|This article needs additional citations for verification. (February 2012)|
The East India Company-era (1854) Ganeshpur bridge over the Ganges Canal in Roorkee, 2008
|• Type||Municipal Corporation|
|• Body||Nagar Nigam Roorkee|
|Elevation||268 m (879 ft)|
|Time zone||IST (UTC+5:30)|
|Telephone code||91 1332|
|Vehicle registration||UK 08|
|Sex ratio||1.12 ♂/♀|
|Distance from New Delhi||172 kilometres (107 mi) SSW|
Roorkee (Hindi: रुड़की Rūṛkī) is a city in Haridwar district, Uttarakhand(Hindi:उत्तराखण्ड), that is spread over a flat terrain with the grand spectacle of Himalayas ranges flanking it in the East and the North-east. It is on the banks of the Ganges canal on the national highway 58 between Delhi and Dehradun. The dominant feature of the city is the Upper Ganges Canal which flows north-south and bisects the city. Also known for Roorkee Cantonment, one of the country's oldest, and the headquarters of Bengal Engineer Group (Bengal Sappers) since 1853. The renowned IIT Roorkee is located in this city.
According to one story, Roorkee derives its name from Rurimadi imran, the wife of a local Rajput chieftain. Vernacular belief amongst villagers around Roorkee is that it got its name from "Ror ki", i.e., dwelling of a Ror. It's just one of the belief, though there are various stories for this.
During the 18th century, it came under the rule of Landhaura state, until the death of its Bargujar king, Raja Ramdayal in 1813. It later became a part of the territories of the British East India Company.
Before 1840, the city was a tiny hamlet consisting of mud huts on the banks of the Solani rivulet. Digging work on the Upper Ganges Canal formally began in April 1842, under the aegis of Proby Cautley, a British officer. Soon, Roorkee developed into a town. The canal, which was formally opened on 8 April 1854, irrigated over 767,000 acres (3,100 km²) in 5,000 villages.
To look after the maintenance of canal the Canal Workshop and Iron Foundry were established in 1843 in the civil lines on the canal bank which is known as Irrigation workshop nowadays . This was followed by the establishment of Civil Engineering School; classes started in 1845 to train local youth to assist in the civil-engineering work of the Upper Ganges Canal. This was to become the first engineering college established in India. On November 25, 1847, the college was formally constituted, through a proposal by the Sir James Thomason, Lt. Governor of North Western Province (1843–53). After his death in 1853, the college was rechristened as Thomason College of Civil Engineering. The college later upgraded to University of Roorkee in 1949; on September 21, 2001, through an Act of parliament, it was made one of the Indian Institutes of Technology, IIT Roorkee. In 1853 Bengal Sappers and Minors were stationed here which provided a controlling influence during the 1857 uprising. Other important events in the history of Roorkee are: Under the Post Office Act 1866, it was among the first few towns to have a post office and first telegraphic office in the district. In 1886, Roorkee was placed on the Railway map of India. In 1907, first provincial trunk road Meerut-Roorkee-Dehradun was constructed. In 1920, Roorkee became the first town in Uttar Pradesh to have Hydroelectricity.
India's first aqueduct was constructed over the Solani river, near Roorkee, part of the Ganges Canal project, which itself was India's first irrigation work in North India, started by the British. The Ganges Canal led to another first for Roorkee — India's first steam engine, Mary Lind, (specially shipped from England moved on rails in India) ran in Roorkee on December 22, 1851, between Roorkee and Piran Kaliyar, two years before the first passenger train ran from Bombay to Thane in 1853. Operated by the Bengal Sappers, the railway line was built to carry soil used for the construction of the Upper Ganges Canal aqueduct from Piran Kaliyar, 10 km (6.2 miles) from the city. The locomotive rail paths are still intact. A replica of what the locomotive is thought to have looked like is exhibited at Roorkee Railway Station.
The municipality of Roorkee was created in 1868. It had been home to the Bengal Sappers and Miners since 1853, and two artillery units were stationed there. Today, the Roorkee Cantonment has a large army base. The Bengal Engineering Group and Centre (BEG&C), are still there today.
In 1901, when the city had a population of 17,197, it was made headquarters of the Roorkee Tehsil, in Saharanpur district of the United Province of the British Raj; the tehsil included in it 426 villages (of the parganas of Jwalapur, Manglaur and Bhagwanpur) and six towns, most important among them being Haridwar and Manglaur. The Old Cemetery in the city is a protected monument, by the Archaeological Survey of India.
Roorkee is also famous for the shrine of 13th century Sufi saint Alauddin Sabir Kaliyari — the dargah is also known as Sarkar Sabir Pak — in Piran Kaliyar village, where an annual 15-day spiritual fair (Urs) is held.
Roorkee is famous for the manufacture of survey and nautical instruments. It started in early 1900, with the repairing of instruments of the Thomason College of Civil Engineering (later University of Roorkee and then IIT Roorkee) and moving on to manufacturing of compasses, levels and other surveying instruments. After getting the state status to Uttarakhand, Roorkee has grown to having 100+ industries and corporate houses under SIDCUL.
Business and service
Roorkee is a business centre also. It has many business and service centres. After birth of Uttarakhand State it is developing as a leading business and service centre of the state.
Roorkee is located at  It has an average elevation of 268 metres (879 feet)..
Roorkee is 172 kilometres (107 mi) north of the Indian capital, New Delhi between the rivers Ganges and Yamuna, close to the foothills of the Himalayas. Before the creation of Uttarakhand on November 9, 2000, Roorkee was a part of the state of Uttar Pradesh.
|Climate chart (explanation)|
Due to its location away from any major water body and its proximity to the Himalayas, Roorkee has an extreme and erratic continental climate. Summers start in late March and go on until early July, with average temperatures around 28 °C (82 °F). The monsoon season starts in July and goes on until October, with torrential rainfall, due to the blocking of the monsoon clouds by the Himalayas. The post monsoon season starts in October and goes on until late November, with average temperatures sliding from 21 °C (70 °F) to 15 °C (59 °F). Winters start in December, with lows close to freezing and frequent cold waves due to the cold katabatic winds blowing from the Himalayas. The total annual rainfall is about 2600 mm (102 in).
Roorkee comes under Northern Railway region of Indian Railways and is connected to major Indian cities.
Roorkee's major neighboring cities are Dehradun, Haridwar, Rishikesh, Saharanpur, Muzaffarnagar, Meerut, Yamuna Nagar, Ambala and Chandigarh. The National Highway 58 (NH58) (Delhi-Haridwar-Mana Pass) and NH73 (Panchkula/Chandigarh - Yamuna Nagar - Roorkee) pass through the heart of the city.
As of 2011 India census, Roorkee had a population of 2,89,478. Males constituted 53% of the population and females 47%. Roorkee has an average literacy rate of 84.9%, higher than the national average of 64%: male literacy is 87%, and female literacy is 81%. 11% of the population is under 6 years of age. The city has 60% Hindus, 29% Muslims, 9% Punjabis/Sikhs, 0.3% Christians and 1.7% Vaishya/Jains.
With a population of about 2,89,478 inhabitants, it is the fourth largest Municipal Corporation in the state of Uttarakhand, after Dehradun, Haridwar & Haldwani.
Languages spoken are Hindi, Urdu and Punjabi.
Roorkee is a centre of education and research, even sometimes called 'Shiksha Nagri' (the place of learning). It is best known for Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee (IIT), which was formerly called the University of Roorkee and originally known as the Thomason College of Civil Engineering. For a detailed history of this glorious institution, one can refer two volumes by Prof. KV Mital named History of Thomason College of Engineering and History of Roorkee University published in 1996. Journals on world famous 'Roorkee treatises on Civil Engineering' by Allan Cunningham and past principals/professors of the erstwhile Thomason College of Civil Engineering also shows the legacy of Roorkee as a civil engineering centre.It is also considered as a Mecca for Civil Engineers due to its distinguished contribution in civil engineering education and research since more than 150 years. Roorkee is home to several government research institutes: Central Building Research Institute (C.B.R.I.), Irrigation Research Institute (I.R.I.), Institution of Engineers Regional Center (I.E.I.), Alternate Hydro Energy Centre (A.H.E.C.), Irrigation Design Organization (I.D.O.) and National Institute of Hydrology (N.I.H.).
With the availability of schools, colleges and institutions for higher education and professional degrees, students come for enrollment from all over India and abroad.
Universities in Roorkee
- IIT Roorkee
- Dayalbagh Educational Institute (Deemed University) - Distance Education Center
In addition to the university, the notable colleges and schools in Roorkee are:
- College of Engineering Roorkee (COER)
- Quantum School of Technology, Roorkee Call 9319909777 for more information
- Roorkee Institute of Technology (RIT Roorkee)
- Roorkee College of Engineering (RCE Roorkee)
- Phonics Group of Institutions
- Hermes College of Engineering & Management Roorkee (HERMES College)
- Greenway Institute of Management Studies Roorkee (GIMS)
- Institute of Technology Roorkee
- B.S.M. College of Engineering, Roorkee
- Shakambhari Institute Of Higher Education And Technology (S.I.H.E.T. Puhana, Roorkee)
- B.R.D. College of Managements & Sciences, Roorkee
- Bishambhar Sahai Law Institute
- Seventh Day Adventist Degree College
- Bishambar Sahai Management Institute
- Roorkee Institute of Management Sciences (R.I.M.S.)
- Bishambar Sahai Institute
- St. Joseph's Academy
- Arihant college of law (Mob 08923328666)
- K.L.D.A.V. PG College
- B.S.M. P.G. College
- S.S.D.P.C. Girls' PG College
- B.R.D. College Saliyar, Roorkee
- Roorkee College of Pharmacy
- Methodist Girls' PG College
- Roorkee Degree College
- RIMS Roorkee Institute of Medical Science
- Smt. Tarawati Institute of Pharmacy and Allied Sciences
- Dr. Sushila Tiwari College Of Advanced Studies
- BSI UG & PG Degree College
- College of Advance Technology
- Uttaratech Polytechnic Dhanauri Roorkee
- BSI College of engineering, Roorkee
- Montfort Senior Secondary School Roorkee
- The Greenwood Public School, Roorkee 
- Kendriya Vidyalaya No.1 BEG&C, Roorkee
- Espee Global School, Puhana. Roorkee.
- Kendriya Vidyalaya No.2 BEG&C, Roorkee
- Delhi Public school Roorkee
- Army Public School No. 1, Roorkee
- Army Public School No. 2, Roorkee (erst.) St Gabriel's Academy, Roorkee
- Sarvagya Senior Secondary School Roorkee
- St. Ann's Senior Secondary School, Roorkee
- A.B.N. School Roorkee
- Roorkee School for Deaf (in IIT Roorkee premises)
- Shemford Futuristic School, Roorkee
- Children's Senior Academy Roorkee
- Anand Swarup Arya Saraswati Vidya Mandir, South Civil Lines, Roorkee
- St. John's Senior Secondary
- Roorkee Public Senior Secondary School
- Chandra Shekhar Senior Secondary Public School
- Scholar's Academy Roorkee
- Doon Public School, Nai Mandi, Roorkeee
- KL DAV Inter College, Railway Road, Roorkee
- Sophia Public School, Sophia Chowk, Imli road, Roorkee
- Seventh Day Adventist Inter College
- Government Inter College
- B.S.M. Inter College
- Greenway Modern Senior Secondary School,Roorkee
- shri guru ram rai public school roorkee
- DST International Public School. NH 73, Bhagwanpur, Roorkee
- Shree Yogeshwar Public School, Defence Colony, Dhandera, Roorkee
Roorkee has expanded considerably in recent times. At present, the city's important residential and commercial areas include: Posh residential areas: Saraswati Kunj, Civil-lines Residential area,Defence colony, Jadugar Road, Rajputana West, Mahaveer Enclave, Bhagirathi Kunj, Solani Puram, Ashok Nagar, Adarsh Nagar, Niti Nagar, AZAD NAGAR, Ram Nagar and Ram Nagar prem nager,Outer, New Avas Vikas township, Salman Colony, Zohra Bagh, New Nehru Nagar, Ganeshpur, Railway Road, Defence Colony, Akashdeep Enclave, Pradeep Vihar,Navrachna Paradise, Colonel's Enclave, Ganges Enclave, Raj Vihar Colony, Preet Vihar, Purwa Deen Dayal, Purvali, Saket colony, Sanjay Gandhi Colony, South Civil Lines, Sanchit Nagar, Ashoka Puram, Green Park Colony, Rajendra Nagar, Subhash Nagar, Akashdeep Enclave Phase II etc.
Main commercial areas
Civil-lines Market, Hari Market, Vishal mega-mart, Main Bazar, Easy Day Roorkee, Tyagi Market, Main Bazaar, Sultan Tower, Nehar Kinara (Canal View Road), B.T. Ganj, Chaw Mandi, Ganeshpur, Old Railway Road, Amber Talab, Maktool Puri, BEG & Centre (Sapper Market I and II, Lalkurti), Ram Nagar, Delhi Road etc.
- "Census of India, 2011". Office of the Registrar General, India. 2 March 2002. Archived from the original on 16 June 2004. Retrieved 28 May 2010.
- Roorkee - History
- Bengal Sappers’ saga of valour, The Tribune, 24 November 2008.
- "Roorkee Cantonment". Atulkohli-earthsc.tripod.com. Retrieved 2011-12-27.
- Roorkee Town The Imperial Gazetteer of India, v. 21, p.324.
- History page - from city website of Roorkee.
- Roorkee Town2, The Imperial Gazetteer of India, v. 21, p. 325.
- Indian Engineering Colleges, The Imperial Gazetteer of India, 1909, v. 4, p. 321.
- Sandes, Lt Col E.W.C. (1935). The Military Engineer, Vol II. Chatham: Institution of Royal Engineers. p. 368.
- IIT Roorkee Official website.
- Irrigation and Navigation Imperial Gazetteer of India, 1909 v. 3, p. 341.
- First train ran between Roorkee and Piran Kaliyar, The Hindu, 10 August 2002.
- Alphabetical List of Monuments - Uttarakhand Archaeological Survey of India website.
- "Falling Rain Genomics, Inc - Roorkee". Fallingrain.com. Retrieved 2011-12-27.
- Uttarakhand Govt. of India, Official website.
- National Institute of Hydrology, accessed on 30 May 2011.
- "College of Engineering Roorkee". COER. 2011-12-08. Retrieved 2011-12-27.
- "Quantum Global Campus Roorkee". Quantum.edu.in. Retrieved 2011-12-27.
- Roorkee Institute of Technology – Roorkee
- Roorkee College of Engineering – Roorkee
- "ITR Roorkee". Itroorkee.org. Retrieved 2011-12-27.
- "B.S.M. College of Engineering, Roorkee". Bsmcoer.org. Retrieved 2011-12-27.
- College of Advance Technology
- [dpsroorkee.com/ DPS Roorkee]
- Roorkee Official website
- Roorkee travel guide from Wikivoyage
- Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Roorkee". Encyclopædia Britannica 23 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 706.