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The rope dart or rope javelin (simplified Chinese: 绳镖; traditional Chinese: 繩鏢; pinyin: shéng biāo), also known as Jōhyō in Japanese, is one of the flexible weapons in Chinese martial arts. Other weapons in this family include the meteor hammer, flying claws, Fei Tou flying weight, and chain whip. Although the flexible weapons share similar movements, each weapon has its own specific techniques.
The rope dart is a long rope (usually 3–5 metres or 10–16 feet) with a metal dart attached to one end. This was a weapon from ancient times, which allows the user to throw the dart out at a long-range target and use the rope to pull it back. The rope dart can be used for twining, binding, circling, hitting, piercing, tightening, and other techniques.
Rope dart play consists of twining, shooting, and retrieval. Twining and shooting can be done from any joint such as foot, knee, elbow, and neck. The rope is anchored on the left hand and played primarily with the right hand.
Skillful use of the rope dart can easily trick an opponent because the dart can shoot out very suddenly, from a person beyond immediate reach.
Just like the chain whip, excellent hand-eye coordination is a must for the practitioner to use this weapon well. In some Wushu training regimens, the chain whip and Changquan are prerequisites for learning the rope dart.
A variation of this weapon is the meteor hammer, which has a blunt weight on the end of the rope. It was used in a similar fashion to the rope dart, and many of the techniques are the same. The blunt shape of the meteor ball will deal concussive damage rather than piercing.
The rope dart is constructed from 5 parts:
- rope or fine chain
- flags or bright feathers
The dart is made of a hard material, usually iron or steel. It can be of variable weight depending on the users preference, and can be variable in shape (conical, triangular prism, pentagonal prism).
The rings (usually 4 or 5) are attached to the dart head.
The rope is attached to the final ring. Traditionally, the rope was constructed from Chinese rope and covered with wax to minimize friction. In modern times, the rope is often made of a softer synthetic material and covered with talc powder or some other substance to reduce friction.
There is at least one flag attached near, or onto the dart head itself to conceal the dart during play. Additional flags can be attached to the side rings to slow down the dart and increase control.
The handle is made from the last piece of rope.
Rope dart as an art form
While relatively new, rope dart is becoming more and more popular and used in the object manipulation scene. This is because of the highly impressive performances involved. Because of this there have been modifications to the original design so a more visual display can be shown. Some rope darts have been created to be set alight while other rope darts have heads filled with LED lights. Both of these can be performed in the dark, adding to the excitement and mystery, since the audience cannot see the rope connecting the head. "Fire Art" Another transformation of this powerful martial arts weapon into a performance tool is with the element of fire. There are many ways to make a flammable dart head or meteor (meteor hammer) head as well as several ways to attach it securely to fire resistant rope. Some of these ways include silk rope with a foot or less section of welded chain where the dart or meteor head can be attached and flame big without directly burning the rope thanks to that chain. Kevlar strips can be riveted to cylindrical metal cores made my theplayingmantis.com or Kevlar strips folded in such a way to create the cathedral or "stack" style wick and lets not forget the monkey's fist knot with Kevlar rope around a wooden core where the metal ring can be secured as a link point for the hard wear to the rope or chain. Once the Fire Rope Dart is ready to soak in fuel a 100% kerosene (smokey but coolest burning out of the main 3 fuels), because of the heavier nature of oil (viscosity) 50/50 lamp oil and white gas mix is preferred over 100% white gas because this tool can pick up speed causing the lighter white gas to fly off the tool during performance lit or unlit and create an avoidable and additional hazard so all safety measures should be observed. The discipline and attention required of the rope dart wielder as a martial arts tool is just as vital for safe and skillful demonstration as a fire performance tool (prop).
Rope dart in modern media
- In Rope Dart Instructional Series (2007), Master Donald Hyun Kiolbassa (Gold Medalist for the 2008 USA Wushu Team, China) teaches Rope Dart.
- In Heroes of the East (1978), Gordon Liu's character uses a rope dart against a Ninja.
- In Shanghai Noon (2000), Jackie Chan's character Chon Wang fashions a blunt rope dart with a horseshoe and a length of rope.
- In 2000's Scooby-Doo movie, the character of Fred Jones was shown experimenting with rope dart techniques
- The characters Scorpion and Smoke from the Mortal Kombat series of video games each use a rope dart (or alternately a kunai on a rope) in a special attack that impales and drags opponents closer for a melee attack. In Mortal Kombat: Shaolin Monks, Scorpion also uses this weapon like a more traditional rope dart.
- In Five Masters of Death, one of the villains uses a variation of the rope dart, which consists of a rope with an ax head at the end.
- In "Red Ninja: End of Honor" the main character uses a rope dart fashioned from the steel wire used to hang her.
- In Martial Arts of Shaolin, one of the villains is seen briefly using a rope dart during the final assault on the boat.
- In the King of Fighters XI, Shion, the sub-boss, attacks with a rope dart among many other weapons.
- In Super Smash Brothers Melee, Princess Zelda, as Sheik uses a rope dart or chain whip type weapon as her side B attack.
- In Stormbreaker, Alex uses the rope dart technique to take out four auto wreckers and escape another two.
- In Ong Bak 2 (2009), one of the villains uses a rope dart to attack the main character Tien (played by Tony Jaa). Tien then proceeds to steal it, and uses it to attack several other villains for a short time.
- In a filler episode of Naruto, Gaara is seen teaching Matsuri how to use a rope dart.
- In Kick-Ass, Hit-Girl uses a rope dart to dispatch several opponents when storming the penthouse.
- In Code Geass, the Chinese mecha Shen-Hu features rope darts mounted in its forearms, which can be electrified for extra damage, or spun rapidly like helicopter blades to generate a shield-like effect.
- In the animated film Green Lantern: Emerald Knights (2011), Laira Omoto creates two rope dart constructs while fighting her father, Kentor Omoto.
- In the Assassin's Creed series, the Assassin characters Shao Jun, Edward Kenway, and Ratonhnhaké:ton use rope darts.
- In the animated series The Legend of Korra, the Equalists use weapons such as the Rope Dart and the Meteor Hammer.
- In the DC Nation short Batman of Shanghai animated by Wolf Smoke, Catwoman uses her whip similarly to a rope dart after swiping a spoon from an unsuspecting civilian.
- Chain Whip A multiple section chain often trained at the same time as the ropedart due to some technical similarities.
- Meteor hammer Similar to the rope dart except is longer and has a heavier blunt weight on one or both ends of the rope.
- slungshot A rope with a weighted end, far shorter, though similar in construction.
- Jwing-Ming Yang (1999). Ancient Chinese Weapons: A Martial Artist's Guide. YMAA Publication Center Inc. p. 93. ISBN 978-1-886969-67-4.
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