|40th President of the United States|
January 20, 1981 – January 20, 1989
|Vice President||George H. W. Bush|
|Preceded by||Jimmy Carter|
|Succeeded by||George H. W. Bush|
|33rd Governor of California|
January 2, 1967 – January 6, 1975
|Preceded by||Pat Brown|
|Succeeded by||Jerry Brown|
|Born||Ronald Wilson Reagan
February 6, 1911
Tampico, Illinois, U.S.
|Died||June 5, 2004
Bel Air, Los Angeles, California, U.S.
|Resting place||Ronald Reagan Presidential Library, Simi Valley, California, U.S.
|Political party||Republican (1962 and after)|
|Democratic (before 1962)|
|Relations||Neil Reagan (brother)|
Nelle Wilson Reagan
|Alma mater||Eureka College|
|Religion||Presbyterianism (baptized as Disciples of Christ)|
|Allegiance||United States of America|
|Service/branch||U.S. Army Air Forces|
|Years of service||1937–45|
|Unit||18th Army Air Forces Base Unit|
Ronald Wilson Reagan (/ /; February 6, 1911 – June 5, 2004) was an American actor and politician. He was the 40th President of the United States (1981–89), and served as the 33rd Governor of California (1967–75) before his presidency.
Born and raised in small towns in Illinois, Reagan graduated from Eureka College and then worked as a radio broadcaster. He moved to Hollywood in 1937, where he began a career as an actor, first in films and later in television. Reagan served as President of the Screen Actors Guild and later as a spokesman for General Electric (G.E.); his start in politics occurred during his work for G.E. Originally, he was a member of the Democratic Party, but due to the parties' shifting platforms during the 1950s, he switched to the Republican Party in 1962.
After delivering a rousing speech in support of Barry Goldwater's presidential candidacy in 1964, he was persuaded to seek the California governorship, winning two years later and again in 1970. He was defeated in his run for the Republican presidential nomination in 1968 and in 1976, but won both the nomination and general election in 1980, defeating incumbent Jimmy Carter.
As president, Reagan implemented sweeping new political and economic initiatives. His supply-side economic policies, dubbed "Reaganomics", advocated reducing tax rates to spur economic growth, controlling the money supply to reduce inflation, deregulation of the economy, and reducing government spending. In his first term he survived an assassination attempt, took a hard line against labor unions, escalated the War on Drugs, and ordered an invasion of Grenada to reverse a Communist coup.
He was re-elected in a landslide in 1984, proclaiming that it was "Morning in America". His second term was primarily marked by foreign matters, such as the ending of the Cold War, the 1986 bombing of Libya, and the revelation of the Iran–Contra affair. Publicly describing the Soviet Union as an "evil empire", he supported anti-communist movements worldwide and spent his first term forgoing the strategy of détente in favor of rollback by escalating an arms race with the USSR. Reagan subsequently negotiated with Soviet General Secretary Mikhail Gorbachev, culminating in the INF Treaty and the decrease of both countries' nuclear arsenals. The fall of the Berlin Wall and the dissolution of the Soviet Union occurred soon afterward.
Reagan left office in 1989. In 1994, the former president disclosed that he had been diagnosed with Alzheimer's disease earlier in the year; he died ten years later at the age of 93. A conservative icon, he ranks highly in public opinion polls of U.S. Presidents and is credited for generating an ideological renaissance on the American political right.
- 1 Early life
- 2 Entertainment career
- 3 Marriages and children
- 4 Early political career
- 5 Governor of California, 1967–75
- 6 1976 presidential campaign
- 7 1980 presidential campaign
- 8 Presidency, 1981–89
- 8.1 First term, 1981–85
- 8.2 Second term, 1985–89
- 8.3 Health
- 8.4 Judiciary
- 9 Post-presidential years, 1989–2004
- 10 Death
- 11 Legacy
- 12 See also
- 13 Citations
- 14 References
- 15 Further reading
- 16 External links
Ronald Wilson Reagan was born in an apartment on the second floor of a commercial building in Tampico, Illinois on February 6, 1911, the son of Nelle Clyde (Wilson) and John Edward "Jack" Reagan. Reagan's father was a salesman and a storyteller, the grandson of Irish Catholic immigrants from County Tipperary, while his mother was of half Scots and half English descent (Reagan's maternal grandmother was born in Surrey, England). Reagan had one older brother, Neil (1908–96), who became an advertising executive. As a boy, Reagan's father nicknamed his son "Dutch", due to his "fat little Dutchman"-like appearance, and his "Dutchboy" haircut; the nickname stuck with him throughout his youth. Reagan's family briefly lived in several towns and cities in Illinois, including Monmouth, Galesburg, and Chicago, in 1919, they returned to Tampico and lived above the H.C. Pitney Variety Store until finally settling in Dixon. After his election as president, residing in the upstairs White House private quarters, Reagan would quip that he was "living above the store again".
According to Paul Kengor, author of God and Ronald Reagan, Reagan had a particularly strong faith in the goodness of people, which stemmed from the optimistic faith of his mother, Nelle, and the Disciples of Christ faith, which he was baptized into in 1922. For the time, Reagan was unusual in his opposition to racial discrimination, and recalled a time in Dixon when the local inn would not allow black people to stay there. Reagan brought them back to his house, where his mother invited them to stay the night and have breakfast the next morning.
After the closure of the Pitney Store in late 1920, the Reagans moved to Dixon; the midwestern "small universe" had a lasting impression on Reagan. He attended Dixon High School, where he developed interests in acting, sports, and storytelling. His first job was as a lifeguard at the Rock River in Lowell Park, near Dixon, in 1927. Over a six-year period, Reagan reportedly performed 77 rescues as a lifeguard, notching a mark on a wooden log for each one. Reagan attended Eureka College, where he became a member of the Tau Kappa Epsilon fraternity, a cheerleader, and majored in economics and sociology. He developed a reputation as a jack of all trades, excelling in campus politics, sports and theater. He was a member of the football team, captain of the swim team and was elected student body president. As student president, Reagan led a student revolt against the college president after he tried to cut back the faculty.
Radio and film
After graduating from Eureka in 1932, Reagan drove himself to Iowa, where he auditioned for a job at many small-town radio stations. The University of Iowa hired him to broadcast home football games for the Hawkeyes. He was paid $10 per game. Soon after, a staff announcer's job opened at radio station WOC in Davenport, and Reagan was hired, now earning $100 per month. Aided by his persuasive voice, he moved to WHO radio in Des Moines as an announcer for Chicago Cubs baseball games. His specialty was creating play-by-play accounts of games using as his source only basic descriptions that the station received by wire as the games were in progress.
While traveling with the Cubs in California, Reagan took a screen test in 1937 that led to a seven-year contract with Warner Brothers studios. He spent the first few years of his Hollywood career in the "B film" unit, where, Reagan joked, the producers "didn't want them good, they wanted them Thursday". While sometimes overshadowed by other actors, Reagan's screen performances did receive many good reviews.
His first screen credit was the starring role in the 1937 movie Love Is on the Air, and by the end of 1939 he had already appeared in 19 films, including Dark Victory with Bette Davis and Humphrey Bogart. Before the film Santa Fe Trail with Errol Flynn in 1940, he played the role of George "The Gipper" Gipp in the film Knute Rockne, All American; from it, he acquired the lifelong nickname "the Gipper". In 1941 exhibitors voted him the fifth most popular star from the younger generation in Hollywood.
Reagan's favorite acting role was as a double amputee in 1942's Kings Row, in which he recites the line, "Where's the rest of me?", later used as the title of his 1965 autobiography. Many film critics considered Kings Row to be his best movie, though the film was condemned by New York Times critic Bosley Crowther.
Although Reagan called Kings Row the film that "made me a star", he was unable to capitalize on his success because he was ordered to active duty with the U.S. Army at San Francisco two months after its release, and never regained "star" status in motion pictures. In the post-war era, after being separated from almost four years of World War II stateside service with the 1st Motion Picture Unit in December 1945, Reagan co-starred in such films as, The Voice of the Turtle, John Loves Mary, The Hasty Heart, Bedtime for Bonzo, Cattle Queen of Montana, Tennessee's Partner, Hellcats of the Navy (the only film in which he appears with Nancy Reagan) and the 1964 remake The Killers (his final film and the only one in which he played a villain). Throughout his film career, his mother often answered much of his fan mail.
After completing fourteen home-study Army Extension Courses, Reagan enlisted in the Army Enlisted Reserve on April 29, 1937, as a private assigned to Troop B, 322nd Cavalry at Des Moines, Iowa. He was commissioned a second lieutenant in the Officers Reserve Corps of the cavalry on May 25, 1937.
Reagan was ordered to active duty for the first time on April 18, 1942. Due to his poor eyesight, he was classified for limited service only, which excluded him from serving overseas. His first assignment was at the San Francisco Port of Embarkation at Fort Mason, California, as a liaison officer of the Port and Transportation Office. Upon the approval of the Army Air Force (AAF), he applied for a transfer from the cavalry to the AAF on May 15, 1942, and was assigned to AAF Public Relations and subsequently to the First Motion Picture Unit (officially, the "18th Army Air Force Base Unit") in Culver City, California. On January 14, 1943, he was promoted to first lieutenant and was sent to the Provisional Task Force Show Unit of This Is The Army at Burbank, California. He returned to the First Motion Picture Unit after completing this duty and was promoted to captain on July 22, 1943.
In January 1944, Reagan was ordered to temporary duty in New York City to participate in the opening of the Sixth War Loan Drive. He was reassigned to the First Motion Picture Unit on November 14, 1944, where he remained until the end of World War II. He was recommended for promotion to major on February 2, 1945, but this recommendation was disapproved on July 17 of that year. While with the First Motion Picture Unit in 1945, he was indirectly involved in discovering actress Marilyn Monroe. He returned to Fort MacArthur, California, where he was separated from active duty on December 9, 1945. By the end of the war, his units had produced some 400 training films for the AAF.
Reagan never left the United States during the war, though he kept a film reel, obtained while in the service, depicting the liberation of Auschwitz, as he believed that someday doubts would arise as to whether the Holocaust had occurred. It has been alleged that he was overheard telling Israeli foreign minister Yitzhak Shamir in 1983 that he had filmed that footage himself and helped liberate Auschwitz, though this purported conversation was disputed by Secretary of State George Shultz.
Reagan was first elected to the Board of Directors of the Screen Actors Guild in 1941, serving as an alternate. After World War II, he resumed service and became 3rd vice-president in 1946. The adoption of conflict-of-interest bylaws in 1947 led the SAG president and six board members to resign; Reagan was nominated in a special election for the position of president and subsequently elected. He was subsequently chosen by the membership to serve seven additional one-year terms, from 1947 to 1952 and in 1959. Reagan led SAG through eventful years that were marked by labor-management disputes, the Taft-Hartley Act, House Committee on Un-American Activities (HUAC) hearings and the Hollywood blacklist era.
Secret FBI informant in Hollywood
During the late 1940s, Reagan and his wife provided the FBI with names of actors within the motion picture industry whom they believed to be communist sympathizers, though he expressed reservations; he said "Do they expect us to constitute ourselves as a little FBI of our own and determine just who is a Commie and who isn't?".
Reagan testified before the House Un-American Activities Committee on the subject as well. A fervent anti-communist, he reaffirmed his commitment to democratic principles, stating, "I never as a citizen want to see our country become urged, by either fear or resentment of this group, that we ever compromise with any of our democratic principles through that fear or resentment."
Though an early critic of television, Reagan landed fewer film roles in the late 1950s and decided to join the medium. He was hired as the host of General Electric Theater, a series of weekly dramas that became very popular. His contract required him to tour GE plants sixteen weeks out of the year, often demanding of him fourteen speeches per day. He earned approximately $125,000 per year (about $1.07 million in 2010 dollars) in this role. His final work as a professional actor was as host and performer from 1964 to 1965 on the television series Death Valley Days. Reagan and Nancy Davis appeared together several times, including an episode of General Electric Theater in 1958 called "A Turkey for the President".
Marriages and children
In 1938, Reagan co-starred in the film Brother Rat with actress Jane Wyman (1917–2007). They were engaged at the Chicago Theatre, and married on January 26, 1940, at the Wee Kirk o' the Heather church in Glendale, California. Together they had two biological children, Maureen (1941–2001) and Christine (who was born in 1947 but only lived one day), and adopted a third, Michael (born 1945). After arguments about Reagan's political ambitions, Wyman filed for divorce in 1948, citing a distraction due to her husband's Screen Actors Guild union duties; the divorce was finalized in 1949. He is the only US president to have been divorced. Reagan and Wyman continued to be friends until his death, with Wyman voting for Reagan in both of his runs and, upon his death, saying "America has lost a great president and a great, kind, and gentle man."
Reagan met actress Nancy Davis (born 1921) in 1949 after she contacted him in his capacity as president of the Screen Actors Guild to help her with issues regarding her name appearing on a Communist blacklist in Hollywood. She had been mistaken for another Nancy Davis. She described their meeting by saying, "I don't know if it was exactly love at first sight, but it was pretty close." They were engaged at Chasen's restaurant in Los Angeles and were married on March 4, 1952, at the Little Brown Church in the San Fernando Valley. Actor William Holden served as best man at the ceremony. They had two children: Patti (born October 21, 1952) and Ron (born May 20, 1958).
Observers described the Reagans' relationship as close, authentic and intimate. During his presidency they were reported to frequently display their affection for one another; one press secretary said, "They never took each other for granted. They never stopped courting." He often called her "Mommy" and she called him "Ronnie". He once wrote to her, "Whatever I treasure and enjoy ... all would be without meaning if I didn't have you." When he was in the hospital in 1981, she slept with one of his shirts to be comforted by his scent. In a letter to U.S. citizens written in 1994, Reagan wrote "I have recently been told that I am one of the millions of Americans who will be afflicted with Alzheimer's disease.... I only wish there was some way I could spare Nancy from this painful experience", and in 1998, while Reagan was stricken by Alzheimer's, Nancy told Vanity Fair, "Our relationship is very special. We were very much in love and still are. When I say my life began with Ronnie, well, it's true. It did. I can't imagine life without him."
Early political career
Reagan began his political career as a Democrat and, in December 1945, was prevented from leading an anti-nuclear rally in Hollywood by pressure from the Warner Bros. studio. He would later make nuclear weapons a key point of his presidency, specifically his opposition to mutually assured destruction, building on previous efforts to limit the spread of nuclear weapons to a new focus to reduce the numbers and types of them. In the 1948 election, Reagan strongly supported Harry S. Truman, appearing on stage with him during a campaign speech in Los Angeles. However, in the early 1950s, as his relationship with Republican actress Nancy Davis grew, he shifted to the right and, while remaining a Democrat, endorsed the presidential candidacies of Dwight D. Eisenhower in 1952 and 1956 as well as Richard Nixon in 1960. The last time Reagan actively supported a Democratic candidate was in 1950 when he helped Helen Gahagan Douglas in her unsuccessful Senate campaign against Richard Nixon.
After being hired in 1954 to host the General Electric Theater, a TV drama series, Reagan soon began to embrace the conservative views of the sponsoring company's officials. His many GE speeches—which he wrote himself—were non-partisan but carried a conservative, pro-business message; he was influenced by Lemuel Boulware, a senior GE executive. Boulware, known for his tough stance against unions and his innovative strategies to win over workers, championed the core tenets of modern American conservatism: free markets, anticommunism, lower taxes, and limited government. Eventually, the ratings for Reagan's show fell off and GE dropped Reagan in 1962. In August of that year, Reagan formally switched to the Republican Party, stating, "I didn't leave the Democratic Party. The party left me".
In the early 1960s Reagan opposed certain civil rights legislation, saying that "if an individual wants to discriminate against Negroes or others in selling or renting his house, it is his right to do so." When legislation that would become Medicare was introduced in 1961, Reagan created a recording for the American Medical Association warning that such legislation would mean the end of freedom in America. Reagan said that if his listeners did not write letters to prevent it, "we will awake to find that we have socialism. And if you don't do this, and if I don't do it, one of these days, you and I are going to spend our sunset years telling our children, and our children's children, what it once was like in America when men were free." He also joined the National Rifle Association and would become a lifetime member.
Reagan endorsed the campaign of conservative presidential contender Barry Goldwater in 1964. Speaking for Goldwater, Reagan stressed his belief in the importance of smaller government. He revealed his ideological motivation in a famed speech delivered on October 27, 1964: "The Founding Fathers knew a government can't control the economy without controlling people. And they knew when a government sets out to do that, it must use force and coercion to achieve its purpose. So we have come to a time for choosing." He also said, "You and I are told we must choose between a left or right, but I suggest there is no such thing as a left or right. There is only an up or down. Up to man's age-old dream – the maximum of individual freedom consistent with order – or down to the ant heap of totalitarianism." This "A Time for Choosing" speech, which later became known as "The Speech", raised $1 million for Goldwater's campaign and is considered the event that launched Reagan's political career.
Governor of California, 1967–75
California Republicans were impressed with Reagan's political views and charisma after his "Time for Choosing" speech, he announced in late 1965, his campaign for Governor of California in 1966. He defeated former San Francisco mayor George Christopher in the GOP primary. In Reagan's campaign, he emphasized two main themes: "to send the welfare bums back to work", and, in reference to burgeoning anti-war and anti-establishment student protests at the University of California at Berkeley, "to clean up the mess at Berkeley". Ronald Reagan accomplished in 1966 what US Senator William F. Knowland in 1958 and former Vice-President Richard M. Nixon in 1962 had tried: he was elected, defeating two-term governor Edmund G. "Pat" Brown, and was sworn in on January 2, 1967. In his first term, he froze government hiring and approved tax hikes to balance the budget.
Shortly after the beginning of his term, Reagan tested the presidential waters in 1968 as part of a "Stop Nixon" movement, hoping to cut into Nixon's Southern support and be a compromise candidate if neither Nixon nor second-place Nelson Rockefeller received enough delegates to win on the first ballot at the Republican convention. However, by the time of the convention Nixon had 692 delegate votes, 25 more than he needed to secure the nomination, followed by Rockefeller with Reagan in third place.
Reagan was involved in high-profile conflicts with the protest movements of the era. On May 15, 1969, during the People's Park protests at UC Berkeley, Reagan sent the California Highway Patrol and other officers to quell the protests, in an incident that became known as "Bloody Thursday", resulting in the death of student James Rector and the blinding of carpenter Alan Blanchard. Reagan then called out 2,200 state National Guard troops to occupy the city of Berkeley for two weeks to crack down on the protesters. A year after "Bloody Thursday", Reagan responded to questions about campus protest movements saying, "If it takes a bloodbath, let's get it over with. No more appeasement." When the Symbionese Liberation Army kidnapped Patty Hearst in Berkeley and demanded the distribution of food to the poor, Reagan joked to a group of political aides about a botulism outbreak contaminating the food. Conversely, in that one afternoon, "Bloody Thursday", 111 police officers were injured, including one C.H.P. officer who was knifed in the chest. After calling in the National Guard, the Guard remained in Berkeley for 17 days, camping in People's Park, and demonstrations subsided as the University removed cordoned-off fencing and placed all development plans for People's Park on hold.
Early in 1967, the national debate on abortion was beginning. Democratic California state senator Anthony Beilenson introduced the "Therapeutic Abortion Act", in an effort to reduce the number of "back-room abortions" performed in California. The State Legislature sent the bill to Reagan's desk where, after many days of indecision, he signed it. About two million abortions would be performed as a result, most because of a provision in the bill allowing abortions for the well-being of the mother. Reagan had been in office for only four months when he signed the bill, and stated that had he been more experienced as governor, he would not have signed it. After he recognized what he called the "consequences" of the bill, he announced that he was pro-life. He maintained that position later in his political career, writing extensively about abortion.
Despite an unsuccessful attempt to recall him in 1968, Reagan was re-elected in 1970, defeating "Big Daddy" Jesse Unruh. He chose not to seek a third term in the following election cycle. One of Reagan's greatest frustrations in office concerned capital punishment, which he strongly supported. His efforts to enforce the state's laws in this area were thwarted when the Supreme Court of California issued its People v. Anderson decision, which invalidated all death sentences issued in California before 1972, though the decision was later overturned by a constitutional amendment. The only execution during Reagan's governorship was on April 12, 1967, when Aaron Mitchell's sentence was carried out by the state in San Quentin's gas chamber.
In 1969, Reagan, as Governor, signed the Family Law Act, an amalgam of two bills which had been written and revised by the California state legislature for over two years and became the first no-fault divorce legislation in the United States.
Reagan's terms as governor helped to shape the policies he would pursue in his later political career as president. By campaigning on a platform of sending "the welfare bums back to work", he spoke out against the idea of the welfare state. He also strongly advocated the Republican ideal of less government regulation of the economy, including that of undue federal taxation.
1976 presidential campaign
In 1976, Reagan challenged incumbent President Gerald Ford in a bid to become the Republican Party's candidate for president. Reagan soon established himself as the conservative candidate with the support of like-minded organizations such as the American Conservative Union which became key components of his political base, while President Ford was considered a more moderate Republican.
Reagan's campaign relied on a strategy crafted by campaign manager John Sears of winning a few primaries early to damage the inevitability of Ford's likely nomination. Reagan won North Carolina, Texas, and California, but the strategy failed, as he ended up losing New Hampshire, Florida, and his native Illinois. The Texas campaign lent renewed hope to Reagan, when he swept all ninety-six delegates chosen in the May 1 primary, with four more awaiting at the state convention. Much of the credit for that victory came from the work of three co-chairmen, including Ernest Angelo, the mayor of Midland, and Ray Barnhart of Houston, whom President Reagan would appoint in 1981 as director of the Federal Highway Administration.
However, as the GOP convention neared, Ford appeared close to victory. Acknowledging his party's moderate wing, Reagan chose moderate Senator Richard Schweiker of Pennsylvania as his running mate if nominated. Nonetheless, Ford prevailed with 1,187 delegates to Reagan's 1,070. Ford would go on to lose the 1976 Presidential election to the Democrat Jimmy Carter.
Reagan's concession speech emphasized the dangers of nuclear war and the threat posed by the Soviet Union. Though he lost the nomination, he received 307 write-in votes in New Hampshire, 388 votes as an Independent on Wyoming's ballot, and a single electoral vote from a faithless elector in the November election from the state of Washington, which Ford had won over Democratic challenger Jimmy Carter.
After the campaign, Reagan remained in the public debate with the Ronald Reagan Radio Commentary series and his political action committee, Citizens for the Republic, which was later revived in Alexandria, Virginia in 2009 by the Reagan biographer Craig Shirley.
1980 presidential campaign
The 1980 presidential campaign between Reagan and incumbent President Jimmy Carter was conducted during domestic concerns and the ongoing Iran hostage crisis. His campaign stressed some of his fundamental principles: lower taxes to stimulate the economy, less government interference in people's lives, states' rights, a strong national defense, and restoring the U.S. Dollar to a gold standard.
Reagan launched his campaign by declaring "I believe in states' rights." After receiving the Republican nomination, Reagan selected one of his primary opponents, George H.W. Bush, to be his running mate. His showing in the October televised debate boosted his campaign. Reagan won the election, carrying 44 states with 489 electoral votes to 49 electoral votes for Carter (representing six states and Washington, D.C.). Reagan received 50.7% of the popular vote while Carter took 41%, and Independent John B. Anderson (a liberal Republican) received 6.7%. Republicans captured the Senate for the first time since 1952, and gained 34 House seats, but the Democrats retained a majority.
During his Presidency, Reagan pursued policies that reflected his personal belief in individual freedom, brought changes domestically, both to the U.S. economy and expanded military, and contributed to the end of the Cold War. Termed the Reagan Revolution, his presidency would reinvigorate American morale, reinvigorate the American economy and reduce American reliance upon government. As president, Reagan kept a series of diaries in which he commented on daily occurrences of his presidency and his views on the issues of the day. The diaries were published in May 2007 in the bestselling book, The Reagan Diaries.
First term, 1981–85
To date, Reagan is the oldest man elected to the office of the presidency (at 69). In his first inaugural address on January 20, 1981, which Reagan himself wrote, he addressed the country's economic malaise arguing: "In this present crisis, government is not the solution to our problems; government is the problem".
Prayer in schools and a moment of silence
In 1981, Reagan became the first president to propose a constitutional amendment on school prayer. The school prayer had previously been banned by the supreme court in 1962, and Reagan's election reflected an opposition to the courts decision. Reagan's 1981 proposed amendment stated: "Nothing in this Constitution shall be construed to prohibit individual or group prayer in public schools or other public institutions. No person shall be required by the United States or by any state to participate in prayer." In a message to Congress, Reagan said that his proposed amendment would "restore the simple freedom of our citizens to offer prayer in public schools and institutions." In a nationally televised speech the following day, Rabbi Menachem M. Schneerson lauded Reagan's speech and said the moment of silence would "ensure that children grow up to be decent and upright." In 1984, Reagan again raised the issue, asking Congress "why can't [the] freedom to acknowledge God be enjoyed again by children in every schoolroom across this land?" In 1985, Reagan expressed his disappointment that the Supreme Court ruling still bans a moment of silence for public-school, and said he had "an uphill battle." In 1987 Reagan again renewed his call for Congress to support voluntary prayer in schools and end "the expulsion of God from America's classrooms." During his term in office, Reagan campaigned vigorously to restore prayer to the schools, first as a moment of prayer and later as a Moment of Silence.
On March 30, 1981, only 69 days into the new administration, Reagan, his press secretary James Brady, Washington police officer Thomas Delahanty, and Secret Service agent Timothy McCarthy were struck by gunfire from would-be assassin John Hinckley Jr., outside the Washington Hilton Hotel. Although "close to death" upon arrival at George Washington University Hospital, Reagan was stabilized in the emergency room, then underwent emergency exploratory surgery. He recovered and was released from the hospital on April 11, becoming the first serving U.S. President to survive being shot in an assassination attempt. The attempt had great influence on Reagan's popularity; polls indicated his approval rating to be around 73%. Reagan believed that God had spared his life so that he might go on to fulfill a greater purpose.
Air traffic controllers' strike
In summer 1981 PATCO, the union of federal air traffic controllers went on strike, violating a federal law prohibiting government unions from striking. Declaring the situation an emergency as described in the 1947 Taft–Hartley Act, Reagan stated that if the air traffic controllers "do not report for work within 48 hours, they have forfeited their jobs and will be terminated". They did not return and on August 5, Reagan fired 11,345 striking air traffic controllers who had ignored his order, and used supervisors and military controllers to handle the nation's commercial air traffic until new controllers could be hired and trained. A leading reference work on public administration concluded, "The firing of PATCO employees not only demonstrated a clear resolve by the president to take control of the bureaucracy, but it also sent a clear message to the private sector that unions no longer needed to be feared".
"Reaganomics" and the economy
During Jimmy Carter's last year in office (1980), inflation averaged 12.5%, compared with 4.4% during Reagan's last year in office (1988). During Reagan's administration, the unemployment rate declined from 7.5% to 5.4%, with the rate reaching highs of 10.8% in 1982 and 10.4% in 1983, averaging 7.5% over the eight years, and GDP growth average 7.9% with a high of 12.2% growth in 1982.
Reagan implemented policies based on supply-side economics, advocating a laissez-faire philosophy and free-market fiscal policy, seeking to stimulate the economy with large, across-the-board tax cuts. He also supported returning the United States to some sort of gold standard, and successfully urged Congress to establish the U.S. Gold Commission to study how one could be implemented. Citing the economic theories of Arthur Laffer, Reagan promoted the proposed tax cuts as potentially stimulating the economy enough to expand the tax base, offsetting the revenue loss due to reduced rates of taxation, a theory that entered political discussion as the Laffer curve. Reaganomics was the subject of debate with supporters pointing to improvements in certain key economic indicators as evidence of success, and critics pointing to large increases in federal budget deficits and the national debt. His policy of "peace through strength" resulted in a record peacetime defense buildup including a 40% real increase in defense spending between 1981 and 1985.
During Reagan's presidency, federal income tax rates were lowered significantly with the signing of the Economic Recovery Tax Act of 1981 which lowered the top marginal tax bracket from 70% to 50% and the lowest bracket from 14% to 11%, however other tax increases passed by Congress and signed by Reagan, ensured that tax revenues over his two terms were 18.2% of GDP as compared to 18.1% over the 40-year period 1970–2010. Then, in 1982 the Job Training Partnership Act of 1982 was signed into law, initiating one of the United States' first public-private partnerships and a major part of the president's job creation program. Reagan's Assistant Secretary of Labor and Chief of Staff, Al Angrisani, was a primary architect of the bill. The Tax Reform Act of 1986, another bipartisan effort championed by Reagan, further reduced the top rate to 28%, raised the bottom bracket from 11% to 15%, and, cut the number of tax brackets to 4.
Conversely, Congress passed and Reagan signed into law tax increases of some nature in every year from 1981 to 1987 to continue funding such government programs as Tax Equity and Fiscal Responsibility Act of 1982 (TEFRA), Social Security, and the Deficit Reduction Act of 1984 (DEFRA). Despite the fact that TEFRA was the "largest peacetime tax increase in American history", gross domestic product (GDP) growth recovered strongly after the early 1980s recession ended in 1982, and grew during his eight years in office at an annual rate of 7.91% per year, with a high of 12.2% growth in 1981. Unemployment peaked at 10.8% monthly rate in December 1982—higher than any time since the Great Depression—then dropped during the rest of Reagan's presidency. Sixteen million new jobs were created, while inflation significantly decreased. The net effect of all Reagan-era tax bills was a 1% decrease in government revenues when compared to Treasury Department revenue estimates from the Administration's first post-enactment January budgets. However, federal income tax receipts increased from 1980 to 1989, rising from $308.7 billion to $549 billion, Reagan was still known for his lower-taxes philosophy.
During the Reagan Administration, federal receipts grew at an average rate of 8.2% (2.5% attributed to higher Social Security receipts), and federal outlays grew at an annual rate of 7.1%. Reagan also revised the tax code with the bipartisan Tax Reform Act of 1986.
Reagan's policies proposed that economic growth would occur when marginal tax rates were low enough to spur investment, which would then lead to increased economic growth, higher employment and wages. Critics labeled this "trickle-down economics"—the belief that tax policies that benefit the wealthy will create a "trickle-down" effect to the poor. Questions arose whether Reagan's policies benefited the wealthy more than those living in poverty, and many poor and minority citizens viewed Reagan as indifferent to their struggles. These views were exacerbated by the fact that Reagan's economic regimen included freezing the minimum wage at $3.35 an hour, slashing federal assistance to local governments by 60%, cutting the budget for public housing and Section 8 rent subsidies in half, and eliminating the antipoverty Community Development Block Grant program. The widening gap between the rich and poor had already begun during the 1970s before Reagan's economic policies took effect. Along with Reagan's 1981 cut in the top regular tax rate on unearned income, he reduced the maximum capital gains rate to only 20%. Reagan later set tax rates on capital gains at the same level as the rates on ordinary income like salaries and wages, with both topping out at 28%. Reagan is viewed as an antitax hero despite raising taxes eleven times over the course of his presidency, all in the name of fiscal responsibility. According to Paul Krugman, "Over all, the 1982 tax increase undid about a third of the 1981 cut; as a share of GDP, the increase was substantially larger than Mr. Clinton's 1993 tax increase". According to historian and domestic policy adviser Bruce Bartlett, Reagan's tax increases over the course of his presidency took back half of the 1981 tax cut.
Further following his opposition to government intervention, Reagan cut the budgets of non-military programs including Medicaid, food stamps, federal education programs and the EPA. While he protected entitlement programs, such as Social Security and Medicare, his administration attempted to purge many people with disabilities from the Social Security disability rolls.
The administration's stance toward the Savings and Loan industry contributed to the savings and loan crisis. It is also suggested, by a minority of Reaganomics critics, that the policies partially influenced the stock market crash of 1987, but there is no consensus regarding a single source for the crash. In order to cover newly spawned federal budget deficits, the United States borrowed heavily both domestically and abroad, raising the national debt from $997 billion to $2.85 trillion. Reagan described the new debt as the "greatest disappointment" of his presidency.
He reappointed Paul Volcker as Chairman of the Federal Reserve, and in 1987 he appointed monetarist Alan Greenspan to succeed him. Reagan ended the price controls on domestic oil which had contributed to energy crises in the early 1970s. The price of oil subsequently dropped, and the 1980s did not see the fuel shortages that the 1970s had. Reagan also fulfilled a 1980 campaign promise to repeal the windfall profit tax in 1988, which had previously increased dependence on foreign oil. Some economists, such as Nobel Prize winners Milton Friedman and Robert A. Mundell, argue that Reagan's tax policies invigorated America's economy and contributed to the economic boom of the 1990s. Other economists, such as Nobel Prize winner Robert Solow, argue that the deficits were a major reason why Reagan's successor, George H. W. Bush, reneged on a campaign promise and raised taxes.
During Reagan's presidency, a program was initiated within the U.S. intelligence community to ensure America's economic strength. The program, Project Socrates, developed and demonstrated the means required for the United States to generate and lead the next evolutionary leap in technology acquisition and utilization for a competitive advantage—automated innovation. To ensure that the United States acquired the maximum benefit from automated innovation, Reagan, during his second term, had an executive order drafted to create a new federal agency to implement the Project Socrates results on a nation-wide basis. However, Reagan's term came to end before the executive order could be coordinated and signed, and the incoming Bush administration, labeling Project Socrates as "industrial policy", had it terminated.
Escalation of the Cold War
Reagan escalated the Cold War, accelerating a reversal from the policy of détente which began in 1979 after the Soviet war in Afghanistan. Reagan ordered a massive buildup of the United States Armed Forces and implemented new policies towards the Soviet Union: reviving the B-1 Lancer program that had been canceled by the Carter administration, and producing the MX missile. In response to Soviet deployment of the SS-20, Reagan oversaw NATO's deployment of the Pershing missile in West Germany.
Together with the United Kingdom's prime minister Margaret Thatcher, Reagan denounced the Soviet Union in ideological terms. In a famous address on June 8, 1982, to the British Parliament in the Royal Gallery of the Palace of Westminster, Reagan said, "the forward march of freedom and democracy will leave Marxism–Leninism on the ash heap of history". On March 3, 1983, he predicted that communism would collapse, stating, "Communism is another sad, bizarre chapter in human history whose last pages even now are being written". In a speech to the National Association of Evangelicals on March 8, 1983, Reagan called the Soviet Union "an evil empire".
After Soviet fighters downed Korean Air Lines Flight 007 near Moneron Island on September 1, 1983, carrying 269 people, including Georgia congressman Larry McDonald, Reagan labeled the act a "massacre" and declared that the Soviets had turned "against the world and the moral precepts which guide human relations among people everywhere". The Reagan administration responded to the incident by suspending all Soviet passenger air service to the United States, and dropped several agreements being negotiated with the Soviets, wounding them financially. As result of the shootdown, and the cause of KAL 007's going astray thought to be inadequacies related to its navigational system, Reagan announced on September 16, 1983, that the Global Positioning System would be made available for civilian use, free of charge, once completed in order to avert similar navigational errors in future.
Under a policy that came to be known as the Reagan Doctrine, Reagan and his administration also provided overt and covert aid to anti-communist resistance movements in an effort to "rollback" Soviet-backed communist governments in Africa, Asia, and Latin America. Reagan deployed the CIA's Special Activities Division to Afghanistan and Pakistan. They were instrumental in training, equipping and leading Mujaheddin forces against the Soviet Army. President Reagan's Covert Action program has been given credit for assisting in ending the Soviet occupation of Afghanistan, though some of the United States funded armaments introduced then would later pose a threat to U.S. troops in the 2000s (decade) war in Afghanistan. However, in a break from the Carter policy of arming Taiwan under the Taiwan Relations Act, Reagan also agreed with the communist government in China to reduce the sale of arms to Taiwan.
In March 1983, Reagan introduced the Strategic Defense Initiative, a defense project that would have used ground- and space-based systems to protect the United States from attack by strategic nuclear ballistic missiles. Reagan believed that this defense shield could make nuclear war impossible, but disbelief that the technology could ever work led opponents to dub SDI "Star Wars" and argue that the technological objective was unattainable. The Soviets became concerned about the possible effects SDI would have; leader Yuri Andropov said it would put "the entire world in jeopardy". For those reasons, David Gergen, former aide to President Reagan, believes that in retrospect, SDI hastened the end of the Cold War.
Critics labeled Reagan's foreign policies as aggressive, imperialistic, and chided them as "warmongering", though they were supported by leading American conservatives who argued that they were necessary to protect U.S. security interests. The Reagan administration also backed anti-communist leaders accused of severe human rights violations, such as Efraín Ríos Montt of Guatemala.
Lebanese Civil War, 1983
With the approval of Congress, Reagan in 1983 sent forces to Lebanon to reduce the threat of the Lebanese Civil War. The American peacekeeping forces in Beirut, a part of a multinational force during the Lebanese Civil War, were attacked on October 23, 1983. The Beirut barracks bombing killed 241 American servicemen and wounded more than 60 others by a suicide truck bomber. Reagan sent in USS New Jersey (BB-62)battleship to shell Syrian positions in Lebanon. He then withdrew all the marines from Lebanon.
Operation Urgent Fury (Grenada), 1983
On October 25, 1983, Reagan ordered U.S. forces to invade Grenada, code named Operation Urgent Fury, where a 1979 coup d'état had established an independent non-aligned Marxist–Leninist government. A formal appeal from the Organization of Eastern Caribbean States (OECS) led to the intervention of U.S. forces; President Reagan also cited an allegedly regional threat posed by a Soviet-Cuban military build-up in the Caribbean and concern for the safety of several hundred American medical students at St. George's University as adequate reasons to invade. Operation Urgent Fury was the first major military operation conducted by U.S. forces since the Vietnam War, several days of fighting commenced, resulting in a U.S. victory, with 19 American fatalities and 116 wounded American soldiers. In mid-December, after a new government was appointed by the Governor-General, U.S. forces withdrew.
1984 presidential campaign
Reagan accepted the Republican nomination in Dallas, Texas. He proclaimed that it was "morning again in America", regarding the recovering economy and the dominating performance by the U.S. athletes at the 1984 Summer Olympics, among other things. He became the first American president to open an Olympic Games held in the United States.
Reagan's opponent in the 1984 presidential election was former Vice President Walter Mondale. With questions about Reagan's age, and a weak performance in the first presidential debate, his ability to perform the duties of president for another term was questioned. His apparent confused and forgetful behavior was evident to his supporters; they had previously known him clever and witty. Rumors began to circulate that he had Alzheimer's disease. Reagan rebounded in the second debate, and confronted questions about his age, quipping, "I will not make age an issue of this campaign. I am not going to exploit, for political purposes, my opponent's youth and inexperience", which generated applause and laughter, even from Mondale himself.
That November, Reagan was re-elected, winning 49 of 50 states. The president's overwhelming victory saw Mondale carry only his home state of Minnesota (by 3,800 votes) and the District of Columbia. Reagan won a record 525 electoral votes, the most of any candidate in United States history, and received 58.8% of the popular vote to Mondale's 40.6%.
Second term, 1985–89
Reagan was sworn in as president for the second time on January 20, 1985, in a private ceremony at the White House. Because January 20 fell on a Sunday, a public celebration was not held but took place in the Capitol Rotunda the following day. January 21 was one of the coldest days on record in Washington, D.C.; due to poor weather, inaugural celebrations were held inside the Capitol. In the coming weeks he shook up his staff somewhat, moving White House Chief of Staff James Baker to Secretary of the Treasury and naming Treasury Secretary Donald Regan, a former Merrill Lynch officer, Chief of Staff.
In 1985, Reagan visited a German military cemetery in Bitburg to lay a wreath with West German Chancellor Helmut Kohl. It was determined that the cemetery held the graves of forty-nine members of the Waffen-SS. Reagan issued a statement that called the Nazi soldiers buried in that cemetery as themselves "victims", a designation which ignited a stir over whether Reagan had equated the SS men to victims of the Holocaust; Pat Buchanan, Reagan's Director of Communications, argued that the president did not equate the SS members with the actual Holocaust. Now strongly urged to cancel the visit, the president responded that it would be wrong to back down on a promise he had made to Chancellor Kohl. He ultimately attended the ceremony where two military generals laid a wreath.
The disintegration of the Space Shuttle Challenger on January 28, 1986, proved a pivotal moment in Reagan's presidency. All seven astronauts aboard were killed. On the night of the disaster, Reagan delivered a speech, written by Peggy Noonan, in which he said:
The future doesn't belong to the fainthearted; it belongs to the brave...We will never forget them, nor the last time we saw them, this morning, as they prepared for their journey and waved goodbye and 'slipped the surly bonds of Earth' to 'touch the face of God.'
War on Drugs
Reagan announced a War on Drugs in 1982, in response to concerns about the increasing crack epidemic. Though Nixon had previously declared a war on drugs, Reagan advocated more militant policies.
He said that "drugs were menacing our society" and promised to fight for drug-free schools and workplaces, expanded drug treatment, stronger law enforcement and drug interdiction efforts, and greater public awareness.
In 1986, Reagan signed a drug enforcement bill that budgeted $1.7 billion to fund the War on Drugs and specified a mandatory minimum penalty for drug offenses. The bill was criticized for promoting significant racial disparities in the prison population and critics also charged that the policies did little to reduce the availability of drugs on the street, while resulting in a great financial burden for America. Defenders of the effort point to success in reducing rates of adolescent drug use. First Lady Nancy Reagan made the War on Drugs her main priority by founding the "Just Say No" drug awareness campaign, which aimed to discourage children and teenagers from engaging in recreational drug use by offering various ways of saying "no". Nancy Reagan traveled to 65 cities in 33 states, raising awareness about the dangers of drugs including alcohol.
Relations between Libya and the United States under President Reagan were continually contentious, beginning with the Gulf of Sidra incident in 1981; by 1982, Libyan leader Muammar Gaddafi was considered by the CIA to be, along with USSR leader Leonid Brezhnev and Cuban leader Fidel Castro, part of a group known as the "unholy trinity" and was also labeled as "our international public enemy number one" by a CIA official. These tensions were later revived in early April 1986, when a bomb exploded in a Berlin discothèque, resulting in the injury of 63 American military personnel and death of one serviceman. Stating that there was "irrefutable proof" that Libya had directed the "terrorist bombing", Reagan authorized the use of force against the country. In the late evening of April 15, 1986, the United States launched a series of air strikes on ground targets in Libya.
The UK Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher allowed the U.S. Air Force to use Britain's air bases to launch the attack, on the justification that the UK was supporting America's right to self-defense under Article 51 of the United Nations Charter. The attack was designed to halt Gaddafi's "ability to export terrorism", offering him "incentives and reasons to alter his criminal behavior". The president addressed the nation from the Oval Office after the attacks had commenced, stating, "When our citizens are attacked or abused anywhere in the world on the direct orders of hostile regimes, we will respond so long as I'm in this office". The attack was condemned by many countries. By a vote of 79 in favor to 28 against with 33 abstentions, the United Nations General Assembly adopted resolution 41/38 which "condemns the military attack perpetrated against the Socialist People's Libyan Arab Jamahiriya on April 15, 1986, which constitutes a violation of the Charter of the United Nations and of international law".
Reagan signed the Immigration Reform and Control Act in 1986. The act made it illegal to knowingly hire or recruit illegal immigrants, required employers to attest to their employees' immigration status, and granted amnesty to approximately three million illegal immigrants who entered the United States before January 1, 1982, and had lived in the country continuously. Critics argue that the employer sanctions were without teeth and failed to stem illegal immigration. Upon signing the act at a ceremony held beside the newly refurbished Statue of Liberty, Reagan said, "The legalization provisions in this act will go far to improve the lives of a class of individuals who now must hide in the shadows, without access to many of the benefits of a free and open society. Very soon many of these men and women will be able to step into the sunlight and, ultimately, if they choose, they may become Americans." Reagan also said, "The employer sanctions program is the keystone and major element. It will remove the incentive for illegal immigration by eliminating the job opportunities which draw illegal aliens here."
In 1986, a scandal shook the administration stemming from the use of proceeds from covert arms sales to Iran to fund the Contras in Nicaragua, which had been specifically outlawed by an act of Congress. The Iran–Contra affair became the largest political scandal in the United States during the 1980s. The International Court of Justice, whose jurisdiction to decide the case was disputed by the United States, ruled that the United States had violated international law and breached treaties in Nicaragua in various ways (see Nicaragua v. United States).
President Reagan professed ignorance of the plot's existence. He appointed two Republicans and one Democrat (John Tower, Brent Scowcroft and Edmund Muskie, known as the "Tower Commission") to investigate the scandal. The commission could not find direct evidence that Reagan had prior knowledge of the program, but criticized him heavily for his disengagement from managing his staff, making the diversion of funds possible. A separate report by Congress concluded that "If the president did not know what his national security advisers were doing, he should have". Reagan's popularity declined from 67% to 46% in less than a week, the greatest and quickest decline ever for a president. The scandal resulted in fourteen indictments within Reagan's staff, and eleven convictions.
Many Central Americans criticize Reagan for his support of the Contras, calling him an anti-communist zealot, blinded to human rights abuses, while others say he "saved Central America". Daniel Ortega, Sandinistan and president of Nicaragua, said that he hoped God would forgive Reagan for his "dirty war against Nicaragua".
End of the Cold War
Until the early 1980s, the United States had relied on the qualitative superiority of its weapons to essentially frighten the Soviets, but the gap had been narrowed. Although the Soviet Union did not accelerate military spending after President Reagan's military buildup, their large military expenses, in combination with collectivized agriculture and inefficient planned manufacturing, were a heavy burden for the Soviet economy. At the same time, Saudi Arabia increased oil production, which resulted in a drop of oil prices in 1985 to one-third of the previous level; oil was the main source of Soviet export revenues. These factors contributed to a stagnant Soviet economy during Gorbachev's tenure.
Reagan recognized the change in the direction of the Soviet leadership with Mikhail Gorbachev, and shifted to diplomacy, with a view to encourage the Soviet leader to pursue substantial arms agreements. Reagan's personal mission was to achieve "a world free of nuclear weapons", which he regarded as "totally irrational, totally inhumane, good for nothing but killing, possibly destructive of life on earth and civilization". He was able to start discussions on nuclear disarmament with General Secretary Gorbachev. Gorbachev and Reagan held four summit conferences between 1985 and 1988: the first in Geneva, Switzerland, the second in Reykjavík, Iceland, the third in Washington, D.C., and the fourth in Moscow. Reagan believed that if he could persuade the Soviets to allow for more democracy and free speech, this would lead to reform and the end of Communism.
Speaking at the Berlin Wall on June 12, 1987, Reagan challenged Gorbachev to go further, saying:
|“||"General Secretary Gorbachev, if you seek peace, if you seek prosperity for the Soviet Union and Eastern Europe, if you seek liberalization, come here to this gate! Mr. Gorbachev, open this gate! Mr. Gorbachev, tear down this wall!"||”|
Before Gorbachev's visit to Washington, D.C., for the third summit in 1987, the Soviet leader announced his intention to pursue significant arms agreements. The timing of the announcement led Western diplomats to contend that Gorbachev was offering major concessions to the United States on the levels of conventional forces, nuclear weapons, and policy in Eastern Europe. He and Reagan signed the Intermediate-Range Nuclear Forces (INF) Treaty at the White House, which eliminated an entire class of nuclear weapons. The two leaders laid the framework for the Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty, or START I; Reagan insisted that the name of the treaty be changed from Strategic Arms Limitation Talks to Strategic Arms Reduction Talks.
When Reagan visited Moscow for the fourth summit in 1988, he was viewed as a celebrity by the Soviets. A journalist asked the president if he still considered the Soviet Union the evil empire. "No", he replied, "I was talking about another time, another era". At Gorbachev's request, Reagan gave a speech on free markets at the Moscow State University. In his autobiography, An American Life, Reagan expressed his optimism about the new direction that they charted and his warm feelings for Gorbachev. In November 1989, ten months after Reagan left office, the Berlin Wall was torn down, the Cold War was officially declared over at the Malta Summit on December 3, 1989, and two years later, the Soviet Union collapsed.
Early in his presidency, Reagan started wearing a custom, technologically advanced hearing aid, first in his right ear and later in his left as well. His decision to go public in 1983 regarding his wearing the small, audio-amplifying device boosted their sales.
On July 13, 1985, Reagan underwent surgery at Bethesda Naval Hospital to remove cancerous polyps from his colon. He relinquished presidential power to the Vice President for eight hours in a similar procedure as outlined in the 25th Amendment, which he specifically avoided invoking. The surgery lasted just under three hours and was successful. Reagan resumed the powers of the presidency later that day. In August of that year, he underwent an operation to remove skin cancer cells from his nose. In October, additional skin cancer cells were detected on his nose and removed.
In January 1987, Reagan underwent surgery for an enlarged prostate which caused further worries about his health. No cancerous growths were found, however, and he was not sedated during the operation. In July of that year, aged 76, he underwent a third skin cancer operation on his nose.
During his 1980 campaign, Reagan pledged that, if given the opportunity, he would appoint the first female Supreme Court Justice. That opportunity came in his first year in office when he nominated Sandra Day O'Connor to fill the vacancy created by the retirement of Justice Potter Stewart. In his second term, Reagan elevated William Rehnquist to succeed Warren Burger as Chief Justice, and named Antonin Scalia to fill the vacant seat. Reagan nominated conservative jurist Robert Bork to the high court in 1987. Senator Ted Kennedy, a Democrat of Massachusetts, strongly condemned Bork, and great controversy ensued. Bork's nomination was rejected 58–42. Reagan then nominated Douglas Ginsburg, but Ginsburg withdrew his name from consideration after coming under fire for his cannabis use. Anthony Kennedy was eventually confirmed in his place. Along with his three Supreme Court appointments, Reagan appointed 83 judges to the United States Courts of Appeals, and 290 judges to the United States district courts.
Reagan also nominated Vaughn R. Walker, who would later be revealed to be the earliest known gay federal judge, to the United States District Court for the Central District of California. However, the nomination stalled in the Senate, and Walker was not confirmed until he was renominated by Reagan's successor, George H. W. Bush.
Early in his tenure, Reagan appointed Clarence M. Pendleton Jr., of San Diego as the first African American to chair the United States Commission on Civil Rights. Pendleton tried to steer the commission into a conservative direction in line with Reagan's views on social and civil rights policy during his time as tenure from 1981 until his sudden death in 1988. Pendleton soon aroused the ire of many civil rights advocates and feminists when he ridiculed the comparable worth proposal as being "Looney Tunes".
In 1984, Reagan commuted the 18-year sentence of former Louisiana Commissioner of Agriculture and Forestry Gil Dozier, a Democrat from Baton Rouge, to the time served for violations of both the Hobbs and the Racketeer Influenced and Corrupt Organizations acts. On September 23, 1980, the United States District Court for the Middle District of Louisiana convicted Dozier of extortion and racketeering when he pushed companies doing business with his department to make campaign contributions on his behalf. Reagan determined that the 18-year sentence was excessive compared to what other political figures in similar circumstances had been receiving.
Post-presidential years, 1989–2004
After leaving office in 1989, the Reagans purchased a home in Bel Air, Los Angeles in addition to the Reagan Ranch in Santa Barbara. They regularly attended Bel Air Presbyterian Church and occasionally made appearances on behalf of the Republican Party; Reagan delivered a well-received speech at the 1992 Republican National Convention. Previously on November 4, 1991, the Ronald Reagan Presidential Library was dedicated and opened to the public. At the dedication ceremonies, five presidents were in attendance, as well as six first ladies, marking the first time that five presidents were gathered in the same location. Reagan continued publicly to speak in favor of a line-item veto; the Brady Bill; a constitutional amendment requiring a balanced budget; and the repeal of the 22nd Amendment, which prohibits anyone from serving more than two terms as president. In 1992 Reagan established the Ronald Reagan Freedom Award with the newly formed Ronald Reagan Presidential Foundation. His final public speech was on February 3, 1994, during a tribute to him in Washington, D.C., and his last major public appearance was at the funeral of Richard Nixon on April 27, 1994.
Announcement and reaction
In August 1994, at the age of 83, Reagan was diagnosed with Alzheimer's disease, an incurable neurological disorder which destroys brain cells and ultimately causes death. In November, he informed the nation through a handwritten letter, writing in part:
I have recently been told that I am one of the millions of Americans who will be afflicted with Alzheimer's Disease... At the moment I feel just fine. I intend to live the remainder of the years God gives me on this earth doing the things I have always done... I now begin the journey that will lead me into the sunset of my life. I know that for America there will always be a bright dawn ahead. Thank you, my friends. May God always bless you.
After his diagnosis, letters of support from well-wishers poured into his California home.
But there was also speculation over how long Reagan had demonstrated symptoms of mental degeneration. Former CBS White House correspondent Lesley Stahl recounted that, in her final meeting with the president in 1986, Reagan did not seem to know who Stahl was, and that she came close to reporting that Reagan was senile, but at the end of the meeting, Reagan had regained his alertness. However, Dr. Lawrence K. Altman, a physician employed as a reporter for the New York Times, noted that "the line between mere forgetfulness and the beginning of Alzheimer's can be fuzzy", and all four of Reagan's White House doctors said that they saw no evidence of Alzheimer's while he was president. Dr. John E. Hutton, Reagan's primary physician from 1984 to 1989, said the president "absolutely" did not "show any signs of dementia or Alzheimer's". Reagan did experience occasional memory lapses, though, especially with names. Once, while meeting with Japanese Prime Minister Yasuhiro Nakasone, he repeatedly referred to Vice President Bush as "Prime Minister Bush". Reagan's doctors, however, note that he only began exhibiting overt symptoms of the illness in late 1992 or 1993, several years after he had left office. His former Chief of Staff James Baker considered "ludicrous" the idea that Reagan slept during cabinet meetings. Other staff members, former aides, and friends said they saw no indication of Alzheimer's while he was President.
Complicating the picture, Reagan suffered an episode of head trauma in July 1989, five years before his diagnosis. After being thrown from a horse in Mexico, a subdural hematoma was found and surgically treated later in the year. Nancy Reagan, citing what doctors told her, asserts that her husband's 1989 fall hastened the onset of Alzheimer's disease, although acute brain injury has not been conclusively proven to accelerate Alzheimer's or dementia. Reagan's one-time physician Daniel Ruge has said it is possible, but not certain, that the horse accident affected the course of Reagan's memory.
As the years went on, the disease slowly destroyed Reagan's mental capacity. He was only able to recognize a few people, including his wife, Nancy. He remained active, however; he took walks through parks near his home and on beaches, played golf regularly, and until 1999 he often went to his office in nearby Century City.
Reagan suffered a fall at his Bel Air home on January 13, 2001, resulting in a broken hip. The fracture was repaired the following day and the 89-year-old Reagan returned home later that week, although he faced difficult physical therapy at home. On February 6, 2001, Reagan reached the age of 90, becoming the third former president to do so (the other two being John Adams and Herbert Hoover, with Gerald Ford, George H.W. Bush and Jimmy Carter later reaching 90). Reagan's public appearances became much less frequent with the progression of the disease, and as a result, his family decided that he would live in quiet semi-isolation with his wife Nancy. Nancy Reagan told CNN's Larry King in 2001 that very few visitors were allowed to see her husband because she felt that "Ronnie would want people to remember him as he was". After her husband's diagnosis and death, Nancy Reagan became a stem-cell research advocate, urging Congress and President George W. Bush to support federal funding for embryonic stem-cell research, something Bush opposed. In 2009, she praised President Barack Obama for lifting restrictions on such research. Mrs. Reagan has said that she believes that it could lead to a cure for Alzheimer's.
Reagan died of pneumonia, complicated by Alzheimer's disease at his home in Bel Air, California, on the afternoon of June 5, 2004. A short time after his death, Nancy Reagan released a statement saying, "My family and I would like the world to know that President Ronald Reagan has died after 10 years of Alzheimer's disease at 93 years of age. We appreciate everyone's prayers." President George W. Bush declared June 11 a National Day of Mourning, and international tributes came in from around the world. Reagan's body was taken to the Kingsley and Gates Funeral Home in Santa Monica, California later in the day, where well-wishers paid tribute by laying flowers and American flags in the grass. On June 7, his body was removed and taken to the Ronald Reagan Presidential Library, where a brief family funeral was held conducted by Pastor Michael Wenning. His body lay in repose in the Library lobby until June 9; over 100,000 people viewed the coffin.
On June 11, a state funeral was conducted in the Washington National Cathedral, and presided over by President George W. Bush. Eulogies were given by former British Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher, former Canadian Prime Minister Brian Mulroney, and both President George H.W. Bush and President George W. Bush. Also in attendance were Mikhail Gorbachev, and many world leaders, including British Prime Minister Tony Blair, Prince Charles, representing his mother Queen Elizabeth II, German Chancellor Gerhard Schröder, Italian Prime Minister Silvio Berlusconi, and interim presidents Hamid Karzai of Afghanistan, and Ghazi al-Yawer of Iraq.
After the funeral, the Reagan entourage was flown back to the Ronald W. Reagan Presidential Library in Simi Valley, California, where another service was held, and President Reagan was interred. At the time of his death, Reagan was the longest-lived president in U.S. history, having lived 93 years and 120 days (2 years, 8 months, and 23 days longer than John Adams, whose record he surpassed). He is now the second longest-lived president, just 45 days fewer than Gerald Ford. He was the first United States president to die in the 21st century, and his was the first state funeral in the United States since that of President Lyndon B. Johnson in 1973.
His burial site is inscribed with the words he delivered at the opening of the Ronald Reagan Presidential Library: "I know in my heart that man is good, that what is right will always eventually triumph and that there is purpose and worth to each and every life."
Since Reagan left office in 1989, substantial debate has occurred among scholars, historians, and the general public surrounding his legacy. Supporters have pointed to a more efficient and prosperous economy as a result of Reagan's economic policies, foreign policy triumphs including a peaceful end to the Cold War, and a restoration of American pride and morale. Proponents also argue Reagan restored faith in the American Dream with his unabated and passionate love for the United States, after a decline in American confidence and self-respect under Jimmy Carter's perceived weak leadership, particularly during the Iranian hostage crisis, as well as his gloomy, dreary outlook for the future of the United States during the 1980 election. Critics contend that Reagan's economic policies resulted in rising budget deficits, a wider gap in wealth, and an increase in homelessness and that the Iran-Contra affair lowered American credibility.
Opinions of Reagan's legacy among the country's leading policy makers and journalists differ as well. Edwin Feulner, President of The Heritage Foundation, said that Reagan "helped create a safer, freer world" and said of his economic policies: "He took an America suffering from 'malaise'... and made its citizens believe again in their destiny." However, Mark Weisbrot, co-Director of the Center for Economic and Policy Research, contended that Reagan's "economic policies were mostly a failure" while Howard Kurtz of The Washington Post opined that Reagan was "a far more controversial figure in his time than the largely gushing obits on television would suggest."
Despite the continuing debate surrounding his legacy, many conservative and liberal scholars agree that Reagan has been the most influential president since Franklin D. Roosevelt, leaving his imprint on American politics, diplomacy, culture, and economics through his effective communication, dedicated patriotism and pragmatic compromising. Since he left office, historians have reached a consensus, as summarized by British historian M. J. Heale, who finds that scholars now concur that Reagan rehabilitated conservatism, turned the nation to the right, practiced a considerably pragmatic conservatism that balanced ideology and the constraints of politics, revived faith in the presidency and in American exceptionalism, and contributed to victory in the Cold War.
The Cold War was a major political, economic and military endeavor for over four decades, but the confrontation between the two superpowers had decreased dramatically by the end of Reagan's presidency. The significance of Reagan's role in ending the Cold War has spurred contentious and opinionated debate. That Reagan played a role in contributing to the downfall of the Soviet Union is agreed, but the extent of this role is continuously debated, with many believing that Reagan's defense policies, economic policies, military policies and hard line rhetoric against the Soviet Union and Communism, as well as summits with General Secretary Gorbachev played a significant part in ending the Cold War.
He was first among post–World War II presidents to put into practice the concept that the Soviet Union could be defeated rather than simply negotiated with, a post-Détente strategy, a conviction that was vindicated by Gennadi Gerasimov, the Foreign Ministry spokesman under Gorbachev, who said that the Strategic Defense Initiative was "very successful blackmail. ... The Soviet economy couldn't endure such competition." Reagan's aggressive rhetoric toward the USSR had mixed effects; Jeffery W. Knopf observes that being labeled "evil" probably made no difference to the Soviets but gave encouragement to the East-European citizens opposed to communism.
General Secretary Gorbachev said of his former rival's Cold War role: "[He was] a man who was instrumental in bringing about the end of the Cold War", and deemed him "a great President". Gorbachev does not acknowledge a win or loss in the war, but rather a peaceful end; he said he was not intimidated by Reagan's harsh rhetoric. Margaret Thatcher, former Prime Minister of the United Kingdom, said of Reagan, "he warned that the Soviet Union had an insatiable drive for military power... but he also sensed it was being eaten away by systemic failures impossible to reform." She later said, "Ronald Reagan had a higher claim than any other leader to have won the Cold War for liberty and he did it without a shot being fired." Said Brian Mulroney, former Prime Minister of Canada: "He enters history as a strong and dramatic player [in the Cold War]." Former President Lech Wałęsa of Poland acknowledged, "Reagan was one of the world leaders who made a major contribution to communism's collapse." That Reagan had little or no effect in ending the Cold War is argued with equal weight; that Communism's internal weakness had become apparent, and the Soviet Union would have collapsed in the end regardless of who was in power. President Harry Truman's policy of containment is also regarded as a force behind the fall of the U.S.S.R., and the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan undermined the Soviet system itself.
Domestic and political legacy
Ronald Reagan reshaped the Republican party, led the modern conservative movement, and altered the political dynamic of the United States. More men voted Republican under Reagan, and Reagan tapped into religious voters. The so-called "Reagan Democrats" were a result of his presidency.
After leaving office, Reagan became an iconic influence within the Republican party. His policies and beliefs have been frequently invoked by Republican presidential candidates since 1989. The 2008 Republican presidential candidates were no exception, for they aimed to liken themselves to him during the primary debates, even imitating his campaign strategies. Republican nominee John McCain frequently said that he came to office as "a foot soldier in the Reagan Revolution". Reagan's most famous statement regarding the role of smaller government was that "Government is not a solution to our problem, government is the problem."
Cultural and political image
According to columnist Chuck Raasch, "Reagan transformed the American presidency in ways that only a few have been able to". He redefined the political agenda of the times, advocating lower taxes, a conservative economic philosophy, and a stronger military. His role in the Cold War further enhanced his image as a different kind of leader. Reagan's "avuncular style, optimism, and plain-folks demeanor" also helped him turn "government-bashing into an art form".
|Date||Event||Approval (%)||Disapproval (%)|
|March 30, 1981||Shot by Hinckley||73||19|
|January 22, 1983||High unemployment||42||54|
|April 26, 1986||Libya bombing||70||26|
|February 26, 1987||Iran-Contra affair||44||51|
|January 20, 1989||End of presidency||64|
|July 30, 2001||(Retrospective)||64||27|
As a sitting president, Reagan did not have the highest approval ratings, but his popularity has increased since 1989. Gallup polls in 2001 and 2007 ranked him number one or number two when correspondents were asked for the greatest president in history. Reagan ranked third of post–World War II presidents in a 2007 Rasmussen Reports poll, fifth in an ABC 2000 poll, ninth in another 2007 Rasmussen poll, and eighth in a late 2008 poll by United Kingdom newspaper The Times. In a Siena College survey of over 200 historians, however, Reagan ranked sixteenth out of 42. While the debate about Reagan's legacy is ongoing, the 2009 Annual C-SPAN Survey of Presidential Leaders ranked Reagan the 10th greatest president. The survey of leading historians rated Reagan number 11 in 2000.
In 2011, the Institute for the Study of the Americas released the first ever UK academic survey to rate U.S. presidents. This poll of UK specialists in U.S. history and politics placed Reagan as the 8th greatest U.S. president.
Reagan's ability to connect with Americans earned him the laudatory moniker "The Great Communicator". Of it, Reagan said, "I won the nickname the great communicator. But I never thought it was my style that made a difference—it was the content. I wasn't a great communicator, but I communicated great things." His age and soft-spoken speech gave him a warm grandfatherly image.
Reagan also earned the nickname "the Teflon President", in that public perceptions of him were not tarnished by the controversies that arose during his administration. According to Congresswoman Patricia Schroeder, who coined the phrase, and reporter Howard Kurtz, the epithet referred to Reagan's ability to "do almost anything wrong and not get blamed for it".
Public reaction to Reagan was always mixed; the oldest president was supported by young voters, and began an alliance that shifted many of them to the Republican party. Reagan did not fare well with minority groups, especially African-Americans. This was largely due to his opposition to affirmative action policies. However, his support of Israel throughout his presidency earned him support from many Jews. He emphasized family values in his campaigns and during his presidency, although he was the first president to have been divorced. The combination of Reagan's speaking style, unabashed patriotism, negotiation skills, as well as his savvy use of the media, played an important role in defining the 1980s and his future legacy.
Reagan was known to joke frequently during his lifetime, displayed humor throughout his presidency, and was famous for his storytelling. His numerous jokes and one-liners have been labeled "classic quips" and "legendary". Among the most notable of his jokes was one regarding the Cold War. As a microphone test in preparation for his weekly radio address in August 1984, Reagan made the following joke: "My fellow Americans, I'm pleased to tell you today that I've signed legislation that will outlaw Russia forever. We begin bombing in five minutes." Former aide David Gergen commented, "It was that humor... that I think endeared people to Reagan."
Reagan received a number of awards in his pre- and post-presidential years. After his election as president, Reagan received a lifetime gold membership in the Screen Actors Guild, was inducted into the National Speakers Association Speaker Hall of Fame and received the United States Military Academy's Sylvanus Thayer Award.
In 1989, Reagan was made an Honorary Knight Grand Cross of the Order of the Bath, one of the highest British orders (this entitled him to the use of the post-nominal letters "GCB" but, as a foreign national, not to be known as "Sir Ronald Reagan"); only two American presidents have received this honor, Reagan and George H.W. Bush. Reagan was also named an honorary Fellow of Keble College, Oxford. Japan awarded him the Grand Cordon of the Order of the Chrysanthemum in 1989; he was the second American president to receive the order and the first to have it given to him for personal reasons (Dwight D. Eisenhower received it as a commemoration of U.S.-Japanese relations).
On January 18, 1993, Reagan's former Vice-President and sitting President George H. W. Bush awarded him the Presidential Medal of Freedom (awarded with distinction), the highest honor that the United States can bestow. Reagan was also awarded the Republican Senatorial Medal of Freedom, the highest honor bestowed by Republican members of the Senate.
On Reagan's 87th birthday, in 1998, Washington National Airport was renamed Ronald Reagan Washington National Airport by a bill signed into law by President Bill Clinton. That year, the Ronald Reagan Building and International Trade Center was dedicated in Washington, D.C. He was among 18 included in Gallup's List of Widely Admired People of the 20th century, from a poll conducted in the U.S. in 1999; two years later, USS Ronald Reagan was christened by Nancy Reagan and the United States Navy. It is one of few Navy ships christened in honor of a living person and the first aircraft carrier to be named in honor of a living former president.
In 1998 the U.S. Navy Memorial Foundation awarded Reagan its Naval Heritage award for his support of the U S Navy and military in both his film career and while he served as President.
Congress authorized the creation of the Ronald Reagan Boyhood Home National Historic Site in Dixon, Illinois in 2002, pending federal purchase of the property. On May 16 of that year, Nancy Reagan accepted the Congressional Gold Medal, the highest civilian honor bestowed by Congress, on behalf of the president and herself.
After Reagan's death, the United States Postal Service issued a President Ronald Reagan commemorative postage stamp in 2005. Later in the year, CNN, along with the editors of Time magazine, named him the "most fascinating person" of the network's first 25 years; Time listed Reagan one of the 100 Most Important People of the 20th century as well. The Discovery Channel asked its viewers to vote for The Greatest American in June 2005; Reagan placed in first place, ahead of Lincoln and Martin Luther King Jr.
In 2006, Reagan was inducted into the California Hall of Fame, located at The California Museum for History, Women, and the Arts. Every year since 2002, California Governors Gray Davis and Arnold Schwarzenegger have proclaimed February 6 "Ronald Reagan Day" in the state of California in honor of their most famous predecessor. In 2010, Schwarzenegger signed Senate Bill 944, authored by Senator George Runner, to make every February 6 Ronald Reagan Day in California.
In 2007, Polish President Lech Kaczyński posthumously conferred on Reagan the highest Polish distinction, the Order of the White Eagle, saying that Reagan had inspired the Polish people to work for change and helped to unseat the repressive communist regime; Kaczyński said it "would not have been possible if it was not for the tough-mindedness, determination, and feeling of mission of President Ronald Reagan". Reagan backed the nation of Poland throughout his presidency, supporting the anti-communist Solidarity movement, along with Pope John Paul II; the Ronald Reagan Park, a public facility in Gdańsk, was named in his honor.
On June 3, 2009, Nancy Reagan unveiled a statue of her late husband in the United States Capitol rotunda. The statue represents the state of California in the National Statuary Hall Collection. After Reagan's death, both major American political parties agreed to erect a statue of Reagan in the place of that of Thomas Starr King. The day before, President Obama signed the Ronald Reagan Centennial Commission Act into law, establishing a commission to plan activities to mark the upcoming centenary of Reagan's birth.
Independence Day 2011 saw the unveiling of another statue to Reagan this time in the British capital of London, outside the American Embassy, Grosvenor Square. The unveiling was supposed to be attended by Reagan's wife Nancy, but she did not attend; former Secretary of State Condoleezza Rice took her place and read a statement on her behalf; further to the former First Lady's absence President Reagan's friend and the British Prime Minister during Reagan's presidency Baroness Thatcher was also unable to attend due to frail health.
- List of Presidents of the United States
- List of Presidents of the United States, sortable by previous experience
- Political positions of Ronald Reagan
- U.S. presidents on U.S. postage stamps
- Ronald Reagan: The Heritage Foundation Remembers. Reagansheritage.org. Retrieved July 15, 2013.
- Gingrich, Newt (Spring–Summer 2008). "The Evil Empire" 58 (4). American Heritage. Retrieved July 22, 2010.
- "Main Street Historic District, National Register of Historic Places Nomination Form". Illinois Historic Preservation Agency. April 1, 1982. Archived from the original on August 7, 2007. Retrieved July 27, 2007.
- Terry Golway, Ronald Reagan's America (2008) p. 1
- Kengor, p. 4
- Lynette Holloway (December 13, 1996). "Neil Reagan, 88, Ad Executive And Jovial Brother of President". The New York Times. Retrieved March 22, 2009.
- "Ronald Reagan Facts". Ronald Reagan Presidential Foundation. Retrieved June 9, 2007.
- Janssen, Kim. "Is Ronald Reagan's Chicago boyhood home doomed?". Chicago Sun-Times. Retrieved June 12, 2012.
- Schribman, David (June 6, 2004). "Reagan, all-American, dies at 93". Boston Globe. Retrieved January 17, 2008.
- Kengor, p. 16
- Lewis, Warren and Rollmann, Hans, ed. (2005). Restoring the First-century Church in the Twenty-first Century. Wipf and Stock. pp. 181–192. ISBN 1-59752-416-6.
- Kengor, p. 15
- Cannon (2001), p. 2
- Reagan (1990), p. 27
- "School House to White House: The Education of the Presidents". National Archives and Records Administration. Retrieved December 30, 2007.
- "Ronald Reagan (1911–2004): Small town to tinseltown". CNN, 2004. Retrieved August 15, 2007.
- Yellin, Emily (July 17, 1999). "School Spirit Inc.; Millions of Cheerleaders Create a Growth Industry". The New York Times.
- "Cheerleading in the Context of Title IX and Gendering in Sport". The Sport Journal. Retrieved November 19, 2012.
- Cannon (2003), p. 25; Reagan (1990) p. 48
- Cannon, Lou (June 6, 2004). "Actor, Governor, President, Icon". The Washington Post. p. A01. Retrieved January 26, 2008.
- Wills, pp. 109–110
- "Biography > A Hero from the Heartland". Ronald Reagan Presidential Foundation. Archived from the original on October 31, 2007. Retrieved December 30, 2007.
- "Ronald Reagan > Hollywood Years". Ronald Reagan Presidential Foundation. Archived from the original on March 12, 2007. Retrieved March 28, 2007.
- Cannon (2001), p. 15
- "CUPID'S INFLUENCE ON THE FILM BOX-OFFICE.". The Argus (Melbourne, Vic. : 1848 - 1956) (Melbourne, Vic.: National Library of Australia). October 4, 1941. p. 7 Supplement: The Argus Week-end Magazine. Retrieved April 24, 2012.
- Reagan, Ronald (1965). Where's the Rest of Me?. New York: Duell, Sloan, and Pearce. ISBN 0-283-98771-5.
- Wood, Brett. "Kings Row". TCM website. Turner Classic Movies. Retrieved March 24, 2009.
- Crowther, Bosley (February 3, 1942). "The Screen; 'Kings Row,' With Ann Sheridan and Claude Rains, a Heavy, Rambling Film, Has Its First Showing Here at the Astor". The New York Times. Retrieved March 29, 2007.
- Cannon (2003), pp. 56–57
- Friedrich, Otto (1997). City of nets: a portrait of Hollywood in the 1940s. University of California Press (reprint). pp. 86–89. ISBN 978-0-520-20949-7.
- "Ronald Reagan". Internet Movie Database. Retrieved December 30, 2007.
- Skinner, et al. (2003), p. 836
- "Military service of Ronald Reagan". Ronald Reagan Presidential Library. Retrieved June 22, 2007.
- "History of the 11th Armored Cavalry Regiment". 11th Armored Cavalry Regiment. Archived from the original on July 1, 2007. Retrieved November 10, 2008.
- "USS Ronald Reagan: Ronald Reagan". United States Navy. Archived from the original on October 30, 2007. Retrieved March 7, 2007.
- "President Ronald Reagan". National Museum of the United States Air Force. Retrieved December 30, 2007.
- "Ronald Reagan 1911–2004". Tampico, Illinois Historical Society. Archived from the original on May 16, 2006. Retrieved December 30, 2007.
- Hurlburt, Roger (January 6, 1991). "Monroe An Exhibit Of The Early Days Of Marilyn Monroe - Before She Became A Legend - Brings The Star's History In Focus.". Sun-Sentinel (Fort Lauderdale, FL). Retrieved November 19, 2012.
- Cannon, Lou (1991), pp.486–90
- Schaller, M., Reckoning with Reagan, New York: Oxford University Press, 1992, p.9
- Shultz, George (1993), p. 550
- "Screen Actors Guild Presidents: Ronald Reagan". Screen Actors Guild. Archived from the original on December 28, 2007. Retrieved November 10, 2008.
- "American Notes Hollywood". Time. September 9, 1985. Retrieved April 21, 2009.
- "House Un-American Activities Committee Testimony: Ronald Reagan". Tennessee Wesleyan College. October 23, 1947. Archived from the original on December 15, 2007. Retrieved December 30, 2007.
- "Death Valley Days". CBS Interactive Inc. Retrieved August 25, 2013.
- Reagan, American Icon. Metzger, Robert Paul. 1989. University of Pennsylvania. p. 26
- "Dispute Over Theatre Splits Chicago City Council". The New York Times. May 8, 1984. Retrieved May 17, 2007.
- Oliver, Marilyn (March 31, 1988). "Locations Range From the Exotic to the Pristine". Los Angeles Times.
- "Jane Wyman: Biography". JaneWyman.com. Retrieved December 31, 2007.
- Severo, Richard (September 11, 2007). "Jane Wyman, 90, Star of Film and TV, Is Dead". The New York Times. Retrieved December 31, 2007.
- National Constitution Center (February 6, 2013). "10 interesting facts on Ronald Reagan's birthday". National Constitution Center. Retrieved July 12, 2013.
- POLITICO. "Jane Wyman, Ronald Reagan's first wife, dies at 93". politico.com.
- "Nancy Reagan > Her Life & Times". Ronald Reagan Presidential Foundation. Archived from the original on November 12, 2007. Retrieved October 29, 2007.
- "End of a Love Story". BBC News. June 5, 2004. Retrieved March 21, 2007.
- "Nancy Davis Reagan". The White House. Retrieved January 13, 2008.
- Beschloss, p. 296
- Berry, Deborah Barfield (June 6, 2004). "By Reagan's Side, but her own person". Newsday. Retrieved August 15, 2007.[dead link]
- "Reagan Love Story". msnbc.com. June 9, 2004. Retrieved May 25, 2007.
- Beschloss, p. 284
- "President Reagan's Legacy and U.S. Nuclear Weapons Policy.". Heritage.org. 2006-07-20. Retrieved 2014-04-14.
- McCullough, David. Truman. Simon & Schuster, 1992, p. 665. ISBN 0671456547.
- "Nancy Reagan". Nndb.com. Retrieved August 12, 2011.
- Reagan, Ronald (1990). An American Life: The Autobiography. New York City: Simon & Schuster. ISBN 0671691988. Retrieved 31 March 2014.
- Pemberton (1998) pp. 29–31; Reagan (1990), p. 132.
- "The Crist Switch: Top 10 Political Defections". Time. May 2010. Retrieved 31 March 2014.
- "Corporate spokesman and rising conservative – Ronald Reagan – policy, election, foreign". Presidentprofiles.com. Retrieved August 12, 2011.
- "The Education of Ronald Reagan". Cup.columbia.edu. Retrieved August 12, 2011.
- Thomas W. Evans, The Education of Ronald Reagan: The General Electric Years and the Untold Story of His Conversion to Conservatism (2008).
- Cannon (2003), p. 113.
- Hayward, p. 635.
- Longley, Kyle. Deconstructing Reagan: conservative mythology and America's fortieth president, M.E. Sharpe, 2007 ISBN 0-7656-1590-8 p. 76.
- "Ronald Reagan Speaks Out Against Socialized Medicine". YouTube. Retrieved March 8, 2010.
- JohnL (July 23, 2004). "Operation Coffee Cup". TexasBestGrok. Retrieved March 8, 2010.
- Richard Rapaport, June 21, 2009, How AMA 'Coffeecup' gave Reagan a boost. San Francisco Chronicle.
- Tatalovich, Raymond; Byron W. Daynes, Theodore J. Lowi (2010). Moral Controversies in American Politics (4th ed.). M.E. Sharpe. p. 172. ISBN 978-0-7656-2651-6.
- "A Time for Choosing". PBS. Retrieved April 17, 2007.
- Richard A. Harris, Daniel J. Tichenor. A History of the U.S. Political System: Ideas, Interests, and Institutions, Volume 1. Santa Barbara, California, USA: ABC-CLIO, 2009. Pp. 384.
- Cannon (2001), p. 36.
- "The Governors' Gallery – Ronald Reagan". California State Library. Retrieved March 21, 2007.
- Kahn, Jeffery (June 8, 2004). "Ronald Reagan launched political career using the Berkeley campus as a target". UC Berkeley News. Retrieved March 30, 2007.
- Cannon (2001), p. 47.
- *Fischer, Klaus (2006). America in White, Black, and Gray: The Stormy 1960s. Continuum. pp. 241–243. ISBN 0-8264-1816-3.
- "The New Rules of Play". Time. March 8, 1968. Retrieved October 16, 2007.
- Cannon, Lou (2001), p. 50.
- "Postscript to People's Park". Time. February 16, 1970. Retrieved December 9, 2007.
- Cannon, Lou (2003), p. 295.
- Reagan's botulism joke is variously reported as "sometimes you wonder whether there shouldn't be an outbreak of botulism" (Sarasota Journal, March 7, 1974, p.15A) and "It's just too bad we can't have an epidemic of botulism" (Los Angeles Times, March 14, 1974, "Reagan Raps Press on Botulism Quote".)
- "A Brief History of UCPD: Berkeley, History Topic: People's Park". http://police.berkeley.edu/. August 2006.
- Cannon (2001), p. 51
- Reagan, Ronald. (1984) Abortion and the conscience of the nation. Nashville: T. Nelson. ISBN 0-8407-4116-2
- Recall Idea Got Its Start in L.A. in 1898, Los Angeles Times, July 13, 2003
- Seneker, Carl J (May 1967). "Governor Reagan and Executive Clemency". California Law Review 55 (2): 412–418. doi:10.2307/3479351. JSTOR 3479351.
- Community Property and Family Law: The Family Law Act of 1969 by Aidan R. Gough, http://digitalcommons.law.ggu.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1057&context=callaw
- 1969 Cal. Stats. chapter 1608, page 3313
- Kubarych, Roger M (June 9, 2004). "The Reagan Economic Legacy". Council on Foreign Relations. Retrieved August 22, 2007.
- "Biography of Gerald R. Ford". The White House. Retrieved March 29, 2007. Ford considered himself a "a moderate in domestic affairs, a conservative in fiscal affairs, and a dyed-in-the-wool internationalist in foreign affairs".
- "Candidate Reagan is Born Again". Time. September 24, 1979. Retrieved May 10, 2008.
- "1976 New Hampshire presidential Primary, February 24, 1976 Republican Results". New Hampshire Political Library. Archived from the original on October 6, 2006. Retrieved November 10, 2008.
- Hathorn Billy (2010). "Mayor Ernest Angelo Jr., of Midland and the 96–0 Reagan Sweep of Texas, May 1, 1976". West Texas Historical Association Yearbook 86: 77–91.
- "Electoral College Box Scores 1789–1996". U.S. National Archives and Records Admin. Retrieved April 30, 2007.
- "Register of the Ronald Reagan Radio Commentary Sound Recordings, 1967-1980". Retrieved October 7, 2014.
- "Citizens for the Republic: Who We Are". cftr.org. Retrieved September 19, 2013.
- Uchitelle, Louis (September 22, 1988). "Bush, Like Reagan in 1980, Seeks Tax Cuts to Stimulate the Economy". The New York Times. Retrieved February 6, 2008.
- Hakim, Danny (March 14, 2006). "Challengers to Clinton Discuss Plans and Answer Questions". The New York Times. Retrieved February 6, 2008.
- Kneeland, Douglas E. (August 4, 1980) "Reagan Campaigns at Mississippi Fair; Nominee Tells Crowd of 10,000 He Is Backing States' Rights". The New York Times. p. A11. Retrieved January 1, 2008.
- Campaign ad on video on YouTube
- John David Lees, Michael Turner. Reagan's first four years: a new beginning? Manchester University Press ND, 1988. p. 11
- "1980 Presidential Election Results". Atlas of U.S. Presidential Elections. Retrieved March 28, 2007.
- *Freidel, Frank; Sidey, Hugh (1995). The Presidents of the United States of America. Washington, D.C.: White House Historical Association. p. 84. ISBN 0-912308-57-5.
- Hayward, Steven F (May 16, 2005). "Reagan in Retrospect". American Enterprise Institute for Public Policy Research. Archived from the original on March 13, 2009. Retrieved April 7, 2009.
- Cannon (1991, 2000), p. 746
- Reagan, Ronald (2007). The Reagan Diaries. Harper Collins. ISBN 0-06-087600-X. Retrieved June 5, 2007.
- Murray, Robert K.; Tim H. Blessing (1993). Greatness in the White House. Penn State Press. p. 80. ISBN 0-271-02486-0.
- David M. Ackerman, The Law of Church and State: Developments in the Supreme Court Since 1980. Novinka Books, 2001. Page 2.
- The New York Times, Reagan Proposes School Prayer Amendment. May 18, 1982.
- Joseph Telushkin, Rebbe: The Life and Teachings of Menachem M. Schneerson, the Most Influential Rabbi in Modern History. HarperCollins, 2014. Page 130.
- Ronald Reagan, Address Before a Joint Session of the Congress on the State of the Union. January 25, 1984
- George de Lama, Reagan Sees An "Uphill Battle" For Prayer In Public Schools. June 07, 1985, Chicago Tribune.
- Stuart Taylor Jr., High Court Accepts Appeal Of Moment Of Silence Law. January 28, 1987, The New York times.
- Lodi News-Sentinel, Reagan Urges School 'Moment of Silence'. Jul 12, 1984.
- "Remembering the Assassination Attempt on Ronald Reagan". CNN. March 30, 2001. Retrieved December 19, 2007.
- D'Souza, Dinesh (June 8, 2004). "Purpose". National Review. Archived from the original on February 3, 2009. Retrieved February 16, 2009.
- Langer, Gary (June 7, 2004). "Reagan's Ratings: 'Great Communicator's' Appeal Is Greater in Retrospect". ABC. Retrieved May 30, 2008.
- Kengor, Paul (2004). "Reagan's Catholic Connections". Catholic Exchange. Retrieved May 30, 2008.
- Herbert R. Northrup, "[www.jstor.org/stable/2522839 The Rise And Demise Of PATCO]", Industrial and Labor Relations Review, Jan 1984, Vol. 37 Issue 2, pp 167–184
- "Remarks and a Question-and-Answer Session With Reporters on the Air Traffic Controllers Strike". Ronald Reagan Presidential Foundation. 1981. Retrieved May 13, 2007.
- "Unhappy Again". Time. October 6, 1986. Retrieved August 15, 2007.
- David Schultz, Encyclopedia of public administration and public policy (2004) p 359
- Cannon (1991, 2000), p. 235.
- "Employment status of the civilian noninstitutional population 16 years and over, 1940 to date". United States Bureau of Labor Statistics. Retrieved December 6, 2010.
- "Labor Force Statistics from the Current Population Survey". Data.bls.gov. August 17, 2011. Retrieved October 4, 2012.
- Karaagac, John (2000). Ronald Reagan and Conservative Reformism. Lexington Books. p. 113. ISBN 0-7391-0296-6.
- Cannon (2001) p. 99
- Hayward, pp. 146–48
- Bartels, Larry M., L. M. (June 1, 1991). "Constituency Opinion and Congressional Policy Making: The Reagan Defense Build Up". The American Political Science Review 85 (2): 457–474. doi:10.2307/1963169. ISSN 0003-0554. JSTOR 1963169.
- Mitchell, Daniel J. (July 19, 1996). "The Historical Lessons of Lower Tax Rates". The Heritage Foundation. Retrieved May 22, 2007.
- Sahadi, Jeanne, "Taxes: What people forget about Reagan", CNN, September 12, 2010.
- Bruce Bartlett on Tax Increases & Reagan on NRO Financial. Old.nationalreview.com (October 29, 2003). Retrieved August 14, 2010.
- "Higher Taxes: Will The Republicans Cry Wolf Again?", Forbes. Retrieved August 14, 2010.
- Tempalski, Jerry (2003). "OTA Paper 81 – Revenue Effects of Major Tax Bills, rev. September 2006" (PDF). United States Department of the Treasury, Office of Tax Analysis. Retrieved November 28, 2007.
- Krugman, Paul (June 8, 2004). "The Great Taxer". The New York Times. Retrieved March 30, 2010.
- "Even Reagan Raised Taxes", Forbes. Retrieved August 14, 2010.
- "Gross Domestic Product" (Excel). Bureau of Economic Analysis. July 27, 2007. Retrieved August 15, 2007.
- Hayward, p. 185
- Cannon (2001), p. 128
- Tempalski (2006), Table 2
- "Historical Budget Data". Congressional Budget Office. March 20, 2009. Archived from the original on July 30, 2008. Retrieved August 10, 2009.
- "Federal Budget Receipts and Outlays". Presidency.ucsb.edu. Retrieved March 8, 2010.
- "Annual Statistical Supplement, 2008 – Old-Age, Survivors, and Disability Insurance Trust Funds (4.A)" (PDF). Retrieved March 8, 2010.
- Birnbaum, Jeffrey H. (October 22, 2006). "Taxing Lessons, 20 Years In the Making". The Washington Post. p. B02. Retrieved September 13, 2008.
- Gwartney, James D. "Supply-Side Economics". The Concise Encyclopedia of Economics. Retrieved August 21, 2007.
- "Reaganomics". PBS. June 10, 2004. Retrieved August 21, 2007.
- Meacham, John; Andrew Murr, Eleanor Clift, Tamara Lipper, Karen Breslau, and Jennifer Ordonez (June 14, 2004). "American Dreamer". Newsweek. Retrieved June 3, 2008.
- Don't add Reagan's Face to Mount Rushmore by Dr. Peter Dreier, The Nation, April 3, 2011
- "Making Sense of the 'Me Decade'". The Chronicle of Higher Education. Retrieved January 13, 2012.
- Bartlett, Bruce (June 5, 2012). "Rich Nontaxpayers". The New York Times.
- Kocieniewski, David (January 18, 2012). "Since 1980s, the Kindest of Tax Cuts for the Rich". The New York Times. Retrieved January 21, 2012.
- Rampell, Catherine (November 18, 2011). "Tax Pledge May Scuttle a Deal on Deficit". The New York Times. Retrieved January 27, 2012.
- Krugman, Paul (June 8, 2004). "The Great Taxer". The New York Times. Retrieved August 30, 2011.
- Barlett, Paul (April 6, 2012). "Reagan's Tax Increases". The New York Times. Retrieved April 29, 2012.
- Rosenbaum, David E (January 8, 1986). "Reagan insists Budget Cuts are way to Reduce Deficit". The New York Times. Retrieved August 21, 2008.
- "Ronald Reagan: Presidency>>Domestic policies". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved August 21, 2008.
- "Views from the Former Administrators". EPA Journal. Environmental Protection Agency. November 1985. Archived from the original on July 15, 2008. Retrieved August 21, 2008.
- "The Reagan Presidency". Reagan Presidential Foundation. Retrieved August 4, 2008.
- Pear, Robert (April 19, 1992). "U.S. to Reconsider Denial of Benefits to Many Disabled". The New York Times. Retrieved May 23, 2008.
- Ely, Bert. "Savings and Loan Crisis". Liberty Fund. Retrieved August 17, 2007.
- Bergsten, C. Fred (2001). "Strong Dollar, Weak Policy" (Reprint). The International Economy. Retrieved August 17, 2007.
- Sornette, Didier; Johansen, Anders; &Amp,; Bouchaud, Jean-Philippe (1996). "Stock Market Crashes, Precursors and Replicas". Journal de Physique I 6 (1): 167–175. doi:10.1051/jp1:1996135.
- "Historical Debt Outstanding". U.S. Treasury Department. Retrieved September 8, 2010.
- Brandly, Mark (May 20, 2004). "Will We Run Out of Energy?". Ludwig von Mises Institute. Retrieved November 6, 2008.
- Lieberman, Ben (September 1, 2005). "A Bad Response To Post-Katrina Gas Prices". The Heritage Foundation. Retrieved November 6, 2008.
- Lieberman, Ben (September 1, 2005). "A Bad Response To Post-Katrina Gas Prices". Heritage Foundation. Retrieved November 6, 2008.
- Thorndike, Joseph J. (November 10, 2005). "Historical Perspective: The Windfall Profit Tax—Career of a Concept". TaxHistory.org. Retrieved November 6, 2008.
- "Reagan's Economic Legacy". Business Week. June 21, 2004. Retrieved July 1, 2007.
- Koprowski, Gene (March 7, 1991). "Tech Intelligence Revival? Commerce May Model on DIA's Project Socrates". Washington Technology.
- Smith, Esther (May 5, 1988). "DoD Unveils Competitive Tool: Project Socrates Offers Valuable Analysis". Washington Technology.
- "Towards an International History of the War in Afghanistan, 1979–89". The Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars. 2002. Archived from the original on September 30, 2007. Retrieved May 16, 2007.
- "LGM-118A Peacekeeper". Federation of American Scientists. August 15, 2000. Retrieved April 10, 2007.
- "Großdemo gegen Nato-Doppelbeschluss, SPIEGEL on the mass protests against deployment of nuclear weapons in West Germany".
- Reagan, Ronald. (June 8, 1982). "Ronald Reagan Address to British Parliament". The History Place. Retrieved April 19, 2006.
- "Reagan and Thatcher, political soul mates". msnbc.com. Associated Press. June 5, 2004. Retrieved June 24, 2008.
- Robert C. Rowland, and John M. Jones. Reagan at Westminster: Foreshadowing the End of the Cold War (Texas A&M University Press; 2010)
- "Addresses to both Houses of Parliament since 1939", Parliamentary Information List, Standard Note: SN/PC/4092, Last updated: November 12, 2014, Author: Department of Information Services
- "Former President Reagan Dies at 93". Los Angeles Times. June 6, 2004. Retrieved March 7, 2007.
- Cannon (1991), pp. 314–317.
- "1983: Korean Airlines flight shot down by Soviet Union". A&E Television. Retrieved April 10, 2007.
- Pace (1995). "GPS History, Chronology, and Budgets". The Global Positioning System. Rand. p. 248.
- Pellerin, United States Updates Global Positioning System Technology: New GPS satellite ushers in a range of future improvements
- Stephen S. Rosenfeld (Spring 1986). "The Reagan Doctrine: The Guns of July". Foreign Affairs 64 (4).
- Crile, George (2003). Charlie Wilson's War: The Extraordinary Story of the Largest Covert Operation in History. Atlantic Monthly Press. ISBN 0-87113-854-9.
- Pach, Chester (2006). "The Reagan Doctrine: Principle, Pragmatism, and Policy". Presidential Studies Quarterly 36 (1): 75–88. doi:10.1111/j.1741-5705.2006.00288.x. JSTOR 27552748.
- Coll, Steve (July 19, 1992). "Anatomy of a Victory: CIA's Covert Afghan War". The Washington Post. Retrieved February 24, 2009.
- Harnden, Toby (September 26, 2001). "Taliban still have Reagan's Stingers". The Telegraph (London). Retrieved September 17, 2010.
- Harrison, Selig S. "A Chinese Civil War." The National Interest, February 7, 2011.
- "Deploy or Perish: SDI and Domestic Politics". Scholarship Editions. Retrieved April 10, 2007.
- Adelman, Ken (July 8, 2003). "SDI:The Next Generation". Fox News. Retrieved March 15, 2007.
- Beschloss, p. 293
- "Foreign Affairs: Ronald Reagan". PBS. Retrieved June 6, 2007.
- Beschloss, p. 294
- Thomas, Rhys (Writer/Producer) (2005). The Presidents (Documentary). A&E Television.
- Richard Allen Greene, "Critics question Reagan legacy", BBC News, June 9, 2004
- What Guilt Does the U.S. Bear in Guatemala? The New York Times, 19 May 2013. Retrieved 1 July 2014.
- Timothy J. Geraghty (2009). Peacekeepers at War: Beirut 1983—The Marine Commander Tells His Story. Potomac Books. p. 254. ISBN 978-1-59797-595-7.
- Lou Cannon and Carl M. Cannon (2007). Reagan's Disciple: George W. Bush's Troubled Quest for a Presidential Legacy. PublicAffairs. p. 154.
- "Operation Agent Fury" (PDF). Defense Technical Information Center. Archived from the original on June 5, 2007. Retrieved March 9, 2007.
- Cooper, Tom (September 1, 2003). "Grenada, 1983: Operation 'Urgent Fury'". Air Combat Information Group. Retrieved April 8, 2007.
- "Los Angeles 1984". Swedish Olympic Committee. Retrieved March 7, 2007.
- "The Debate: Mondale vs. Reagan". National Review. October 4, 2004. Archived from the original on April 16, 2007. Retrieved May 25, 2007.
- "Reaction to first Mondale/Reagan debate". PBS. October 8, 1984. Retrieved December 31, 2007.
- "1984 Presidential Debates". CNN. Retrieved May 25, 2007.
- "1984 Presidential Election Results". David Leip. Retrieved May 25, 2007.
- "The Reagan Presidency". Ronald Reagan Presidential Foundation. Retrieved April 19, 2008.
- "Phil Gailey and Warren Weaver Jr., "Briefing"". The New York Times. June 5, 1982. Retrieved January 27, 2011.
- Buchanan, Pat (1999). "Pat Buchanan's Response to Norman Podhoretz's OP-ED". The Internet Brigade. Archived from the original on September 27, 2007. Retrieved September 3, 2007.
- Reeves, p. 249
- Reeves, p. 255
- Berkes, Howard (January 28, 2006). "Challenger: Reporting a Disaster's Cold, Hard Facts". NPR. Retrieved April 19, 2008.
- Noonan, Peggy (January 28, 1986). "Address to the Nation on the Explosion of the Space Shuttle Challenger". University of Texas. Retrieved December 27, 2009.
- Alexander, Michelle (2010). The New Jim Crow. New York: The New Press. p. 5. ISBN 978-1595581037.
- Lamar, Jacob V., Jr (September 22, 1986). "Rolling Out the Big Guns". Time. Retrieved August 20, 2007.
- Randall, Vernellia R. (April 18, 2006). "The Drug War as Race War". The University of Dayton School of Law. Retrieved April 11, 2007.
- "Thirty Years of America's Drug War". Retrieved April 4, 2007.
- "The Reagan-Era Drug War Legacy". Drug Reform Coordination Network. June 11, 2004. Retrieved April 4, 2007.
- "NIDA InfoFacts: High School and Youth Trends". National Institute on Drug Abuse, NIH. Retrieved April 4, 2007.
- "Interview: Dr. Herbert Kleber". PBS. Retrieved June 12, 2007.
The politics of the Reagan years and the Bush years probably made it somewhat harder to get treatment expanded, but at the same time, it probably had a good effect in terms of decreasing initiation and use. For example, marijuana went from thirty-three percent of high-school seniors in 1980 to twelve percent in 1991.
- "The 'just say no' first lady". msnbc.com. February 18, 2004. Retrieved June 24, 2007.
- "Libya: Fury in the Isolation Ward". Time. August 23, 1982. Retrieved August 12, 2011.
- "Operation El Dorado Canyon". GlobalSecurity.org. April 25, 2005. Retrieved April 19, 2008.
- "1986:US Launches air-strike on Libya". BBC News. April 15, 2008. Retrieved April 19, 2008.
- "A/RES/41/38 November 20, 1986". Un.org. Retrieved 2014-04-14.
- Graham, Otis (January 27, 2003). "Ronald Reagan's Big Mistake". The American Conservative. Retrieved August 15, 2007.
- Reagan, Ronald. (November 6, 1986) Statement on Signing the Immigration Reform and Control Act of 1986. Collected Speeches, Ronald Reagan Presidential Library. Retrieved August 15, 2007.
- "Understanding the Iran–Contra Affairs".
- "The Iran Contra scandal". CNN. 2001. Retrieved August 14, 2007.
- Parry, Robert (June 2, 2004). "NYT's apologies miss the point". Consortium for Independent Journalism. Retrieved April 1, 2007.
- Morrison, Fred L., F. L. (January 1, 1987). "Legal Issues in The Nicaragua Opinion". American Journal of International Law 81 (1): 160–166. doi:10.2307/2202146. ISSN 0002-9300. JSTOR 2202146.
- "Managua wants $1B from US; demand would follow word court ruling". Boston Globe. Associated Press. June 29, 1986.
- "Military and Paramilitary Activities in and against Nicaragua (Nicaragua v. United States of America)". Cases. International Court of Justice. June 27, 1986. Retrieved January 24, 2009.
- "Reagan's mixed White House legacy". BBC News. June 6, 2004. Retrieved August 19, 2007.
- Mayer, Jane and Doyle McManus. (1988) Landslide: The Unmaking of The President, 1984–1988. Houghton Mifflin, p.292 and 437
- "Pointing a Finger at Reagan". Business Week. 1997. Retrieved August 23, 2007.
- Sullivan, Kevin and Mary Jordan (June 10, 2004). "In Central America, Reagan Remains A Polarizing Figure". The Washington Post. Retrieved June 18, 2007.
- Hamm, Manfred R. (June 23, 1983). "New Evidence of Moscow's Military Threat". The Heritage Foundation. Retrieved May 13, 2007.
- Lebow, Richard Ned and Janice Gross Stein (February 1994). "Reagan and the Russians". The Atlantic. Retrieved May 28, 2010.
- Gaidar, Yegor (2007). Collapse of an Empire: Lessons for Modern Russia (in Russian). Brookings Institution Press. pp. 190–205. ISBN 5-8243-0759-8.
- Gaidar, Yegor. "Public Expectations and Trust towards the Government: Post-Revolution Stabilization and its Discontents". Retrieved March 15, 2008.
- Knopf, PhD, Jeffery W. (August 2004). "Did Reagan Win the Cold War?". Strategic Insights (Center for Contemporary Conflict) III (8). Retrieved January 6, 2008.
- "Giuliani's Obama-Nuke Critique Defies And Ignores Reagan", Huffington Post, 7 April 2010.
- "President Reagan's Legacy and U.S. Nuclear Weapons Policy", Heritage Foundation, July 20, 2006
- "Hyvästi, ydinpommi," Helsingin Sanomat 2010-09-05, pp. D1-D2
- "Toward The Summit; Previous Reagan-Gorbachev Summits". The New York Times. May 29, 1988. Retrieved January 26, 2008.
- "Modern History Sourcebook: Ronald Reagan: Evil Empire Speech, June 8, 1982". Fordham University. May 1998. Retrieved November 15, 2007.
- Keller, Bill (March 2, 1987). "Gorbachev Offer 2: Other Arms Hints". The New York Times. Retrieved March 17, 2008.
- "INF Treaty". US State Department. Retrieved May 28, 2007.
- Talbott, Strobe (August 5, 1991). "The Summit Goodfellas". Time. Retrieved January 26, 2008.
- Reagan (1990), p. 713
- Reagan (1990), p. 720
- "1989: Malta summit ends Cold War". BBC News. December 3, 1984. Retrieved August 12, 2011.
- Weisman, Steven R. (September 8, 1983). "Reagan Begins to Wear a Hearing Aid in Public". The New York Times. Retrieved June 13, 2008.
- "Reagan Begins Using A Second Hearing Aid". UPI. March 21, 1985. Retrieved June 13, 2008.
- Friess, Steve (August 9, 2006). "He amplifies hearing aids". USA Today. Retrieved June 13, 2008.
- "What is the 25th Amendment and When Has It Been Invoked?". History News Network. Retrieved June 6, 2007.
- Bumgarner, p. 285
- Bumgarner, p. 204
- Boyd, Gerald M (August 2, 1985). "'Irritated Skin' is Removed from Side of Reagan's Nose". The New York Times. Retrieved June 13, 2008.
- Herron, Caroline Rand and Michael Wright (October 13, 1987). "Balancing the Budget and Politics; More Cancer on Reagan's Nose". The New York Times. Retrieved June 13, 2008.
- Altman, Lawrence K (January 6, 1987). "President is Well after Operation to Ease Prostate". The New York Times. Retrieved June 13, 2008.
- Herron, Caroline Rand and Martha A. Miles (August 2, 1987). "The Nation; Cancer Found on Reagan's Nose". The New York Times. Retrieved June 13, 2008.
- Reagan (1990), p. 280
- Reston, James (July 5, 1987). "Washington; Kennedy And Bork". The New York Times. Retrieved April 28, 2008.
- Greenhouse, Linda (October 24, 1987). "Bork's Nomination Is Rejected, 58–42; Reagan 'Saddened'". The New York Times. Retrieved November 12, 2007.
- "Media Frenzies in Our Time", Special to The Washington Post
- "Anthony M. Kennedy". Supreme Court Historical Society. 1999. Archived from the original on November 3, 2007. Retrieved November 12, 2007.
- Levine, Dan (April 6, 2011). "Gay judge never considered dropping Prop 8 case". Reuters. Retrieved April 6, 2011.
- "Biographical Directory of Federal Judges: Walker, Vaughn R." History of the Federal Judiciary. Federal Judicial Center. Retrieved March 19, 2013.
- "Pendleton, Clarence M. Jr.". Notable Kentucky African Americans Database. University of Kentucky. Retrieved March 19, 2013.
- Gerald B. Jordan (June 7, 1988). "Pendleton Is Remembered Kindly But Colleague Regrets Official's Sharp Rhetoric". The Philadelphia Inquirer. Retrieved March 16, 2013.
- "Clarence Pendleton Blasts Comparable Pay Concept". Jet. December 10, 1984. p. 19. Retrieved March 16, 2013.
- "707 F.2d 862: United States of America, Plaintiff-appellee, v. Gilbert L. Dozier, Defendant-appellant". law.justia.com. Retrieved May 1, 2013.
- "Persistence paid off for jailed Dozier", Minden Press-Herald, July 23, 1984, p. 1
- "Bill Sherman, "Louisiana ag chiefs: past and present", July 3, 2008". ldaf.state.la.us. Retrieved May 1, 2013.
- Netburn, Deborah (December 24, 2006). "Agenting for God". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved August 15, 2007.
- "1992 Republican National Convention, Houston". The Heritage Foundation. August 17, 1992. Archived from the original on March 11, 2007. Retrieved March 29, 2007.
- Reinhold, Robert (November 5, 1991). "Four Presidents Join Reagan in Dedicating His Library". The New York Times.
- Reagan, Ronald (March 29, 1991). "Why I'm for the Brady Bill". The New York Times. Retrieved June 22, 2010.
- Reagan (1990), p. 726
- "The Ronald Reagan Freedom Award". Ronald Reagan Presidential Foundation. Archived from the original on August 28, 2007. Retrieved March 23, 2007.
- Gordon, Michael R (November 6, 1994). "In Poignant Public Letter, Reagan Reveals That He Has Alzheimer's". The New York Times. Retrieved December 30, 2007.
- Reagan, Nancy (2002), p. 179–180
- "The Alzheimer's Letter". PBS. Retrieved March 7, 2007.
- Altman, Lawrence K (November 13, 1994). "November 6–12: Amid Rumors; Reagan Discloses His Alzheimer's". The New York Times. Retrieved June 18, 2008.
- "President Ronald Reagan's Alzheimer's Disease". Radio National. June 7, 2004. Retrieved January 7, 2008.
- Lesley Stahl (1999). Reporting Live. Simon & Schuster. pp. 256 & 318. ISBN 0-684-82930-4.
- Altman, Lawrence K (October 5, 1997). "Reagan's Twighlight– A special report; A President Fades Into a World Apart". The New York Times. Retrieved June 18, 2008.
- Thomas, Evan (October 22, 1984). "Questions of Age and Competence". Time. p. 3. Retrieved January 7, 2008.
- Altman, Lawrence K. (June 15, 2004). "The Doctors World; A Recollection of Early Questions About Reagan's Health". The New York Times. Retrieved January 7, 2008.
- Thomas, Rhys (Writer/Producer); Baker, James (interviewee) (2005). The Presidents (Documentary). A&E Television.
- Van Den Heuvel C, Thornton E, Vink R (2007). "Traumatic brain injury and Alzheimer's disease: a review". Progress in Brain Research. Progress in Brain Research 161: 303–16. doi:10.1016/S0079-6123(06)61021-2. ISBN 978-0-444-53017-2. PMID 17618986.
- Szczygielski J, Mautes A, Steudel WI, Falkai P, Bayer TA, Wirths O (November 2005). "Traumatic brain injury: cause or risk of Alzheimer's disease? A review of experimental studies". Journal of Neural Transmission 112 (11): 1547–64. doi:10.1007/s00702-005-0326-0. PMID 15959838.
- "Reagan Breaks Hip In Fall at His Home". The New York Times. January 13, 2001. Retrieved June 18, 2008.
- "Reagan recovering from hip surgery, wife Nancy remains at his side". CNN. January 15, 2001. Retrieved June 13, 2008.
- "Reagan able to sit up after hip repair". CNN. January 15, 2001. Archived from the original on February 26, 2008. Retrieved June 18, 2008.
- "Reagan Resting Comfortably After Hip Surgery". CNN. January 13, 2001. Retrieved December 28, 2007.
- "Nancy Reagan Reflects on Ronald". CNN. March 4, 2001. Retrieved April 6, 2007.
- Gordon, Craig (March 9, 2009). "Nancy Reagan praises Obama". Politico. Retrieved October 27, 2011.
- "Nancy Reagan plea on stem cells". BBC News. May 10, 2004. Retrieved June 6, 2007.
- "Former President Reagan Dies at 93". Los Angeles Times. June 6, 2004. Retrieved July 9, 2013.
- Von Drehle, David (June 6, 2004). "Ronald Reagan Dies: 40th President Reshaped American Politics". The Washington Post. Retrieved December 21, 2007.
- "Announcing the Death of Ronald Reagan" (Press release). The White House, Office of the Press Secretary. June 6, 2004. Retrieved January 23, 2008.
- "Ronald Reagan: Tributes". BBC News. June 6, 2004. Retrieved January 23, 2008.
- Leigh, Andrew (June 7, 2004). "Saying Goodbye in Santa Monica". National Review. Archived from the original on March 30, 2007. Retrieved March 9, 2007.
- "100,000 file past Reagan's casket". CNN. June 9, 2004. Retrieved August 15, 2007.
- "Lying In State for former President Reagan" (Press release). United States Capitol Police. June 11, 2004. Retrieved August 15, 2007.
- "Thatcher's eulogy can be viewed online". Margaretthatcher.org. Retrieved March 8, 2010.
- "BBC NEWS - Americas - Reagan funeral guest list". bbc.co.uk.
- "A Nation Bids Reagan Farewell: Prayer And Recollections At National Funeral For 40th President". CBS. Associated Press. June 11, 2004. Retrieved December 21, 2007.
- "Ronald Reagan Library Opening". Plan B Productions. November 4, 1991. Retrieved March 23, 2007.
- Hayward, pp. 635–38
- Beschloss, p. 324
- "Ronald Reagan restored faith in America". Retrieved October 7, 2014.
- Gilman, Larry. "Iran-Contra Affair". Advameg. Retrieved August 23, 2007.
- Feulner, Edwin J., PhD (June 9, 2004). "The Legacy of Ronald Reagan". The Heritage Foundation. Retrieved August 23, 2007.
- Weisbrot, Mark (June 7, 2004). "Ronald Reagan's Legacy". Common Dreams News Center. Retrieved August 23, 2007.
- Kurtz, Howard (June 7, 2004). "Reagan: The Retake". The Washington Post. Retrieved August 25, 2005.
- "American President". Retrieved October 7, 2014.
- David Henry in Journal of American History December 2009 v. 96#3 p. 934
- Heale, M.J. in Cheryl Hudson and Gareth Davies, eds. Ronald Reagan and the 1980s: Perceptions, Policies, Legacies (2008) Palgrave Macmillan ISBN 0-230-60302-5 p. 250
- "Reagan's legacy". U-T San Diego. June 6, 2004. Retrieved February 16, 2008.
- D'Souza, Dinesh (June 6, 2004). "Russian Revolution". National Review. Archived from the original on December 11, 2007. Retrieved January 6, 2008.
- Chapman, Roger (June 14, 2004). "Reagan's Role in Ending the Cold War Is Being Exaggerated". George Mason University. Retrieved January 6, 2008.
- Chang, Felix (February 11, 2011). "Reagan Turns One Hundred: Foreign Policy Lessons". The National Interest. Retrieved December 21, 2011.
- Richard Ned Lebow and Janice Gross Stein: Reagan and the Russians The Atlantic, February 1994.
- Heintz, Jim (June 7, 2004). "Gorbachev mourns loss of honest rival" (Reprint). Oakland Tribune. Associated Press. Retrieved January 6, 2008.
- Kaiser, Robert G (June 11, 2004). "Gorbachev: 'We All Lost Cold War'". The Washington Post. p. A01. Retrieved January 6, 2008.
- "Full Text: Thatcher Eulogy to Reagan". BBC News. June 11, 2004. Retrieved January 6, 2008.
- "Reagan and Thatcher; political soul mates". msnbc.com. June 5, 2004. Retrieved January 8, 2008.
- Clayton, Ian (June 5, 2004). "America's Movie Star President". Canadian Broadcasting Corporation. Retrieved January 6, 2008.
- "Ronald Reagan: Tributes". BBC News. June 6, 2004. Retrieved February 10, 2008.
- Loughlin, Sean (July 6, 2004). "Reagan cast a wide shadow in politics". CNN. Retrieved June 19, 2008.
- "Ronald Reagan Remains Potent Republican Icon". Voice of America. February 11, 2011. Retrieved June 12, 2012.
- Broder, John M (January 20, 2008). "The Gipper Gap: In Search of Reagan". The New York Times. Retrieved January 26, 2008.
- Issenberg, Sasha (February 8, 2008). "McCain touts conservative record". The Boston Globe. Retrieved June 19, 2008.
- Reagan's First Inaugural: "Government is not the solution to our problem; government is the problem.". Heritage.org. Retrieved July 15, 2013.
- Raasch, Chuck (June 10, 2004). "Reagan transformed presidency into iconic place in American culture". USA Today. Retrieved July 2, 2008.
- "Ronald Reagan". MSN Encarta. Archived from the original on May 10, 2008. Retrieved March 4, 2008.
- "Toward the Summit; Previous Reagan-Gorbachev Summits". The New York Times. May 28, 1988. Retrieved March 8, 2008.
- "1987: Superpowers to reverse arms race". BBC News. December 8, 1987. Retrieved February 7, 2014.
- Sussman, Dalia (August 6, 2001). "Improving With Age: Reagan Approval Grows Better in Retrospect". ABC. Retrieved April 8, 2007.
- "How the Presidents Stack Up". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved September 7, 2007.
- "Reagan Tops Presidential Poll". CBS. February 19, 2001. Retrieved September 7, 2007.
- "Presidents and History". Polling Report. Retrieved March 18, 2007.
- "Post-War Presidents: JFK, Ike, Reagan Most Popular". Rasmussen Reports. Archived from the original on October 11, 2007. Retrieved November 10, 2008.
- "Presidential Survey". Retrieved August 28, 2007.
- Hines, Nico (October 31, 2008). "The top ten – The Times US presidential rankings". The Times (UK). Retrieved January 12, 2009.
- C-SPAN (February 16, 2009). "C-SPAN Survey of Presidential Leaders". Retrieved April 20, 2012.
- "USPC Survey". Americas.sas.ac.uk. Retrieved August 12, 2011.
- Schroeder, Patricia (June 6, 2004). "Nothing stuck to 'Teflon President'". USA Today. Retrieved January 8, 2008.
- "'The Great Communicator' strikes chord with public". CNN. 2001. Retrieved January 8, 2008.
- "Reagan: The great communicator". BBC News. June 5, 2004. Retrieved January 26, 2008.
- "Mourning in America: Ronald Reagan Dies at 93". Fox News. June 5, 2004. Retrieved December 4, 2009.
- "The Reagan Diaries". The High Hat. Retrieved December 4, 2009.
- "Sunday Culture: Charlie Wilson's War?". theseminal. Archived from the original on February 12, 2008. Retrieved December 4, 2009.
- Kurtz, Howard (June 7, 2004). "15 Years Later, the Remaking of a President". The Washington Post. Retrieved January 25, 2008.
- Sprengelmeyer, M.E. (June 9, 2004). "'Teflon' moniker didn't have intended effect on Reagan". Howard Scripps News Service. Archived from the original on January 24, 2008. Retrieved January 8, 2008.
- Dionne, E.J. (October 31, 1988). "Political Memo; G.O.P. Makes Reagan Lure Of Young a Long-Term Asset". The New York Times. Retrieved July 2, 2008.
- Affirmative Action. U-s-history.com. Retrieved October 18, 2010.
- Geffen, David. "Reagan, Ronald Wilson". Jewish Virtual Library. Retrieved July 8, 2009.
- Hendrix, Anastasia (June 6, 2004). "Trouble at home for family values advocate". San Francisco Chronicle. Retrieved March 4, 2008.
- Morning in America: how Ronald ... 2005. ISBN 978-0-691-09645-2. Retrieved March 8, 2010.
- Marinucci, Carla and Carolyn Lochhead (June 12, 2004). "Last Goodbye: Ex-president eulogized in D.C. before final ride into California sunset; Laid to Rest: Ceremony ends weeklong outpouring of grief". San Francisco Chronicle. Retrieved October 15, 2009.
- "Ronald Reagan, Master Storyteller". CBS. June 6, 2004. Retrieved March 4, 2008.
- McCuddy, Bill (June 6, 2004). "Remembering Reagan's Humor". Fox News. Retrieved July 2, 2008.
- "Remembering President Reagan For His Humor-A Classic Radio Gaffe". About. Retrieved January 22, 2007.
- "Zig Ziglar Bio". Zig Ziglar. Retrieved September 6, 2011.
- "Association of Graduates USMA: Sylvanus Thayer Award Recipients". Association of Graduates, West Point, New York. Archived from the original on July 3, 2007. Retrieved March 22, 2007.
- "Order of the Bath". The Official website of the British Monarchy. Archived from the original on April 26, 2007. Retrieved March 22, 2007.
- Weisman, Steven R (October 24, 1989). "Reagan Given Top Award by Japanese". The New York Times. Retrieved March 21, 2008.
- "Remarks on presenting the Presidential Medal of Freedom to President Ronald Reagan-President George Bush-Transcript". The White House: Weekly Compilation of Presidential Documents. January 18, 1993. Retrieved December 31, 2007.
- "Julio E. Bonfante". LeBonfante International Investors Group. Archived from the original on January 30, 2008. Retrieved January 26, 2008.
- "Ronald Reagan Building and International Trade Center". U.S. General Services Administration. Retrieved March 22, 2007.
- "USS Ronald Reagan Commemorates Former President's 90th Birthday". CNN. July 12, 2003. Retrieved January 25, 2008.
- "Public Law 107-137" (PDF). United States Government Printing Office. February 6, 2002. Retrieved December 31, 2007.
- "Congressional Gold Medal Recipients 1776 to present". Office of the Clerk, US House of Representatives. Retrieved March 22, 2007.
- "Postmaster General, Nancy Reagan unveil Ronald Reagan stamp image, stamp available next year" (Press release). USPS. November 9, 2004. Retrieved May 13, 2007.
- "Top 25: Fascinating People". CNN. June 19, 2005. Retrieved June 19, 2005.
- "Time 100: The Most Important People of the Century". Time. 2003. Retrieved March 7, 2007.
- "Greatest American". Discovery Channel. Retrieved March 21, 2007.
- Geiger, Kimberly (August 1, 2006). "California: State to establish a Hall of Fame; Disney, Reagan and Alice Walker among 1st inductees". San Francisco Chronicle. Retrieved March 21, 2008.
- "Governor Davis Proclaims February 6, 2002 "Ronald Reagan Day" in California". Office of the Governor, State of California. February 5, 2002.
- "Governor Schwarzenegger Signs Legislation Honoring President Ronald Reagan". Office of Governor Arnold Schwarzenegger. July 19, 2010.
- "President Kaczyński Presents Order of the White Eagle to Late President Ronald Reagan". United States Department of State. July 18, 2007. Archived from the original on March 5, 2009. Retrieved February 10, 2008.
- Bernstein, Carl (February 24, 1992). "The Holy Alliance". Time. Retrieved August 18, 2007.
- "Reagan statue unveiled in Capitol Rotunda". msnbc.com. Associated Press. June 3, 2009. Retrieved February 8, 2011.
- "Obama creates Reagan centennial commission". msnbc.com. Associated Press. June 2, 2009. Retrieved February 8, 2011.
- "Ronald Reagan statue unveiled at US Embassy in London". BBC News. July 4, 2011. Retrieved August 12, 2011.
- Beschloss, Michael (2008). Presidential Courage: Brave Leaders and How they Changed America 1789–1989. Simon & Schuster. ISBN 0-7432-5744-8.
- Bumgarner, John R. (1994). The Health of the Presidents: The 41 United States Presidents Through 1993 from a Physician's Point of View. Jefferson, NC: MacFarland & Company. ISBN 0-89950-956-8.
- Cannon, Lou (2000) . President Reagan: The Role of a Lifetime. New York: PublicAffairs. ISBN 1-891620-91-6.
- Cannon, Lou; Beschloss, Michael (2001). Ronald Reagan: The Presidential Portfolio: A History Illustrated from the Collection of the Ronald Reagan Library and Museum. PublicAffairs. ISBN 1-891620-84-3.
- Cannon, Lou (2003). Governor Reagan: His Rise to Power. PublicAffairs. ISBN 978-1-58648-284-8.
- Hayward, Steven F. (2009). The Age of Reagan: The Conservative Counterrevolution: 1980–1989. ISBN 0-307-45369-3.
- Kengor, Paul (2005). God and Ronald Reagan: A Spiritual Life. HarperCollins. ISBN 0-06-057142-X.
- O'Sullivan, John (2006). The President, the Pope, the Prime Minister. Regnery Publishing.
- Pemberton, William E. (1998). Exit With Honor: The Life and Presidency of Ronald Reagan. ISBN 0-7656-0096-X.
- Reagan, Nancy (2002). I Love You, Ronnie: The Letters of Ronald Reagan to Nancy Reagan. New York: Random House. ISBN 0-375-76051-2.
- Reagan, Ronald (2003). Kiron K. Skinner, Annelise Anderson, Martin Anderson, ed. Reagan: A Life in Letters. New York: Simon & Schuster. ISBN 0-7432-1967-8.
- Reagan, Ronald (2003). An American Life. New York: Free Press, A Division of Simon & Schuster. ISBN 0-7434-0025-9.
- Reeves, Richard (2005). President Reagan: The Triumph of Imagination. New York: Simon & Schuster. ISBN 0-7432-3022-1.
- Troy, Gil (2009). The Reagan Revolution: A Very Short Introduction. Oxford University Press.
- Wills, Garry (1987). Reagan's America: Innocents at Home. Garden City, NY: Doubleday. ISBN 0-385-18286-4.
Find more about
at Wikipedia's sister projects
|Definitions from Wiktionary|
|Media from Commons|
|Quotations from Wikiquote|
|Source texts from Wikisource|
- Official sites
- Ronald Reagan Foundation & Presidential Library
- White House biography
- Ronald Reagan & His Legacy at Eureka College
- Appearances on C-SPAN
- Ronald Reagan audio archives at NPR
- Oral History Transcripts on the Reagan administration from the Miller Center of Public Affairs
- The Governor and the Students television show, 1973–74, at the Hoover Institution Archives, aired unedited, unrehearsed sessions with Governor Reagan answering questions from high school students.
- Television ads from Reagan's 1976 campaign for the Republican presidential nomination are among the Citizens for Reagan records at the Hoover Institution Archives
- News coverage
- Ronald Reagan collected news and commentary at The New York Times
- Ronald Reagan from The Washington Post
- Ronald Reagan at CNN
- Ronald Reagan collected news and commentary at The Guardian
- Essays and historiographies
- Essays on Ronald Reagan, each member of his cabinet and First Lady from the Miller Center of Public Affairs
- The Presidents: Reagan - An American Experience documentary
- Site directories