word “manush” is also included in all dialects of Romany. It means man, while “Manusha” equals people. This word has the same form and meaning in Sanskrit as well, and is almost identical in other Indian languages." 
  72. ^ a b Milena, Hübshmanová (2003). "Roma – Sub Ethnic Groups". Rombase. Karl-Franzens-Universität Graz. "The autonymum Sinti (pl.) (Sinto, m. sing.; Sintica, f. sing.) is used by members of an important Roma society, the greatest number of whom live in Germany. Hence, one of the exonymous terms for Sinti is "German Gypsies / Roma". Although the Sinti do not speak of themselves as Roma, they say they speak romanes." 
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Bibliography

(An extensive historical bibliography, "Gypsies in France, 1566–2011", is available at [5].)

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  • Leland, Charles G. The English Gipsies and Their Language. London: Trübner & Co., 1873.
  • Lemon, Alaina (2000). Between Two Fires: Gypsy Performance and Romani Memory from Pushkin to Post-Socialism. Durham: Duke University Press. ISBN 0-8223-2456-3
  • Luba Kalaydjieva; et al. (2001). "Patterns of inter- and intra-group genetic diversity in the Vlax Roma as revealed by Y chromosome and mitochondrial DNA lineages." European Journal of Human Genetics. 9, 97-104. [7]
  • Marushiakova, Elena; Popov, Vesselin. (2001) "Gypsies in the Ottoman Empire." Hatfield: University of Hertfordshire Press.
  • Matras, Yaron (2002). Romani: A Linguistic Introduction, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-512-02330-0.
  • McDowell, Bart (1970). "Gypsies, Wanderers of the World". National Geographic Society. ISBN 0-87044-088-8.
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  • Ringold, Dena. Roma & the Transition in Central & Eastern Europe: Trends & Challenges. Washington, DC, USA: World Bank, 2000. pp. 3, 5, & 7.
  • Roberts, Samuel. The Gypsies: Their Origin, Continuance, and Destination. London: Longman, 4th edition, 1842.
  • Silverman, Carol. "Persecution and Politicization: Roma (Gypsies) of Eastern Europe." Cultural Survival Quarterly, Summer 1995.
  • Simson, Walter. History of the Gipsies. London: S. Low, 1865.
  • Tebbutt, Susan (Ed., 1998) Sinti and Roma in German-speaking Society and Literature. Oxford: Berghahn.
  • Turner, Ralph L. (1926) The Position of Romani in Indo-Aryan. In: Journal of the Gypsy Lore Society 3rd Ser. 5/4, pp. 145–188.
  • Danish Broadcasting Corporation A page in Danish about Romani treatment in Denmark

External links[edit]

European countries Roma links
The concentration, Labor, Ghetto camps that the Roma were persecuted in during World War II
Non-governmental organisations
Museums and libraries