2011's estimates for Brazilian ciganos number about 800,000, or 0.41% of the country's population; there are concerns in Brazil about lack of public policy directed at this segment of the population. It is the second largest Romani population in the world, after the United States. The first Brazilian president (1956 – 1961) of direct non-Portuguese origin was Juscelino Kubitschek, 50% Czech Roma by his mother's blood lines. His term was marked by economic prosperity and political stability, being most known by the construction of Brazil's new capital, Brasília. Nevertheless, Brazil already had a president of Portuguese Kale ancestry before Juscelino's term, Washington Luís.