|This article does not cite any references or sources. (October 2011)|
|Metropolitana di Roma|
|Transit type||Rapid transit|
|Number of lines||2|
|Number of stations||52|
|System length||40.4 km (25 mi)|
|Track gauge||1,435 mm (4 ft 8 1⁄2 in) (standard gauge)|
The Rome Metro (Italian: Metropolitana di Roma) is an underground public transportation system that operates in Rome, Italy. The network opened in 1955, making it the oldest metro in Italy. There are currently two metro lines, Line A (orange) and Line B (blue). A third line, Line C (green) is currently under construction. Plans have also been announced for a fourth line, Line D. The current network, 40.4 km (25.1 mi) long, has an X shape with the lines intersecting at Termini Station, the main train station in Rome. Line B splits at the Bologna station in two branches.
Rome's local transport provider, ATAC, operates the Rome metro and several other rail services: the Roma-Lido line, the Roma-Giardinetti line, and the Roma-Nord line. The first of these, the Roma-Lido, which connects Rome to Ostia, on the sea, is effectively part of the metro network. It is run on similar lines and uses trains similar to those in service on the Metro. The Roma-Giardinetti line, although officially designated as a railway, is a narrow gauge tram line, while the Roma-Nord line is a suburban railway.
|Battistini ↔ Anagnina||1980||2000||18.4||27||164.2||41|
|Laurentina ↔ Rebibbia / Conca d'Oro||1955||2012||22||25||109.5||34/32|
Line A connects the north-west of the city with the south-east. It has 27 stations, with terminals at Battistini and Anagnina. It is identified by the colour orange.
Line A is actually the second line built in Rome. Approval was given for the construction of the city's second metro line in 1959. Work on Line A began in 1964 in the Tuscolana area, but suffered a series of delays caused by poor organisation. Above all, the originally planned method of construction, the cut and cover, posed serious problems for road traffic in south-east Rome. Work on the Metro was suspended and began again five years later, using bored tunnels, which partially resolved the traffic problems but caused numerous claims for compensation for vibrations caused by the machines. Work was also frequently interrupted by archaeological finds made during the excavations, particularly near Piazza della Repubblica. Line A entered service in February 1980. In the late 1990s it was extended from Ottaviano in Prati to Battistini to the west.
Despite its name, Line B was the first Metro line in Rome. Line B connects the north-east of the city with the south-west. It has 25 stations with terminals at Rebibbia, Conca d'Oro and Laurentina (just east of EUR). It is identified by the colour blue.
Line B was planned during the 1930s by the Fascist government to provide a rapid connection between the main train station, Termini, and a new district to the south-east of the city, E42, the planned location of the Universal Exposition (or Expo), which was to be held in Rome in 1942. The exposition never took place due to Italy's entry into the Second World War in 1940. When its construction was interrupted, some of the tunnels on the city-centre side of the Metro (between Termini and Piramide) had already been completed, and they were used as air raid shelters during the war.
Work restarted in 1948, together with the development of the site formerly designated for the Expo into a residential and business district under the name EUR. The metro was officially opened on 9 February 1955 by the then President of the Republic Luigi Einaudi. Regular services began the following day.
In 1990, Line B was extended from Termini to Rebibbia in the east of the city and the entire line was modernised. A new 4 km (2.5 mi) long branch (B1) was opened connecting Piazza Bologna with Conca d'Oro on 13 June 2012.
Other rail lines operated by ATAC
Construction of the Roma-Lido line began shortly after the end of the first world war and was completed some six years later in 1924. It began operation as a steam locomotion railway but electrification was completed less than a year later.
The line currently is operated as an integrated part of the metro system, but is entirely overland. It runs from the Roma Porta San Paolo station beside the Line B Piramide station and runs alongside the B line as far as EUR Magliana. It then continues separately on to the seaside district of Ostia. The line terminates beside the end of Via Cristoforo Colombo.
Officially termed a railway, the Roma-Giardinetti line is a narrow gauge tram which connects Laziali (a regional train station some 800 metres from Temini's main concourse) with Giardinetti to the east just past the Grande Raccordo Anulare (GRA), Rome's orbital motorway. The line originally ran to Frosinone some 137 km (85 mi) from Rome, but has been gradually reduced in length, most recently when the section from Giardinetti to Pantano, which will become a permanent part of the new C line metro, was taken out of service.
The Roma-Civitacastellana-Viterbo line (also called Roma Nord railway) began life as narrow gauge tram running from Piazza della Libertà in Rome to Civita Castellana. However the next stretch of the line, to Viterbo, was built as a railway and over the years the tram section was converted into a railway as well. A process which concluded with the moving of the Roman terminus from the street-level terminus at Piazza della Libertà across the river to a new underground station in Piazzale Flaminio, beside the subsequently constructed metro A line station, after the Second World War.
The line is currently operated in two modes: as an urban service from Piazzale Flaminio to Montebello, and as a suburban service from Piazzale Flaminio to Viterbo. The urban service operates with a frequency of about one train every 10 minutes, while the suburban service operates considerably less frequently, with less than a third of the trains making the full two and a half hour journey from Rome to Viterbo.
Currently under construction, the C line is intended to run from Grottarossa - north of the Vatican - to Pantano, previously the terminus of the Roma-Giardinetti light railway. Line C will be the first metro line to extend beyond the city limits; it will intersect with Line A at Ottaviano (beside the Vatican) and at San Giovanni, and with Line B at Colosseo. It will also intersect with the planned Line D at Piazza Venezia, creating a second metro hub in Rome.
Phase one of the C line, from piazza Lodi to Pantano, is the furthest from the city centre and includes 20 of the planned 30 stops. Phase two will extend the line to San Giovanni (where it will intersect with line A), with a further station in service. After the third phase, the line will be further extended with two stations, Amba Aradam/Ipponio and Fori Imperiali/Colosseo, located in the city centre.
Progress on the line has been slow with projected completion dates being repeatedly delayed. Rome is one of the oldest cities in the world and the construction of the metro system has encountered considerable obstacles owing to the frequent archaeological discoveries. While the excavation of the metro tunnels themselves can be undertaken beneath the probable location of most archaeological finds, the excavation of stairways and air vents which of necessity have to connect to the surface, pose difficulty.
The start of the construction of the line has been currently indefinitely postponed. The line would link the north eastern areas of Rome with EUR in the south west. The D line would be 22 km (14 mi) long and will feature 22 stations. It would intersect Line A at Spagna, Line B and the Roma-Lido railway at EUR Magliana, Line B1 at Jonio, Line C at Venezia.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Rome Metro.|
- Proposed Lines C & D
- Planned underground and suburban lines within 2020
- Planned underground and suburban lines on 1986 (archived version)
- Network map (real-distance)
- (Italian) Roma Metropolitane - Public transportations website
- (Italian) (English) The Public transport company of the city of Rome
- (English) Rome's entry on the urban transport site Urban Rail
- Martin G. Conde, ROME – IMPERIAL FORA. The Velia Hill: Metro ‘C’ Archaeological Surveys (2006-2007). S10 (b1, b2, b3). (2006-2007)