|• Mayor (2008–2014)||Patrick Césari|
|• Land1||9.33 km2 (3.60 sq mi)|
|• Population2 Density||1,400/km2 (3,800/sq mi)|
|INSEE/Postal code||06104 / 06190|
|Elevation||0–800 m (0–2,620 ft)|
1 French Land Register data, which excludes lakes, ponds, glaciers > 1 km² (0.386 sq mi or 247 acres) and river estuaries.2 Population without double counting: residents of multiple communes (e.g., students and military personnel) only counted once.
Roquebrune-Cap-Martin (Ròcabruna Caup Martin in Occitan, Roccabruna-Capo Martino in Italian) is a commune in the Alpes-Maritimes department in southeastern France between Monaco and Menton. The name was changed from Roquebrune to differentiate the town from Roquebrune-sur-Argens in the neighboring Var Department.
In pre-Roman times the area was settled by the Ligurians. Traces of their language can be still found in the local dialect. The commune (originally known as Roccabruna) was founded in 971 by Conrad I, count of Ventimiglia, in order to protect his western border.
In 1793, Roquebrune became French for the first time, changing the name from the original Roccabruna, but it was returned to Monaco in 1814. In 1804 Napoleon built a road along the coastline. This road connected the village to the rest of the Côte d'Azur, and eventually led to its merger with the smaller town of Cap-Martin.
In 1848, there was a revolution related to the Italian Risorgimento, with the result that Roccabruna and Menton became free cities under the protection of the Savoy Prince. They hoped to be part of the Kingdom of Sardinia, but this did not occur, and the towns after two years of independence were put under Savoyan administration (but nominally still under the Prince of Monaco). They remained in a state of political limbo from 1849 until were finally ceded to France by a plebiscite in 1861.
Giuseppe Garibaldi, who promoted the union of the County of Nice to Italy, complained that the plebiscite was not done with "universal vote" and consequently Roccabruna was requested by Italian irredentists.
Today Roquebrune-Cap-Martin comprises several villages and towns: St.Roman, practically a suburb of Monaco (but not part of Monaco proper, as it does not lie within the borders of Monaco), the residential areas of Cabbé, Bon Voyage and Serret, Roquebrune with its perched village and château, the posh Cap Martin peninsula and the modern seaside resort of Carnolès with its long pebble beach bordering Menton.
All the area has a huge tourism activity, mainly from April to October.
Since 1861 the use of the French language has increased enormously in the city, and now only a minority of the 11,692 inhabitants still speaks the original dialect of Roccabruna.
Twin towns – Sister cities
Roquebrune-Cap-Martin is twinned with:
- List of historical unrecognized states
- Former countries in Europe after 1815
- Grotte du Vallonnet
- Han van Meegeren the well-known art-forger lived in Roquebrune and painted here his famous Vermeer fake Supper at Emmaus
- See name change history in article on the town in the French-language Wikipedia
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