Roosevelt Island Tramway

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Roosevelt Island Tramway
Roosevelt Island tramcar 2010.jpg
Overview
Status Operational
Character Aerial tramway
System Pomagalski
Location Manhattan, New York City, U.S.
Termini Upper East Side (west)
Roosevelt Island (east)
No. of stations 2
Open May 17, 1976[1]
Reopened Nov 30, 2010
Operation
Operator Roosevelt Island Operating Corp.
Technical features
Line length 3,100 ft (940 m)
Operating speed 17.9 mph (28.8 km/h)
Notes Elevation: 250 ft (76 m)
Electric motor powering cable bullwheel

The Roosevelt Island Tramway is an aerial tramway in New York City that spans the East River and connects Roosevelt Island to the Upper East Side of Manhattan. Prior to the completion of the Mississippi Aerial River Transit in May 1984[note 1] and the Portland Aerial Tram in December 2006, it was the only commuter aerial tramway in North America.[2]

Over 26 million passengers have used the tram since it began operation in 1976. Each cabin has a capacity of up to 110 people and makes approximately 115 trips per day. The tram moves at about 17.9 mph (28.8 km/h) and travels 3,100 feet (940 m) in 3 minutes. At its peak it climbs to 250 feet (76 m) above the East River as it follows its route on the north side of the Ed Koch Queensboro Bridge, providing views of the East Side of Midtown Manhattan. Two cabins make the run at fifteen-minute intervals from 6:00 a.m. to 2:00 a.m. (3:30 a.m. on weekends) and continuously during rush hours. It is one of the few forms of mass transit in New York City not run by the Metropolitan Transportation Authority, but uses that system's MetroCard.

The tram is operated by LPOA (Leitner-Poma of America) on behalf of the Roosevelt Island Operating Corporation of the State of New York, a state public benefit corporation created in 1984 to run services on the island.

History[edit]

Early history[edit]

An old tram car descending into Manhattan above the Queensboro Bridge in fog
Two old tram cars passing each other above Manhattan
One of the towers, which supports the tramway

Roosevelt Island had been connected to Manhattan by a trolley line that crossed over the Queensboro Bridge from its opening in 1909. Trolleys to and from Queens stopped in the middle of the bridge to meet an elevator, which then took passengers down to the island. As the only connection to the rest of the city from the island, the trolley remained in service until April 7, 1957, long after most other trolley service had been dismantled in the city, and was the last trolley line in New York State; it was replaced by buses.[3] At that time, a bridge to Queens was completed, requiring a roundabout trip to reach Manhattan.

Beginning in the mid-1970s, Roosevelt Island was redeveloped to accommodate low- to mid-income housing projects, necessitating the construction of a new public transit connection to the city. The trolley tracks had deteriorated beyond repair and the Roosevelt Island subway station serving the island via the 63rd Street subway connection had not yet been completed. In 1971, the Urban Development Corporation retained Lev Zetlin Associates to select and design a transit connection to Roosevelt Island. James A O'Kon PE led the LZA team in carrying out a feasibility study and design. Three alternate modes were studied: a ferry, an elevator from the bridge, and the aerial tramway. The tramway was selected and the system was designed for bidding. Von Roll was selected to supply and erect the tram and its equipment. It was opened in July 1976 as a temporary solution for the island's commuting needs.[1] As the subway project fell further behind schedule, the "tram" became more popular and was converted into a permanent facility, and the tram held a monopoly for service between Roosevelt Island and the rest of Manhattan until the subway connection to the island was finally completed in October 1989.

The tram was the last holdout for the use of tokens in the New York City transit system. Initially, it used a special token, which was later replaced by the standard variety for subways and buses. Although tokens were phased out in favor of the MetroCard by 2003, the tram did not start to accept MetroCards until March 1, 2004. The fare is the same as that on the buses and subways: U.S. $2.50 for a one-way trip.[4] During the 2005 New York City transit strike, the tramway was one of the few intra-city public transportation systems still in operation, due to the fact that it is privately operated.

Breakdowns[edit]

On April 18, 2006, at about 5:22 p.m. EDT, the two trams were stuck over the East River for seven hours because of mechanical problems, trapping 69 people. Rescue baskets capable of holding up to 15 people were sent up to the stranded cable cars at 10:55 p.m., with children and elderly going first, and each rescue taking about 20 minutes. These baskets also carried supplies to the trams, such as blankets, baby formula, and food, for the remaining passengers.[5] Passengers on the Roosevelt Island–bound tram were rescued by about 2:55 a.m. on April 19, while those on the Manhattan-bound tram were not rescued until 4:07 a.m.[6]

The April 2006 incident had been the second time in eight months that the tram system lost power. On September 2, 2005, more than 80 people were trapped on the tram for over 90 minutes. After that incident, state inspectors cited the Roosevelt Island Tramway for not having an operational diesel backup, or Motor-generator system. The State Department of Labor said the system did not pass electrical inspection and could not run when the April 18 power outage took place.

The tramway suspended operations after the April 2006 incident, reopening on September 1, 2006. The tram's backup electrical systems were refurbished, and "in case of an emergency, each car now is equipped with blankets, water, food, and a toilet with a privacy curtain. Car attendants will carry cell phones with their radios."[7]

Renovation[edit]

New Roosevelt Island Tram car in operation
New tram cab on a start of its run

On March 1, 2010, the tramway was closed as part of a $25 million project to upgrade and modernize the system. With the help of the French company Poma, all components were replaced except for the three tower bases.[8][9] Among the improvements, the new tram cables and cars are now allowed to operate independently of each other in a "dual-haul" system. Prior to this, the cars had to travel at the same time, which presented maintenance and emergency response issues.[10][11] The old cabins may be preserved on Roosevelt Island and/or a museum.[10]

The tramway reopened November 30, 2010, at 11 a.m.[12][13] The project was completed in nine months, two months longer than originally planned.[14][15][16]

Accessibility and transfers[edit]

Roosevelt Island Tramway – Manhattan Entrance

The tram is wheelchair accessible. Bicycles are permitted on the tram.

In Manhattan, the entrance to the system is at Tram Plaza at 60th Street and Second Avenue. The closest New York City Subway station is the complex at Lexington Avenue / 59th Street (N Q R trains on the BMT Broadway Line and 4 5 6 <6> trains on the IRT Lexington Avenue Line. Lexington Avenue – 53rd Street (E M trains) on the IND Queens Boulevard Line and Lexington Avenue – 63rd Street (F train) on the IND/BMT 63rd Street Lines are also nearby.

On Roosevelt Island, the "Red Bus" meets the tram and offers transportation around the island for 25 cents. During the tramway reconstruction, the Red Bus was extended to Queens Plaza and the Manhattan side of the Queensboro Bridge.[17] The publicly operated Q102 bus also provides transportation on the island and to Queens and Manhattan at standard New York City Bus fares of $2.50. The Roosevelt Island (F train) subway station is located north of the tramway entrance.

In popular culture[edit]

  • Gerard Damiano's film Odyssey, the Ultimate Trip (1977) may have been the first film to feature the tramway, which carries one of the lead female characters into Manhattan for a modeling interview. The House on the Edge of the Park (1980) shows the tram at 6:07 minutes into the film as how it appeared in the late 1970s. The Sylvester Stallone thriller Nighthawks (1981) depicted the tramway as a terrorist target where United Nations delegates were taken hostage. In Brian DePalma's Scarface (1983) the tramway can be seen in the background as Tony (Al Pacino) makes a phone call following the aborted assassination attempt in New York City. It was used in the opening credits of City Slickers (1991). In the 1994 film Léon: The Professional it can be seen when Natalie Portman's character, Mathilda, is traveling on it alone. It also appeared in the 2005 horror movie Dark Water.
  • The tram figured prominently in the Universal Studios Florida theme park attraction Kongfrontation, which opened in 1990 and closed in 2002. The ride consisted of passengers boarding a recreation of a Roosevelt Island tram where they promptly came face-to-face with King Kong. The recreation did take certain liberties with regard to accuracy; the real trams, for example, do not have seats (though they do have benches at either end). The real tram also runs in a straight line, while the ride trams navigated curves.
  • The Roosevelt Island Tramway was featured prominently in a climactic battle in the 2002 film Spider-Man, in which the Green Goblin throws Mary Jane Watson off the Queensboro Bridge, and Spider-Man must choose between saving her or passengers on the tramway. Shooting of this movie caused the Tram to be out of service for weeks. The Spider-Man film was not the first appearance of the tramway;
  • The projected fate of the tramway was shown in episode 4 of the first season of Life After People: The Series.
  • In an episode of the TV series CSI New York it was referred to as the nation's only operating tramway.
  • A virtual version of the tramway is seen in fictional Liberty City of the Grand Theft Auto gaming series. In Grand Theft Auto IV the player can ride the cable car between the fictional Colony Island and Lancet.
  • The tram was featured in a 2012 episode of White Collar, with the character played by Matt Bomer leaping from a Manhattan bound tram to one going back to Roosevelt Island.
  • The bridge and tram are also featured at the end of the 2013 film Now You See Me.

See also[edit]

Footnotes[edit]

  1. ^ Technically, the Mississippi Aerial River Transit was a gondola lift system not an aerial tramway system.

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Ferretti, Fred (May 18, 1976). "Aerial Tram Ride to Roosevelt Island Is Opened With a Splash on O'Dwyer". The New York Times. p. 69. Retrieved 2010-02-20. 
  2. ^ Cohen, Billie (January 15, 2008). "Roosevelt Island Tram". The New York Times. Retrieved 2008-08-17. 
  3. ^ Phillips, McCandlish (April 7, 1957). "City's Last Trolley at End of Line; Buses Will Replace 49-Year Route on Queensboro Span". The New York Times. p. 1. Retrieved 2008-08-17. 
  4. ^ http://rioc.ny.gov/tramtransportation.htm
  5. ^ AP News, April 18, 2006, 10:44 p.m. (ET)
  6. ^ Barron, James (April 20, 2006). "Options Were Limited After a Power Surge". The New York Times. Retrieved 2010-02-20. 
  7. ^ AP News, September 1, 2006, 6:52AM (ET)
  8. ^ Blaustein, Michael; Namako, Tom (February 26, 2010). "Hangin' on for a tramway revamp: Roosevelt ride closing for rehab". New York Post. Retrieved 2010-03-02. 
  9. ^ Traina, Meredith (February 28, 2010). "Roosevelt Island Tram Suspended For Major Modernization". WPIX. Retrieved 2010-03-02. 
  10. ^ a b Clark, Roger (March 1, 2010). "Roosevelt Island Tram Shuts Down For Renovation". NY1. Retrieved 2010-03-02. 
  11. ^ Kilgannon, Corey (February 28, 2010). "Open & Shut: Chronicle of a Changing City". The New York Times. Retrieved 2010-03-02. 
  12. ^ Clark, Roger (November 30, 2010). "Roosevelt Island Tram Once Again Running Over The East River". NY1. Retrieved 2010-11-30. 
  13. ^ Roosevelt Island Operating Corporation (2010-11-24). "You are cordially Invited to the Grand Reopening of the Roosevelt Island Aerial Tramway". Retrieved 2010-11-27. 
  14. ^ Spitz, Rebecca (September 24, 2010). "Roosevelt Island Tram Renovation Nearly Complete". NY1. Retrieved 2010-09-25. 
  15. ^ "Second Roosevelt Island Tram Cabin Attached To Cables". NY1. October 22, 2010. Retrieved 2010-10-23. 
  16. ^ Spitz, Rebecca (November 23, 2010). "Roosevelt Island Tram Gets Wired Up; Undergoes Test Run". NY1. Retrieved 2010-11-23. 
  17. ^ "Roosevelt Island Operating Corporation Queens/Manhattan Red Shuttle Bus Service Schedule". Roosevelt Island Operating Corporation. Retrieved 2010-03-02. 

External links[edit]

Coordinates: 40°45′27″N 73°57′20″W / 40.75750°N 73.95556°W / 40.75750; -73.95556