Rookwood Pottery Company
Rookwood Pottery Logo
|Architect||H. Neill Wilson (and later expanded)|
|NRHP Reference #||
|Added to NRHP||December 05, 1972|
Rookwood Pottery is an American ceramics company now located in the Over-the-Rhine neighborhood in Cincinnati, Ohio. Founded in 1880, and successful until the Great Depression, production has been intermittent and at a low level since 1967, though there was a change of ownership in 2006, and expansion is planned.
Early years and expansion
Maria Longworth Nichols Storer, daughter of wealthy Joseph Longworth, founded Rookwood Pottery in 1880 as a result of being inspired by what she saw at the Centennial Exhibition in Philadelphia. The inspirational works included Japanese ceramics and French pottery with under-glaze decoration. The first Rookwood Pottery was located in a renovated school house on Eastern Avenue which had been purchased by Maria's father at a sheriff's sale in March, 1880. Mrs. Storer named it Rookwood, after her father's country estate near the city in Walnut Hills. The first ware came from the kiln on Thanksgiving Day of that year. Through years of experimentation with glazes and kiln temperatures, Rookwood pottery became the ultimate in American art pottery—pottery designed to be at least as decorative as it is useful.
Each era of Rookwood work has its own unique character:
The earliest work is relief-worked on colored clay, in red, pinks, greys and sage or olive greens. Some were gilt, or had stamped patterns, and some were carved. Often these were painted or otherwise decorated by the purchaser of the "greenware" (unfinished piece), a precursor to today's do-it-yourself movement. However, such personally-decorated pieces are not usually considered Rookwood for purposes of sale or valuation.
After this period, Storer sought a "standard" look for Rookwood, and developed the "Standard Glaze," a yellow tined, high gloss, clear glaze often used over leaf or flower motifs. A series of portraits - often of generic American Indian characters or certain historical figures – was also produced using the Standard Glaze. A variant on the Standard Glaze was the less-common but very collectible "tiger eye" which appears only on a red clay base. Tiger Eye produces a golden shimmer deep within the glaze; however it was unpredictable and it is not clear whether it was abandoned for reasons of chemistry or popularity.
Rookwood also produce pottery in the Japonism trend, after Storer invited Japanese artist Kitaro Shirayamadani to come to Cincinnati and work for the company in 1887.Davis Collamore & Co., a high-end New York City importer of porcelain and glass, were Rookwood's representatives at the Exposition Universelle, Paris 1889.
In 1894, Rookwood introduced three glazes: "Iris" a remarkably clear, colorless glaze; "Sea Green" which was clear but green tinted and "Aerial Blue" which was clear but blue tinted. The latter glaze was produced for just one year, while the two former glazes were used for more than a decade.
With increased interest in the American Arts & Crafts Movement, there was a need for a matt glaze which could be used over under-glaze decoration (largely floral and scenic). Rookwood responded in 1904 with the introduction of the "Vellum" glaze which presented a matt surface but through which could be seen the slightly frosted appearing decoration beneath.
One of the last glaze lines of Rookwood was "Ombroso", not used until after 1910. Ombroso, used on cut or incised pottery, is a brown or black matte glaze.
In 1902, Rookwood added architectural pottery to its portfolio. Under the direction of William Watts Taylor, this division rapidly gained national and international acclaim. Many of the flat pieces were used around fireplaces in homes in Greater Cincinnati and surrounding areas, while custom installations found their places in grand homes, hotels, and public spaces. Even today, Rookwood tiles decorate Carew Tower, Union Terminal (Cincinnati) and Dixie Terminal in Cincinnati, as well as the Rathskeller Room in The Seelbach Hilton in Louisville, Ky. In New York, the Vanderbilt Hotel, Grand Central Station, Lord and Taylor and several subway stops feature Rookwood tile designs.
The 1920s were highly prosperous years for Rookwood. The pottery employed about 200 workers and welcomed almost 5,000 visitors to the Mount Adams business each year. Nearly every Cincinnati bride had a piece of Rookwood pottery among her wedding gifts. Even Mark Twain, who admittedly was not an art collector, visited the pottery and went on a shopping spree.
Surviving the Great Depression
The company was hit hard by the Great Depression. Art pottery became a low priority for available cash and architects couldn’t afford Rookwood tiles and mantels. Mass production potteries churned out cheap look-alikes. By 1934 the company showed its first loss, and by 1936 was operating an average of just one week a month. On April 17, 1941, it filed for bankruptcy. Through these tough times, ownership of the company changed hands but the heart of the company, the Rookwood artists, remained and high quality pieces still left the Rookwood studios.
In 1959 Rookwood was purchased by the Herschede Clock Company and production moved to Starkville, Mississippi. Unable to recover from the losses experienced during the Great Depression, production ceased in 1967.
By 1982, Rookwood was in negotiations to be sold to overseas manufacturers. Michigan dentist and art pottery collector, Dr. Arthur Townley used his life savings to purchase all of the remaining Rookwood assets. Throughout his tenure as Rookwood’s owner, Dr. Townley produced small quantities of pieces to maintain original trademarks. He continuously sought the means to return the company to its historic location and artistic prestige.
Dr. Townley refused offers to sell Rookwood for over two decades, but eventually collaborated with Cincinnati investors in 2004 to move the company back to Cincinnati.
In July 2006, after approximately one year of negotiations, The Rookwood Pottery Company entered into a contract to acquire all of the remaining assets of the original Rookwood Pottery from Dr. Townley. These assets include, among other things; the trademarks, more than 3,000 original molds and hundreds of glaze recipes used by the original Rookwood Pottery Company.
Today, Rookwood Pottery is owned by Martin and Marilyn Wade and operates from a production studio in the historic Over-the-Rhine neighborhood of Cincinnati. The company is in full production, having invested in new kilns and equipment and hired an international staff of artists, glazer and ceramicists. Rookwood’s tiles are sold through more than 75 tile dealers across the United States and Canada, and its art pottery is available in dozens of shops across the country, including at The Grove Park Inn in Asheville, the Transit Museum in New York, The Lodge at Torrey Pines in San Diego, and the Contemporary Jewish Museum in San Francisco.
Rookwood Pottery also works with many major institutions to create awards and commemoratives. Rookwood Pottery artist Roy Robinson, for example, designed the Center Court Rookwood Cup, the first ATP World Tour and WTA trophy to carry the historic Rookwood name. The perpetual trophy (there are actually two for tournament use) was created in 2012 through a partnership with the Western & Southern Open. Further, Rookwood produces commemorative tiles and steins for such organizations as the Horseshoe Casino Cincinnati, Christian Moerlein Brewing Co. and the Cincy Blues Society.
Rookwood Pottery’s exclusively designed tiles are installed in an increasing number of businesses and institutions, including the 21c Museum Hotel, Cincinnati, which features the tiles in all of its guest bathrooms. In 2012 the historic Monroe Building of Chicago completed an ambitious, multi-year restoration of its original architectural elements to include the reconditioning and replacement of thousands of original Rookwood Pottery tiles along the walls and ceilings throughout the building.
In the summer of 2013, a fireplace created by Rookwood Pottery in collaboration with artists at the University of Cincinnati’s College of Design, Architecture, Art and Planning was installed at the Contemporary Arts Center, Cincinnati. The installation is part of the museum’s “The Living Room” exhibit on display through Sept. 2, 2013.
In describing the collaboration, Marilyn Wade, owner, said: “Our goal in working with these three talented artists is to reposition Rookwood Pottery to what it was originally – a forward-thinking company with its eye on the future, willing to take risks, and in the vanguard of the industry, by affiliating ourselves with like-minded artists.”
Rookwood Pottery in 2013 was also featured on the Martha Stewart Living Blog and on the Science Channel program “How It’s Made,” which featured Rookwood’s cremation urns. The “How It’s Made” crew returned in May 2013 to film a second episode to air in 2014.
- "National Register Information System". National Register of Historic Places. National Park Service. 2008-04-15.
- Clark, S. J. (1912). Cincinnati, the Queen City, 1788-1912, Volume 2. The S. J. Clarke Publishing Company. p. 458. Retrieved 2013-05-20.
- Elizabeth Fowler, "'Beware possible intrigues against Gold Award': Rookwood Pottery at the 1889 Exposition Universelle", in Petra ten-Doesschate Chu and Laurinda S. Dixon, eds. Twenty-First-Century Perspectives on Nineteenth-Century Art: Essays in Honor of Gabriel P. Weisberg, 2008:23-28.
- Zimmeth, Khristi S. (Jun 1, 2006). Insiders' Guide Fun With the Family Ohio: Hundreds of Ideas For Day Trips With The Kids. Globe Pequot. p. 134. Retrieved 2013-05-09.
- The new studio is at .
- Laura Baverman, “Rookwood Out of the Fire,” Cincinnati Enquirer, Dec. 12, 2011
- Rookwood Pottery website, ”Where to Buy,” www.rookwood.com
- Rookwood Pottery press release, “Western & Southern Open and Rookwood Pottery Co. Partner to Create the 2012 Center Court Rookwood Cup, the First to Bear the Historic Name,” Aug. 6, 2012 https://www.rookwood.com/pressRelease.php?prId=46
- Susan Glaser, “Cincinnati's new 21c Museum Hotel merges art with overnight,” Cleveland Plain Dealer, March 24, 2013
- Rookwood Pottery press release, “Rookwood Pottery Co. Recognized for its Role in the Historic Renovation of Chicago’s Landmark Monroe Building,” May 7, 2012 https://www.rookwood.com/pressRelease.php?prId=31
- “The Living Room,” Contemporary Arts Center, Cincinnati,” contemporaryartscenter.org/Living_Room
- Tom Demeropolis, “Rookwood Pottery Featured on Martha Stewart Living Blog,” Cincinnati Business Courier, March 27, 2013
- John Kiesewetter, “How It’s Made to Feature Rookwood Pottery,” Cincinnati Enquirer, May 1, 2013