Romanian heraldry

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The armiger in Romania is the government. It exercises this right with the mandatory advice of the National Committee of Heraldry, Genealogy and Sigillography (Romanian: Comisia Naţională de Heraldică, Genealogie şi Sigilografie), the sole authorized body to approve coats of arms. This committee is subordinated to the Romanian Academy. All the coats of arms of all the Romanian institutions must be approved by the National Committee of Heraldry, Genealogy and Sigillography. There are two big exceptions from this rule: coats of arms of the military (Romanian Armed Forces) are subject to the Ministry of National Defense Heraldric Committee, and the law enforcement institutions (police, firefighters, gendarmerie, etc.) are subject to the Ministry of Administration and Interior Heraldric Committee. The latter two committees may share members with the National Committee of Heraldry, Genealogy and Sigillography.

Coat of arms of Romanians[edit]

Coats of Romanian medieval voivodeships and states[edit]

Arms of the King of Vlachs from the Portuguese Livro do Armeiro-Mor. Unclear of what Kingdom could refer to, some argue that represents Second Bulgarian Empire

.

Arms of Basarab House
Arms of Mircea I of Wallachia from a personal seal, the lion was used by many rulers from House of Basarab

Coat of arms of Romanian states in Early Modern Period[edit]

Coat of arms of Romanian states in Modern Period[edit]

The United Principalities of Moldavia and Wallachia 1859 - 1866[edit]

After the election of Alexandru Ioan Cuza as Domnitor of Wallachia and Moldavia, the heraldic symbols of the two countries were united to form the coat of arms of the new state, called since 1862, Romania. The idea was not new, most of the Phanariotes used the united symbols in their personal coat of arms to express the fact that they ruled in both countries.

Until 1866, there was no official design of the coat of arms, although painter Carol Popp de Szathmary drew a few models.

Romania 1866-1878[edit]

After 10 May 1866 (when Carol I came to Romania), and the Constitution of 1 June 1866, the coat of arms was established, maintaining the idea used in the previous coat of arms. It was not changed until 1878, when Romania gained it's independence(in 1881 it was proclaimed and recognized as a kingdom).

Kingdom of Romania[edit]

1872-1921[edit]

In 1872 the coat of arms was changed again, this time being added the heraldic symbols for Oltenia and Black Sea's coast. After 1881, the last symbol will represent Dobrudja. Also, through use, the coat of arms aspect was changed a bit.

1922-1947[edit]

After World War I, Transylvania, Bessarabia, Banat, and Bukovina united with the Kingdom of Romania. As a result, the symbols representing the new territories were added to the coat of arms.

People's Republic of Romania[edit]

After 1948, the Communist authorities changed both the flag and the coat of arms. The coat of arms was rather an emblem, faithful to the Communist pattern: a landscape (depicting a rising sun, a tractor and an oil drill) surrounded by stocks of wheat tied together with a cloth in the colors of the national flag. Until 1966 there were three variants, the first being changed shortly after 1948 (the proclamation of the republic), and again changed in 1952 (a red star was added).

Socialist Republic of Romania[edit]

The final change of the communist emblem took place in 1966, when Romania ceased to be a People's Republic, and became a Socialist Republic, thus changing the reading of the cloth from R.P.R. to REPUBLICA SOCIALISTǍ ROMÂNIA.

Romania[edit]

1989-1992[edit]

Right after the fall of Nicolae Ceaușescu and the communist regime, the communist emblem was cut out of all flags, and removed from all official seals of the state. Some flags had a hole (a symbol of the revolution), some became pure blue-yellow-red, as later officially readopted. Instead the coat of arms, institutions' symbols bore just the name of the country: ROMANIA (or ROMÂNIA depending on the technology available for each institution).

1992-present[edit]

In 1992 the Parliament of Romania adopted the current coat of arms, by merging two proposed models, both of them inspired by the coat of arms of the Kingdom of Romania.

Coats of arms of Historic Romanian regions and provinces[edit]

Marmatia[edit]

Crisana[edit]

Banat Region[edit]

Ardeal[edit]

Coat of arms of Transylvania, under Michel the Brave


Wallachia Region[edit]

Coat of arms of Wallachia

Wallachia had two core provinces in the Middle Ages, Greater Wallachia/Muntenia, Lesser Walachia/Oltenia and a disputed province Dobrogea. This provinces wore mostly geographical ones not administrative ones, but from the end of the 15th century as a result of partitioning Banat of Severin, between Wallachia and Kingdom of Hungary, Oltenia was ruled by a ban, she was called Banat of Craiova, and used a coat of arms, as a result. Despotate of Dobruja is unknown to have a coat of arms or if was ruled by Romanians or Bulgarians. It had a mixed population, Bulgarian and Romanian, the last ones populated north and west part of the region, the fertile floodplains of Danube. The province fall under Wallachian rule in 1388 after the last ruler Ivanko/Ioankos was killed in an expedition of the Ottoman Empire and all the region faced Ottoman conquest. Lord Mircea the Elder of Wallachia, step in, defeated the Ottoman expedition of Grand Vizier Çandarlı Ali Pasha and secured the province from Turks. After death of Mircea the Elder, heavy border clashes emerged between Wallachia and Ottoman Empire for Dobruja and for Moesia,Michael I of Wallachia assumed a protector role for Bulgarians cause and for almost 2 years fought Ottoman Empire .Finally Michael I of Wallachia died in one of the battles and the province was annexed by Ottoman Empire in 1420 until 1878. The present coat of arms of Dobruja was created in 1872 to represent Sea Lands, the three southern counties of Bessarabia annexed by Russia from Romania in 1878. Romania receive Dobruja as a compensation and the coat of arms of the Sea Lands, represent Dobruja from that year. Also in 1872 Wallachia coat of arms in a new form started to represent only Muntenia in Romanian coat of arms till today, even if Muntenia had a different heraldic symbol in Middle Ages.

Moldova Region[edit]

Coat of arms of Moldavia

Moldova had in Middle Ages four provinces, three permanent provinces, The Upper Country, The Lower Country, Basarabia/Bugeac, and a disputed province, Pokuttya. Being split by Ottoman Empire, Austrian empire and Russian Empire, Moldova evolved. The Upper Country north-west part was occupied by Austrians, who named the land Bucovina. The Lower Country east part was conquered by Russian Empire and was merged with Basarabia/Bugeac forming Guberniya of Bessarabia. Remaining preserved the name Moldova. Transnistria was govern by Moldova Principality in the 17th century, but was never a part of it. Today the west part of Transnistria is in Republic of Moldavia while the rest is in Ukraine, also most of Bugeac, north of Bucovina and Pocutia is in Ukraine.

Coat of arms of local authorities[edit]

Coat of arms of counties in interwar period[edit]

Coat of arms of counties[edit]

Coat of arms of county seats[edit]

The main heraldic element that helps people to distinguish between a coat of arms of a county and the one of an urban entity (village, commune, city, town or municipality) is a mural crown on the top of the latter. The crown has an odd number of towers (one, three, five or seven), depending on the importance of the urban entity in the country or county.

Coat of arms of other central institutions[edit]

Parliament[edit]

The Parliament itself does not hold a coat of arms, as it does not function as a whole body. When a law is published in the Official Gazette of Romania, it is headed by the country coat of arms.

The two houses of Parliament issue documents that are not laws. These documents bear the heading the coat of arms of the issuing house.

The coat of arms of the Senate of Romania reproduces the national coat of arms surrounded by two olive branches tied together with a cloth in the colors of the national flag. On the yellow section it reads SENAT, and on top of the coat of arms it reads ROMÂNIA.

The coat of arms of the Chamber of Deputies of Romania reproduces the eagle of the national coat of arms surrounded by two olive branches tied together with a golden cloth. Beneath the eagle it reads CAMERA DEPUTAȚILOR, and beneath the olive branches it reads ROMÂNIA.

Ministries[edit]

Former coats of arms[edit]

Heraldry of the Ministry of Administration and Interior[edit]

In 2008, the Ministry of Administration and Interior decided to allow the units of the Inspectorates in its structure to use coats of arms. This decision applies to the County Inspectorates of Police, County Inspectorates of the Gendarmerie, County Inspectorates of the Border Police, County Inspectorates of the General Inspectorate for Emergency Situations, Units and educational institutions of the Gendarmerie, Schools of the Police, central units and institutions of the Ministry of Administration and Interior. Gradual introduction of these coats of arms began in 2010.

Prior to this decision, the Inspectorates in the Ministry were already permitted to use their own coats of arms at national and local level.

The coats of arms of all the institutions of the Ministry are administered by the Ministry's Heraldic Commission, and not by the National Heraldry, Sealography, and Genealogy.

Police heraldry[edit]

Gendarmerie heraldry[edit]

Other law enforcement authorities[edit]

Heraldry of the Romanian Armed Forces[edit]

Since the 18th century, the symbol of the Romanian Army is a golden crossed aquila, with red claws and beak, standing on zeus's thunderbolt. All the military coats of arms are created starting with this main element. The difference in rank of the military unit (central offices, battalion, regiment, etc.) is made by the shield shape.

The coats of arms of all the institutions of the Ministry are eleborated by the Ministry's Geraldric Commission, and not by the National Heraldry, Sealography, and Genealogy.

Secret services[edit]

References[edit]

Other Wikipedia pages

External links[edit]