Romesh Chunder Dutt

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Romesh Chunder Dutt
Romesh Chunder Dutt.jpg
Romesh Chunder Dutt
Born (1848-08-13)13 August 1848
Kolkata, Bengal, British India
Died 30 November 1909(1909-11-30) (aged 61)
Baroda State, British India
Nationality Indian
Ethnicity Bengali Hindu
Occupation Historian, economist, linguist,
civil servant, politician
Religion Hinduism
Spouse(s) Manomohini Dutt (nee Bose)

Romesh Chunder Dutt, CIE (Bengali: রমেশচন্দ্র দত্ত) was an Indian civil servant, economic historian, writer, and translator of Ramayana and Mahabharata.

Formative years[edit]

Dutt was born into a distinguished Bengali Kayastha family well known for its members' literary and academic achievements. His parents were Thakamani and Isam Chunder Dutt. His father, Isam Dutt, was a Deputy Collector of Bengal, whom Romesh often accompanied on official duties. Romesh was educated in various Bengali District schools, then at Hare School, Calcutta, founded by the philanthropist, David Hare. After his father's untimely death in a boat accident in eastern Bengal, Romesh's uncle, Shoshee Chunder Dutt, an accomplished writer, became his guardian in 1861. Romesh wrote about his uncle, "He used to sit at night with us and our favorite study used to be pieces from the works of the English poets."[1] He was a relative of Toru Dutt, one of nineteenth century Bengal's most prominent poets.

He entered the University of Calcutta, Presidency College in 1864, then passed the First Arts examination in 1866, second in order of merit, and won a scholarship. While still a student in the B.A. class, without his family's permission, he and two friends, Behari Lal Gupta and Surendranath Banerjee, left for England in 1868.[2] Only one other Indian, Satyendra Nath Tagore, had ever before qualified for the Indian Civil Service. Romesh aimed to emulate Satyendranath Tagore's feat. For a long time, before and after 1853, the year the ICS examination was introduced in England, only British officers were appointed to covenanted posts.[3] The 1860s saw the first attempts, largely successful, on the part of the Indians, and especially members of the Bengali intelligentsia, to occupy the superior official posts in India, until then completely dominated by the British.

At University College London, Dutt continued to study British writers. He studied law at Middle Temple, London, was called to the bar, and qualified for the Indian Civil Service in the open examination in 1869,[4] taking third place.[5]

Civil service[edit]

Dutt entered the Indian Civil Service, or ICS, as an Assistant Magistrate of Alipur in 1871. His official career was a test and a proof of the liberal promise of equality to all her Majesty's subjects "irrespective of color and creed" in Queen Victoria's Proclamation of 1 November 1858,[6] which often contrasted with an implicit distrust of Indians, especially from those in positions of authority within the elite colonial administrative system.

R.c.dutt.jpg

A famine in Meherpur, District of Nadia in 1874 and another in Dakhin Shahbazpur (Bhola District) in 1876, followed by a disastrous cyclone, required emergency relief and economic recovery operations, which Dutt managed successfully. By December 1882, Dutt achieved his appointment to the executive branch of the Service, the first Indian to achieve executive rank. He served as administrator for Backerganj, Mymensingh, Burdwan, Donapur, and Midnapore. He became Burdwan's District Officer in 1893, Commissioner (offtg.) of Burdwan Division in 1894, and Divisional Commissioner for Orissa in 1895. Dutt was the first Indian to attain the rank of divisional commissioner.[5]

As Dutt's biographer commented, "In the absence of even the rudiments of representative institutions entry into the higher Civil Services presented the only opportunity to an Indian to influence the government of his own country."[7] He sat for a time in the Bengal Legislative Council. Although he won high praise for his administrative work, and the Companionship of the Indian Empire was awarded him in 1892,[5] Dutt did not always agree with official views on the causes of poverty in India or on the problems of administration. As his official recommendations and reports reflected, Dutt was especially troubled by the lack of assured tenants' rights or rights of transfer for those who tilled the land. He considered the land taxes to be ruinous, a block to savings, and the source of famines. He also felt the effectiveness of administrators was limited by the absence of representative channels for the concerns of the population being governed.

Dutt retired from the ICS as the Commissioner of Orissa in 1897 while only 49 years of age. Retirement freed him to enter public life and pursue writing. After retirement in 1898 he returned to England as a Lecturer in Indian History at University College, London where he completed his famous thesis on economic nationalism. He spent the next six years in London before returning once again to India as Dewan of Baroda State, a post he had been offered before he left for Britain. He was extremely popular in Baroda where the Maharaja, Maharaja Sayajirao Gaekwad III and his family members and all other staff used to call him the Babu Dewan, as a mark of personal respect. He also became a member of the Royal Commission on Indian Decentralisation in 1907.[8][9]

While still in office, he died in Baroda at the age of 61 on 30 November 1909.

Politics[edit]

He was active in moderate nationalist politics and was an active Congressman in that party's initial phase. He was president of the Indian National Congress in 1899.

Literature[edit]

Bengali culture[edit]

Dutt served as the first president of Bangiya Sahitya Parishad (Bengali: বঙ্গীয় সাহিত্য পরিষদ) in 1894, while Rabindranath Tagore and Navinchandra Sen were the vice-presidents of the society.[10] This was the society founded by L. Leotard and Kshetrapal Chakraborty in 1893 to cultivate Bengali literature. Enriched by contributions from Iswar Chandra Vidyasagar and others, its collections include over 150,000 books and important Bengali and Sanskrit manuscripts and cultural artefacts, including the only manuscript of Shrikrsnakirtana.

Dutt's The Literature of Bengal presented "a connected story of literary and intellectual progress in Bengal" over eight centuries, commencing with the early Sanskrit poetry of Jayadeva. It traced Chaitanya's religious reforms of the sixteenth century, Raghunatha Siromani's school of formal logic, and Ishwar Chandra Vidyasagar's brilliance, coming down to the intellectual progress of the nineteenth century.[11] This was presented by Thacker, Spink & Co. in Calcutta and Archibald Constable in London in 1895, but it had formed in Dutt's mind while he managed famine relief and economic recovery operations in Dakhin Shahbazpur and had appeared originally under the disguise of an assumed name in 1877. It was dedicated to his esteemed uncle, Rai Shashi Chandra Dutt Bahadur.

Dutt considered Ram Mohan Roy, the religious reformer of Bengal, Iswar Chandra Vidyasagar and Akshay Kumar Datta to be the founders of Bengali prose literature[12]

History[edit]

Increased poverty and lower wages were among the indirect products of colonial rule according to Dutt. Romesh Dutt traced a decline in standards of living to the nineteenth-century deindustrialisation of the subcontinent and the narrowing of sources of wealth which followed:

India in the eighteenth century was a great manufacturing as well as great agricultural country, and the products of the Indian loom supplied the markets of Asia and of Europe. It is, unfortunately, true that the East Indian Company and the British Parliament ... discouraged Indian manufactures in the early years of British rule in order to encourage the rising manufactures of England . . . millions of Indian artisans lost their earnings; the population of India lost one great source of their wealth.[13]

Radhakamal Mukerjee and Romesh Dutt directed attention to the deepening internal differentiation of Indian society appearing in the abrupt articulation of local economies with the world market, accelerated urban-rural polarisation, the division between intellectual and manual labour, and the toll of recurrent devastating famines.[14]

See also[edit]

Works[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ R. C. Dutt, Romesh Chunder Dutt (1968), Internet Archive, Million Books Project, p. 10.
  2. ^ Jnanendranath Gupta, Life and Works of Romesh Chandra Dutt, CIE, (London: J.M.Dent and Sons Ltd., 1911); while young Romesh came out unnoticed, Beharilal, possibly his closest friend ever, was chased all the way down to the Calcutta docks by his "poor" father, who could not, however, successfully persuade his son to return to the safety of his parental home. Later, in England, both the friends took the civil service examination successfully, becoming the 2nd and 3rd Indians to join the ICS. The third person in the group, Surendranath Banerjee, also cleared the test, but was incorrectly disqualified, as being over-age.
  3. ^ Nitish Sengupta, History of the Bengali-speaking People, UBS Publishers' Distributors Pvt. Ltd. (2002), p. 275. ISBN 81-7476-355-4.
  4. ^ "Selected Poetry of Romesh Chunder Dutt (1848–1909)", University of Toronto (2002) On line.
  5. ^ a b c S. K. Ratcliffe, A Note on the Late Romesh C. Dutt, in the Everyman's Library edition The Ramayana and the Mahabharata Condensed into English Verse (London: J.M. Dent and Sons and New York: E.P. Dutton, 1910), ix.
  6. ^ Queen Victoria's Proclamation, 1 November 1858
  7. ^ R. C. Dutt, Romesh Chunder Dutt (1968), Internet Archive, Million Books Project, p. 51.
  8. ^ Hansard, HC Deb 26 August 1907 vol 182 c149
  9. ^ "Selected Poetry of Romesh Chunder Dutt (1848–1909), Notes on Life and Works," Representative Poetry Online, University of Toronto (2002) On line.
  10. ^ "Vangiya Sahitya Parishad", Banglapedia
  11. ^ Romesh Chunder Dutt (1895). The Literature of Bengal. T. Spink & Co. (London); Constable (Calcutta). ; 3rd ed., Cultural Heritage of Bengal Calcutta, Punthi Pustak (1962).
  12. ^ Romesh Dutt, "Vidyasagar, Iswar Chandra", Encyclopædia Britannica 1911.
  13. ^ The Economic History of India Under Early British Rule, vol. 1, 2nd ed. (1906) pp. vi–vii, quoted by Prasannan Parthasarathi, "The Transition to a Colonial Economy: Weavers, Merchants and Kings in South India 1720–1800", Cambridge U. Press. On line, excerpt.
  14. ^ Manu Goswami, "Autonomy and Comparability: Notes on the Anticolonial and the Postcolonial", Boundary 2, Summer 2005; 32: 201 – 225 Duke University Journals.

External links[edit]