Romanization of Georgian

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search

Romanization of Georgian is the representation of Georgian language texts from Georgian alphabet into the Latin alphabet.

Georgian national system of romanization[edit]

This system, adopted in February 2002 by the State Department of Geodesy and Cartography of Georgia and the Institute of Linguistics, Georgian Academy of Sciences, establishes a transliteration system of the modern Georgian alphabet in Latin characters.[1] The system had already been in use since 1998 on driving licenses.

ISO 9984[edit]

The international standard ISO 9984 establishes a system for the transliteration into Latin characters of modern Georgian characters.

Unofficial system of romanization[edit]

Despite its popularity this system sometimes leads to ambiguity. The system is mostly used in social networks, forums, chat rooms etc. The system is greatly influenced by the common case-sensitive Georgian alphabet keyboard layout (see Georgian keyboard) that ties each key to each letter in the alphabet (seven of them: T, W, R, S, J, Z, C with the help of the shift key to make another letter).

Transliteration table[edit]

Georgian letter IPA National system
(2002)
BGN/PCGN
(1981)
ISO 9984
(1996)
ALA-LC
(1997)
Unofficial system
/ɑ/ a a a a a
/b/ b b b b b
/ɡ/ g g g g g
/d/ d d d d d
/ɛ/ e e e e e
/v/ v v v v v
/z/ z z z z z
[2] /eɪ/ ey ē ē
/tʰ/ t t' t' t' T[3] or t
/i/ i i i i i
/kʼ/ k' k k k k
/l/ l l l l l
/m/ m m m m m
/n/ n n n n n
[2] /i/, /j/ j y y
/ɔ/ o o o o o
/pʼ/ p' p p p p
/ʒ/ zh zh ž ž J,[3] zh or j
/r/ r r r r r
/s/ s s s s s
/tʼ/ t' t t t t
[2] /uɪ/ w w
/u/ u u u u u
/pʰ/ p p' p' p' p or f
/kʰ/ k k' k' k' q or k
/ɣ/ gh gh ġ g, gh or R[3]
/qʼ/ q' q q q y[4]
/ʃ/ sh sh š š sh or S[3]
/tʃ(ʰ)/ ch ch' č' č' ch or C[3]
/ts(ʰ)/ ts ts' c' c' c or ts
/dz/ dz dz j ż dz or Z[3]
/tsʼ/ ts' ts c c w, c or ts
/tʃʼ/ ch' ch č č W,[3] ch or tch
/x/ kh kh x x x or kh (rarely)
[2] /q/, /qʰ/ q'
/dʒ/ j j ǰ j j
/h/ h h h h h
[2] /oː/ ō ō
[2] /f/ f f

In ALA-LC, the Mingrelian letters ჷ /ə/ and ჸ /ʔ/ are written ĕ and '.

See also[edit]

Notes and references[edit]

  1. ^ United Nations Group of Experts on Geographical Names (2007). Technical reference manual for the standardization of geographical names. United Nations. p. 64. ISBN 978-92-1-161500-5. Retrieved 7 January 2013. 
  2. ^ a b c d e f Archaic letters.
  3. ^ a b c d e f g These are influenced by aforementioned layout, and are preferred to avoid ambiguity, as an expressions: t, j, g, ch can mean two letters).
  4. ^ Initially, the use of y letter for ყ is most probably due to their resemblance to each other.