Although Serbia unofficially opened a kind of diplomatic agency in Bucharest in March 1836, officially, the first Serbian diplomatic agency in Bucharest was established in February 1863, with Kosta Magazinovic, as its first diplomatic agent. Reciprocally the first Romanian diplomatic agency in Belgrade was established on 12/24 March 1863 and the first diplomatic agent was Teodor Calimachi.
In 1879, as a consequence of the independent state status, the diplomatic agencies from Belgrade and Bucharest became legations and the diplomatic agents, resident ministers. Thus on 14/26 April 1879 the Romanian diplomatic agency in Belgrade became legation, having Lascăr Catargiu as its first resident minister. In the summer of 1879 Milan A. Petronijevic became Serbia's first resident minister in Romania. Later, after Romania and Serbia became kingdoms, in 1881 and 1882, their diplomatic representatives became "extraordinary envoy and plenipotentiary ministers". It was only in 1939 when the legations from Belgrade and Bucharest became embassies.
Nowadays Romania has an embassy in Belgrade, a general consulate in Vršac. Serbia has an embassy in Bucharest, a general consulate in Timișoara. There are around 22,500 people of Serbian descent living in Romania and around 74,000 Romanians living in Serbia.
Both countries are full members of the Southeast European Cooperation Process, of the Stability Pact for South Eastern Europe, of the Central European Initiative, of the Southeast European Cooperative Initiative and of the Organization of the Black Sea Economic Cooperation. Both countries are strongly against Kosovo independence. Romania has strongly supported Serbia's territorial integrity.
- Reprezentanțele diplomatice ale României, vol. I, 1859–1917, București, 1967, pp. 130–134.
- G.G. Florescu, "Agențiile diplomatice de la București și Belgrad (1863–1866)", în Romanoslavica XI/1965, pp. 126–131.
- A.A. Căpușan, Diplomați români de elită, vol. II, ediția a II-a, București, 2009, p. 13.
- Bogdan Catana, Relații diplomatice româno-sârbe, 1880–1913, Craiova, 2009, p. 74.
- Serbian Ministry of Foreign Affairs about relations with Romania
- Serbian embassy in Bucharest
- Serbian general consulate in Timișoara (in Romanian and Serbian only)
- Romanian-Serbian Relations (late 19th century – early 20th century)
- General Consulate of Romania in Vršac (Romanian)