Ronald Reagan Washington National Airport

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"Washington National" redirects here. For the baseball team, see Washington Nationals.
Ronald Reagan Washington Airport
Logo of the Metropolitan Washington Airports Authority.svg
Washington national airport.jpg
IATA: DCAICAO: KDCAFAA LID: DCA
WMO: 72405
Summary
Airport type Public
Owner Metropolitan Washington Airports Authority
Operator Metropolitan Washington Airports Authority
Serves Washington Metropolitan Area
Location Arlington County, Virginia
Hub for US Airways[1]
Elevation AMSL 15 ft / 5 m
Coordinates 38°51′08″N 077°02′16″W / 38.85222°N 77.03778°W / 38.85222; -77.03778Coordinates: 38°51′08″N 077°02′16″W / 38.85222°N 77.03778°W / 38.85222; -77.03778
Website http://mwaa.com/reagan/reagan.htm
Maps
A map with a grid overlay showing the terminals runways and other structures of the airport.
FAA airport diagram
DCA is located in District of Columbia
DCA
DCA
Location within Virginia
Runways
Direction Length Surface
ft m
1/19 7,169 2,094 Asphalt
4/22 4,911 1,497 Asphalt
15/33 5,204 1,586 Asphalt
Source: Federal Aviation Administration[2]
Washington National Airport Terminal and South Hangar Line
Location Thomas Ave., Arlington, Virginia
Area 18.1 acres (7.3 ha)
Built 1941 (1941)
Architectural style Moderne
Governing body Federal
NRHP Reference # 97001111[3]
VLR # 000-0045
Significant dates
Added to NRHP September 12, 1997
Designated VLR June 27, 1995[4]

Ronald Reagan Washington National Airport (IATA: DCAICAO: KDCAFAA LID: DCA) is a major airport 3 miles (4.8 km) south of downtown Washington, D.C., in Arlington County, Virginia.[2] It is the nearest commercial airport to Washington, D.C and serves the Baltimore-Washington Metropolitan Area. For decades it was called Washington National Airport; it was renamed in 1998 to honor former U.S. President Ronald Reagan. The Metropolitan Washington Airports Authority (MWAA) operates the airport with close oversight by the federal government due to its proximity to the national capital.

Reagan National is a hub for US Airways, Reagan National's largest carrier. US Airways Shuttle has near-hourly air shuttle flights to New York LaGuardia Airport and Logan International Airport in Boston, and Delta Air Lines' Delta Shuttle has near-hourly air shuttle flights to LaGuardia.

Other than 40 slot exemptions, flights into and out of DCA are not allowed to exceed 1,250 statute miles in any direction nonstop, in an effort to send air traffic to the larger but more distant Washington Dulles International Airport. In 2010 the airport served about 18.1 million passengers.[5]

Reagan National only has United States immigration and customs facilities for corporate jet traffic; the only international flights allowed to land at DCA are those from airports with U.S. Customs and Border Protection preclearance facilities. Other international passenger flights must use Dulles or Baltimore/Washington International Airport.

History[edit]

Terminal building in July 1941, shortly after it opened. Photograph by Jack Delano.
Terminal building from the tarmac in July, 1941
The airport in 1970
A view of the airport from the Washington Metro

Hoover Field, near the present site of the Pentagon, was the first major terminal to be developed in the Capital area, opening its doors in 1926. The facility's single runway was crossed by a street; guards had to stop automobile traffic during takeoffs and landings. The following year Washington Airport, another privately operated field, began service next door.[6] In 1930 the Depression caused the two terminals to merge to form Washington–Hoover Airport. Bordered on the east by U.S. Route 1, with its accompanying high-tension electrical wires, and obstructed by a high smokestack on one approach and a dump nearby, the field was inadequate.

Although the need for a better airport was acknowledged in 37 studies conducted between 1926 and 1938,[6] there was a statutory prohibition against federal development of airports. When Congress lifted the prohibition in 1938, President Franklin D. Roosevelt made a recess appropriation of $15 million to build National Airport by reallocating funds from other purposes. Construction of Washington National Airport began in 1940–41 by a company led by John McShain. Congress challenged the legality of FDR's recess appropriation, but construction of the new airport continued.[7]

The airport is southwest of Washington, D.C. The western part of the airport was once within a large Virginia plantation, a remnant of which is now inside a historic site located near the airport's Metrorail station (see Abingdon (plantation) for history). The eastern part of the airport was constructed in the District of Columbia on and near mudflats that were within the tidal Potomac River near Gravelly Point, about 4 statute miles (6.4 km) from the United States Capitol, using landfill dredged from the Potomac.

The airport opened June 16, 1941.[6] In 1945 Congress passed a law that established the airport was legally within Virginia but under the jurisdiction of the federal government;[6] on July 1 of that year, the airport's weather station became the official point for Washington, D.C.'s weather observations and records by the National Weather Service.[8]

The April 1957 Official Airline Guide shows 316 weekday departures: 95 Eastern (plus six a week to/from South America), 77 American, 61 Capital, 23 National, 17 TWA, 10 United, 10 Delta, 6 Allegheny, 6 Braniff, 5 Piedmont, 3 Northeast and 3 Northwest. Jet flights began in April 1966 (727-200s were not allowed until 1970).[9][citation needed]

Service to the airport's Metro station began in 1977.[10]

The Washington National Airport Terminal and South Hangar Line were listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1997.[3][11]

Expansion[edit]

The runway layout has changed little, except for the 1956 closure of a fourth, east–west runway now used for taxiing and aircraft parking. The terminal building was supplemented by the North Terminal in 1958; the two were connected in 1961. A United Airlines holdroom complex was built in 1965, and a facility for American Airlines was completed in 1968. A commuter terminal was constructed in 1970.[6] In March 2012 the main 1/19 runway was lengthened 300 ft to add FAA compliant runway safety areas.[12]

Despite the expansions, efforts have been made to restrict the growth of the airport. The advent of jet aircraft as well as traffic growth led Congress to pass the Washington Airport Act of 1950, which resulted in the opening of Dulles Airport in 1962. Concerns about aviation noise led to noise restrictions even before jet service began in 1966. To reduce congestion and drive traffic to alternative airports, the FAA imposed landing slot and perimeter restrictions on National and four other high-density airports in 1969.[13]

Transfer of control and renaming[edit]

In 1984 Secretary of Transportation Elizabeth Dole appointed a commission to study transferring National and Dulles Airports from the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) to a local entity, which could use airport revenues to finance improvements.[7] The commission recommended that one multi-state agency administer both Dulles and National, over the alternative of having Virginia control Dulles and the District of Columbia control National.[7] In 1987 Congress, through legislation,[14] transferred control of the airport from the FAA to the new Metropolitan Washington Airports Authority with the Authority's decisions being subject to a Congressional review panel. The constitutionality of the review panel was later challenged in the Supreme Court and the Court has twice declared the oversight panel unconstitutional.[15] Even after this decision, however, Congress has continued to intervene in the management of the airports.[16]

On February 6, 1998 President Bill Clinton signed legislation[17] changing the airport's name from Washington National Airport to Ronald Reagan Washington National Airport, to honor the former president on his 87th birthday.[18] The legislation, passed by Congress in 1998, was drafted against the wishes of MWAA officials and political leaders in Northern Virginia and Washington, D.C.[19][20] Opponents of the renaming argued that a large federal office building had already been named for Reagan (the Ronald Reagan Building and International Trade Center) and that the airport was already named for a United States President (George Washington).[20] The bill expressly stated that it did not require the expenditure of any funds to accomplish the name change; however, regional, state and federal authorities were later required to change highway and transit signs at their own additional expense as new signs were made.[21][22]

Construction of current terminal buildings[edit]

Control tower and new terminal C

With the addition of more flights and limited space in the aging main terminal, the airport began an extensive renovation and expansion in the 1990s. Hangar 11 on the northern end of the airport was converted into The USAir Interim Terminal, designed by Joseph C. Giuliani, FAIA. Soon after an addition for Delta Air Lines was added in 1989 and was later converted to Authority offices. These projects allowed for the relocation of several gates in the main terminal until the new $450 million terminal complex became operational. On July 27, 1997, the new terminal complex, consisting of terminals B and C and two parking garages, opened. Argentine architect César Pelli designed the new terminals of the airport. The USAir Interim Terminal closed immediately after the opening and was converted back into a hangar. One pier of the main terminal (now Terminal A), which mainly housed American Airlines and Pan Am, was demolished; the other pier, originally designed for Northwest/TWA remains operational today as gates 1–9.

This Boeing 757-223, pictured on one of the runways in March 1995, was used on American Airlines Flight 77 which crashed into the Pentagon on September 11, 2001

Until 1999, Runways 1/19 and 4/22 were designated 18/36 and 3/21.

Operations[edit]

Tightened security and safety concerns[edit]

Many pilots[23] regard the "River Visual" approach as one of the more interesting in the United States
Line up for takeoff

Given Reagan National Airport's proximity to the city and high-security facilities, Reagan National has extra security precautions required by the Washington Air Defense Identification Zone that have been in place since the airport began operations.[24]

Prior to the September 11 attacks in 2001, the notable security measure was the southbound approach into the airport. Most of central Washington D.C. is prohibited airspace up to 18,000 feet (5,500 m). Due to this restriction, pilots approaching from the north follow the path of the Potomac River and turn just before landing. This approach is known as the River Visual. Similarly, flights taking off to the north are required to climb quickly and turn left to avoid the Washington Monument or flight over the White House.[24][25]

After the attacks, the airport was closed for several weeks, and security was tightened when it reopened. Increased security measures included:

  • A ban on aircraft with more than 156 seats (lifted in April 2002)[26]
  • A ban on the "River Visual" approach (lifted in April 2002)[26]
  • A requirement that, 30 minutes prior to landing or following takeoff, passengers were required to remain seated; if anyone stood up, the aircraft was to be diverted to Washington Dulles International Airport under military escort and the person standing would be detained and questioned by federal law enforcement officials (lifted in July 2005)[27]
  • A ban on general aviation (lifted in October 2005, subject to the restrictions below)[28]

On October 18, 2005, Ronald Reagan Washington National Airport was reopened to general aviation on a limited basis (48 operations per day) and under restrictions: passenger and crew manifests must be submitted to the Transportation Security Administration 24 hours in advance, and all planes must pass through one of 27 "gateway airports" where re-inspections of aircraft, passengers, and baggage take place. An armed security officer must be on board before departing a gateway airport.[29]

On March 23, 2011, the air traffic control supervisor on duty reportedly fell asleep during the night shift. Two aircraft on approach to the airport were unable to contact anyone in the control tower and landed unassisted.[30]

The "River Visual" approach[edit]

Reagan National Airport has noise restrictions that are some of the most restrictive in the country.[31] Pilots are required to use the "River Visual" approach (used for runway 19), which follows the Potomac River, and is only possible with a ceiling of at least 3,500 feet (1,100 m) and visibility of 3 statute miles (4.8 km) or more.[32] There are lights on the Key Bridge, Theodore Roosevelt Bridge, Arlington Memorial Bridge, and the George Mason Memorial Bridge to aid pilots following the river. Aircraft using the approach can be observed from various parks on the river's west bank. Passengers on the left side of an airplane can see the Capitol, the Washington Monument, the Jefferson Memorial, the World War II Memorial, Georgetown University, the National Mall, and the White House. Passengers on the right side can see CIA headquarters, Arlington National Cemetery, the Pentagon, and the United States Air Force Memorial.

When visibility and ceiling are below minimums for the River Visual and southerly winds restrict northbound runway operations, aircraft fly an offset localizer or GPS approach to Runway 19, again involving a final turn moments before touchdown, or they fly a VOR or GPS approach to either of the shorter Runways 15 and 22, which are marginally long enough for airline jets.[citation needed]

Perimeter restrictions[edit]

Reagan National Airport is subject to a federally mandated perimeter limitation and may not accommodate nonstop flights to or from cities beyond 1,250-statute-mile (2,010 km), with limited exceptions. The U.S. Department of Transportation has issued "beyond-perimeter slot exemptions" which allow specified carriers to operate 20 daily round-trip flights to cities outside the perimeter. The current exemptions are:

Airlines Destinations
Alaska Airlines 8 slots operating as 2x Seattle, 1x Los Angeles, 1x Portland, OR
American Airlines 4 slots operating as 2x Los Angeles
Delta Air Lines 4 slots operating as 2x Salt Lake City
Frontier Airlines 6 slots operating as 3x Denver
JetBlue Airways 2 slots operating as 1x San Juan
Southwest Airlines 2 slots operating as 1x Austin
United Airlines 4 slots operating as 1x Denver, 1x San Francisco
US Airways 8 slots operating as 3x Phoenix, 1x Las Vegas
Virgin America 2 slots operating as 1x San Francisco

In 1999, Senator John McCain of Arizona introduced legislation to remove the 1,250-statute-mile (2,010 km) restriction,[33] infuriating some local residents concerned about noise and traffic from increased service by larger, long-haul aircraft. McCain argued that the move would improve competition, while some congressional staffers thought he was supporting the interests of Phoenix, Arizona-based America West Airlines (AWA).[34] In the end the restriction was not lifted, but the FAA was permitted to add additional exemptions, which went not to AWA but to competitor Alaska Airlines. America West (now US Airways, which is itself now a part of American Airlines Group) later gained additional exemptions for non-stop flights to Phoenix in 2004.

Originally the airport had no perimeter rule; from 1954 to 1960, airlines scheduled nonstop flights to California on piston-engine airliners.[35][36] Scheduled jet airliners were not allowed at all until April 1966; the perimeter rule arrived with them, and apparently applied only to them. The initial perimeter was 650 statute miles (1,050 km), except that airports under 1,000 statute miles (1,600 km) that had scheduled nonstops in 1965 were allowed to retain them. This meant Minneapolis–Saint Paul was allowed nonstop jet flights but Kansas City, New Orleans, and Fort Lauderdale were not. In 1981 the perimeter became a flat 1,000 statute miles (1,600 km); it expanded to 1,250 statute miles (2,010 km), enough to encompass Houston, in 1986–87.

In May 2012, the U.S. Department of Transportation granted new perimeter exemptions for: Alaska Airlines for service to Portland, Ore.; JetBlue Airways for San Juan, Puerto Rico; Southwest Airlines for Austin, Texas; and Virgin America for San Francisco. Additionally, "the new law also allowed four large carriers already serving Reagan National to exchange a total of eight slots for flights within the perimeter for an equal number of slot exemptions to permit nonstop flights beyond the perimeter. As a result, American Airlines traded one round-trip flight to Dallas–Fort Worth for a flight to Los Angeles, Delta Air Lines traded one round-trip flight to New York–LaGuardia Airport for a flight to Salt Lake City, United Airlines traded one round-trip flight to Chicago–O'Hare for a flight to San Francisco, and US Airways traded one round-trip flight to Dallas–Fort Worth for a flight to San Diego."[37]

A view of the airport from the north, showing terminals B and C, taken from Gravelly Point, a popular park for watching planes take off or land
This view of the airport from the north, showing terminals B and C, was taken from Gravelly Point, a popular park for watching planes take off or land

Terminals[edit]

The main hall connecting Terminals B and C

Terminal A[edit]

Terminal A opened in 1941 and was expanded in 1955 to accommodate more passengers and airlines. The exterior of this terminal has had its original architecture restored, with the airside facade restored in 2004 and the landside facade restored in 2008.[38] The terminal is currently undergoing a $37 million renovation that will modernize the airport’s look by bringing in brighter lighting, more windows and new flooring. The project was completed in 2014 along with a new expanded TSA security checkpoint.[39] In 2014, additional renovations were announced including new upgraded concessions and further structural improvements, the project is expected to be completed by 2015.[40]

Terminals B and C[edit]

Terminals B and C are the airport's newest and largest terminals, the terminals opened in 1997 and replaced a collection of airline-specific terminals built during the 1960s. The new terminals were designed by architect Cesar Pelli and house 35 gates. Both terminals share the same structure and are directly connected to the WMATA airport station via indoor pedestrian bridges.

Airlines and destinations[edit]

Passenger service[edit]

Destination map
Airlines Destinations Terminal
Air Canada Express Montréal–Trudeau, Ottawa, Toronto–Pearson A
AirTran Airways operated by Southwest Airlines Atlanta, Milwaukee (all service ends November 1, 2014) A
Alaska Airlines Los Angeles, Portland (OR), Seattle/Tacoma B (Pier 1)
American Airlines Chicago–O'Hare, Dallas/Fort Worth, Los Angeles, Miami, New York-JFK B (Pier 2)
American Eagle Chicago–O'Hare, New York–JFK, St. Louis B (Pier 2)
Delta Air Lines Atlanta, Detroit, Minneapolis/St. Paul, Salt Lake City B (Pier 1)
Delta Connection Cincinnati, Detroit, Lexington (ends December 19, 2014), Madison, Memphis, Minneapolis/St. Paul, New York–JFK, Omaha B (Pier 1)
Delta Shuttle New York–LaGuardia B (Pier 1)
Frontier Airlines Denver A
JetBlue Airways Boston, Charleston (SC), Fort Lauderdale, Hartford, Jacksonville (FL) (begins December 18, 2014),[41] Nassau, Orlando, San Juan, Tampa
Seasonal: Fort Myers (begins December 18, 2014),[42] West Palm Beach (begins December 18, 2014)[42]
A1
Southwest Airlines Akron/Canton (begins November 2, 2014), Atlanta, Austin, Chicago-Midway, Dallas–Love (begins October 13, 2014), Fort Myers, Houston–Hobby, Indianapolis (begins November 2, 2014), Kansas City, Milwaukee, Nashville, New Orleans, St. Louis, Tampa (begins September 30, 2014) A
Sun Country Airlines Lansing, Minneapolis/St. Paul A
United Airlines Chicago–O'Hare, Denver, Houston–Intercontinental, San Francisco B (Pier 1)
United Express Chicago–O'Hare, Cleveland, Newark B (Pier 1)
US Airways Charlotte, Fort Lauderdale, Las Vegas, Orlando, Philadelphia, Phoenix, Tampa
Seasonal: Bermuda, Fort Myers, Hartford, West Palm Beach
B (Pier 2), C
US Airways Express Akron/Canton, Albany (NY), Bangor, Birmingham (AL), Buffalo, Burlington (VT), Charleston (SC), Charleston (WV), Charlotte, Chattanooga, Cincinnati, Columbia (SC), Columbus (OH), Dayton, Detroit (resumes November 6, 2014),[43] Des Moines, Fort Myers, Greensboro, Greenville/Spartanburg, Hartford, Huntsville, Indianapolis, Jackson (MS), Jacksonville (FL), Kansas City, Knoxville, Louisville, Manchester (NH), Memphis, Nashville, New Orleans, Norfolk, Orlando, Philadelphia, Pittsburgh, Portland (ME), Providence, Raleigh/Durham, Rochester (NY), Sarasota, Syracuse, Toronto–Pearson, West Palm Beach, White Plains
Seasonal: Asheville, Fort Lauderdale, Halifax, Key West, Martha's Vineyard, Nantucket, Tampa
B (Pier 2), C
US Airways Shuttle Boston, New York–LaGuardia C
Virgin America Dallas–Love (begins October 13, 2014), San Francisco B (Pier 2)
Notes
  • ^1 Moving to Terminal B, September 3, 2014[44]

Traffic and statistics[edit]

In 2013, Reagan National Airport handled 20,415,085 passengers, which was a new record.[45] US Airways has the largest share of traffic at the airport, accounting for 19.97% as of June 2012. Delta Air Lines, the second largest, accounts for 13% of traffic, with American Airlines in third at 12.71%.[46]

Busiest Domestic Routes from DCA (June 2013 – May 2014)[46]
Rank Airport Passengers Carriers
1 Atlanta, Georgia 802,000 AirTran, Delta
2 Chicago (O'Hare), Illinois 696,000 American, United
3 Boston, Massachusetts 689,000 JetBlue, US Airways
4 New York (LaGuardia), New York 421,000 Delta, US Airways
5 Miami, Florida 405,000 American
6 Orlando, Florida 403,000 AirTran, JetBlue, US Airways
7 Dallas/Fort Worth, Texas 394,000 American
8 Charlotte, North Carolina 296,000 US Airways
9 Minneapolis/St. Paul, Minnesota 290,000 Delta, Sun Country, US Airways
10 Detroit, Michigan 276,000 Delta, US Airways
Largest Airlines at DCA (April 2014)[47]
Rank Airline Passengers
1 American Airlines1 1,066,989
2 Delta Air Lines 287,271
3 United Airlines 168,963
4 Southwest Airlines2 107,284
5 JetBlue 103,189
6 Alaska Airlines 35,339
7 Frontier Airlines 25,620
8 Air Canada 19,734
9 Sun Country Airlines 10,233
10 Virgin America 7,555

Notes

Traffic by calendar year[5]
Passengers Change from previous year Aircraft operations Cargo
(pounds)[48]
2002 12,881,601 Decrease2.89% 215,691 12,925,992
2003 14,223,123 Increase10.41% 250,802 12,732,373
2004 15,944,542 Increase12.10% 268,576 11,182,022
2005 17,847,884 Increase11.94% 276,056 8,751,702
2006 18,550,785 Increase3.94% 276,419 7,963,107
2007 18,679,343 Increase0.69% 275,433 5,544,936
2008 18,028,287 Decrease3.49% 277,298 7,321,546
2009 17,577,359 Decrease2.50% 272,146 12,811,229
2010 18,118,713 Increase3.08% 271,097 14,506,056
2011 18,823,094 Increase3.89% 281,770 13,802,787
2012 19,655,440 Increase4.42% 288,176 13,138,554
2013[45] 20,415,085 Increase3.90% 292,648 4,193,190

Ground transportation[edit]

Rail[edit]

The Ronand Reagan Washington National Airport station on the Washington Metro, serving the Yellow and Blue lines, is located on an elevated outdoor platform station adjacent to Terminals B and C. An elevated pedestrian walkway connects the station directly to the concourse levels of Terminals B and C. An underground pedestrian walkway and shuttle services provide access to Terminal A.

Bus[edit]

Metrobus provides service on weekend mornings before the Metro station opens or during any disruptions to regular Metro service.

Taxi[edit]

Taxicab services are available at the Ground Transportation area of all terminal buildings. Taxicabs that serve the airport are required to be licensed and are regulated by either Washington, D.C. or Virginia local governments.

Airport Shuttle[edit]

Shared-ride shuttle services are available from several providers including SuperShuttle and Supreme Shuttle.

Roads[edit]

Ronald Reagan Washington National Airport is located on the George Washington Memorial Parkway, and connected to U.S. Route 1 by the Airport Viaduct (State Route 233). Interstate 395 is just north of DCA, and is accessible by the G.W. Parkway and U.S. Route 1.[49] Airport-operated parking garage facilities as well as economy lots are available adjacent to or near the various airport terminals.

Bicycle[edit]

The airport is accessible by bicycle (and foot) from the Mt. Vernon Trail as well as the sidewalk along the airport access road leading from [Jefferson Davis Highway]. A total of 48 bike parking spots are available across six separate bike racks.[50]

Abingdon Plantation Historical Site[edit]

A part of the airport is located on the former site of the 18th and 19th century Abingdon plantation, which was associated with the prominent Alexander, Custis, Stuart, and Hunter families.[51] In 1998, MWAA opened a historical display around the restored remnants of two Abingdon buildings and placed artifacts collected from the site in an exhibit hall in Terminal A.[52][53] The Abingdon site is located on a knoll between parking Garage A and Garage B/C, near the south end of the Ronald Reagan Washington National Airport Metrorail station.[52][54][55][56][discuss]

The historic Terminal and South Hanger Line was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1975.[57]

Incidents and accidents[edit]

Air Florida Flight 90 wreckage being removed from the Potomac River (January 19, 1982)

Eastern Air Lines Flight 537[edit]

On November 1, 1949, a mid-air collision between an Eastern Air Lines passenger aircraft and a P-38 Lightning military plane took the lives of 55 passengers. The sole survivor was the Bolivian ace pilot of the fighter plane, Erick Rios Bridoux.[58]

Bridoux's plane had taken off from National just 10 minutes earlier and was in contact with the tower during a brief test flight. The Eastern Air Lines DC-4 was on approach from the south when the nimble and much faster P-38 banked and plunged right into the passenger plane. Both aircraft dropped into the Potomac River.

Air Florida Flight 90[edit]

Main article: Air Florida Flight 90

On the afternoon of January 13, 1982,[59] following a period of exceptionally cold weather and a morning of blizzard conditions, Air Florida Flight 90 crashed after waiting forty-nine minutes on a taxiway and taking off with ice and snow on the wings. The Boeing 737 aircraft failed to gain altitude. Less than 1 statute mile (1.6 km) from the end of the runway, the airplane struck the 14th Street Bridge complex, shearing the tops off vehicles stuck in traffic before plunging through the 1-inch-thick (25 mm) ice covering the Potomac River. Rescue responses were greatly hampered by the weather and traffic. Due to heroic action on the part of motorists, a United States Park Service police helicopter crew, and one of the plane's passengers who later perished, five occupants of the downed plane survived. The other 74 people who had been aboard died, as well as four occupants of vehicles on the bridge. President Reagan cited motorist Lenny Skutnik in his State of the Union Address a few weeks later.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ US Airways Declares National Airport a Hub at Senate Hearing. TheStreet (2013-03-20). Retrieved on 2013-08-16.
  2. ^ a b FAA Airport Master Record for DCA (Form 5010 PDF)
  3. ^ a b "National Register Information System". National Register of Historic Places. National Park Service. 2010-07-09. 
  4. ^ "Virginia Landmarks Register". Virginia Department of Historic Resources. Retrieved 05-12-2013. 
  5. ^ a b "Ronald Reagan Washington National Airport (DCA) Air Traffic Statistics". Metropolitan Washington Airports Authority. 2011. Retrieved June 7, 2011. 
  6. ^ a b c d e "History". Metropolitan Washington Airports Authority. 2011. Retrieved 2011-03-24. 
  7. ^ a b c Feaver, Douglas B. (July 16, 1997). "Years of Deal-Making Enabled Change From 'Disgrace' to Showplace". Washington Post. Retrieved 2009-12-20. 
  8. ^ http://threadex.rcc-acis.org
  9. ^ Aviation Daily 26 Feb 1971 p314
  10. ^ "History of Ronald Reagan Washington National Airport". Metropolitan Washington Airports Authority. 2011. Retrieved 2011-03-24. 
  11. ^ Carol Hooper, Elizabeth Lampl, and Judith Robinson (April 1994). "National Register of Historic Places Inventory/Nomination: Washington National Airport Terminal and South Hangar Line".  and Accompanying photo
  12. ^ Runway Projects. Metwashairports.com. Retrieved on 2013-08-16.
  13. ^ "Code of Federal Regulations, Volume 2, Part 93, Subpart K". U.S. Government Printing Office. 24 October 1970. Retrieved 25 July 2014. 
  14. ^ "Metropolitan Washington Airports Act of 1986", Public Law No. 99-500, Section 6001
  15. ^ METROPOLITAN WASHINGTON AIRPORTS AUTHORITY v. CITIZENS FOR THE ABATEMENT OF AIRCRAFT NOISE, INC., 501 U.S. 252 (1991).
  16. ^ This can be seen by Congress's continued use of legislation to limit the number of flights at National Airport, as well as expanding the perimeter and number of exemptions for flights outside that limit.
  17. ^ "Public Law No. 105-154, "To rename the Washington National Airport located in the District of Columbia and Virginia as the `Ronald Reagan National Airport'"". January 27, 1998. 
  18. ^ "It's Reagan Airport now". McCook Daily Gazette (Archived by Google News Archive). Associated Press. February 7, 1998. 
  19. ^ Alvarez, Lizette (February 4, 1998). "G.O.P. Tries to Wrap Up an Airport for Reagan". The New York Times. 
  20. ^ a b "Congress Votes for Reagan Airport". Washington Post. February 5, 1998. p. A01. Retrieved 2009-12-20. 
  21. ^ "Hansen in road sign rage over lack of Reagan airport markers". Deseret News. June 7, 1998. 
  22. ^ Zachary M. Shrag (2006). The Great Society Subway: A History of the Washington Metro. JHU Press. p. 258. 
  23. ^ "Why you should NEVER fly into Washington National Airport". JetHead's Blog. 2011-12-24. Retrieved 2012-05-23. 
  24. ^ a b "Security-Restricted Airspace". Federal Aviation Administration. December 13, 2005. Retrieved July 15, 2009. 
  25. ^ "eCFR-Code of Federal Regulations". U.S. Government Printing Office. Retrieved 2014-05-05. 
  26. ^ a b "Secretary Mineta Announces Beginning of Security Screening Program; BWI First to Deploy Federal Screening Personnel". Transportation Security Administration. 2002-04-24. Retrieved 2007-03-26. 
  27. ^ "TSA Suspends 30-Minute Rule for Reagan National Airport". Transportation Security Administration. 2005-07-14. Retrieved 2007-03-26. 
  28. ^ "TSA Opens Ronald Reagan Washington Airport to General Aviation Operations". Transportation Security Administration. 2005-10-18. Retrieved 2007-03-26. 
  29. ^ "Restoration of General Aviation at Washington Reagan National Airport". Transportation Security Administration. Retrieved 2011-03-24. 
  30. ^ ""Uncontrolled airport" situation at Washington National". eTurboNews. Retrieved 25 March 2011. 
  31. ^ "Aircraft Noise Procedures and Guidelines at Reagan National Airport". Metropolitan Washington Airports Authority. Retrieved February 21, 2010. 
  32. ^ Garrison, Kevin (1993). Congested Airspace: A Pilot's Guide (Command Decisions Ser.). Riverside, Conn: Belvoir Publications. p. 157. ISBN 1-879620-13-8. 
  33. ^ Sipress, Alan (November 11, 1999). "More Flights Unlikely Now At National". The Washington Post. p. B1. 
  34. ^ Sipress, Alan (March 5, 1999). "3 Senators Gain From Airport Bill". The Washington Post (SunSentinel.com). 
  35. ^ http://www.timetableimages.com/ttimages/complete/aa58/aa58-03.jpg
  36. ^ http://www.timetableimages.com/ttimages/complete/tw59/tw59-04.jpg
  37. ^ DOT Selects Four Cities to Receive New Nonstop Service to Ronald Reagan Washington National Airport | Department of Transportation. Dot.gov (2012-05-14). Retrieved on 2013-08-16.
  38. ^ "History of Ronald Reagan Washington National Airport". Metropolitan Washington Airports Authority. Retrieved August 29, 2013. 
  39. ^ Aratani, Lori (August 27, 2013). "Reagan National’s Terminal A is Getting $37M Facelift". The Washington Post. Retrieved August 29, 2013. 
  40. ^ MWAA Terminal A Renovation http://www.metwashairports.com/5983.htm
  41. ^ http://finance.yahoo.com/news/jetblue-add-even-more-flights-100000320.html;_ylt=AwrBEiF8qfNTvyEAiDPQtDMD
  42. ^ a b http://finance.yahoo.com/news/jetblue-continues-expand-ronald-reagan-140000846.html
  43. ^ http://www.lansingstatejournal.com/article/20140723/LIFE/307230057/1079/LIFE
  44. ^ New Airline Locations Announced for Reagan National. Mwaa.com (2014-03-19). Retrieved on 2014-04-28.
  45. ^ a b "Air Traffic Statistics: December 2013". Metropolitan Washington Airports Authority. Retrieved 20 February 2014. 
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  56. ^ Coordinates of Abingdon Plantation historical site: 38°51′4.8″N 77°2′40.2″W / 38.851333°N 77.044500°W / 38.851333; -77.044500 (Abingdon Plantation historical site)
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