Rosa Cuthbert Guy (September 1, 1922 – June 3, 2012) was a Trinidad-born American writer who immigrated with her family as a child and grew up in the New York metropolitan area. Orphaned at a young age and raised in foster homes, she was acclaimed for her books of fiction for adults and young people that stressed supportive relationships.
She lived and worked in New York City, where she was among the founders of the Harlem Writers Guild in 1950, which was highly influential in encouraging African-American writers to gain publication with successful books. She died of cancer on June 3, 2012.
Rosa Cuthbert was born in 1922 in Diego Martin, on the Caribbean island of Trinidad. She and her younger sister Ameze were left with relatives when their parents Audrey and Henry Cuthbert emigrated in 1927 to the United States. The children did not join their parents in Harlem until 1932. The following year their mother became ill, and Rosa and her sister were sent to Brooklyn to live with a cousin. Her espousal of Garveyism and black nationalistic politics deeply affected Rosa. After their mother's death in 1934, the two girls returned to Harlem to live with their father, who remarried.
When he died in 1937, the girls were orphaned. After that, they were taken into the welfare system and lived in foster homes. Rosa left school at the age of 14 and took a job in a garment factory to support herself and her sister.
In 1941 at the age of 19, Rosa met and married Warner Guy. While her husband was serving in the Second World War she continued working in the factory. A co-worker introduced her to the American Negro Theatre, where she studied acting; other graduates included Harry Belafonte and Sidney Poitier. In 1942, her son Warren Guy, Jr, was born.
After the war, Rosa Guy moved to Connecticut with her husband and son. Five years later she and her husband divorced, and she returned to New York.
In 1950, along with novelist John Oliver Killens, Rosa Guy formed a workshop that was to become the Harlem Writers Guild (HWG). Its goal was "to develop and aid in the publication of works by writers of the African Diaspora". Its members and participants included Willard Moore, Walter Christmas, Maya Angelou, Dr. John Henrik Clarke, Paule Marshall, Audre Lorde, Alice Childress, Ossie Davis, Ruby Dee, and Douglas Turner Ward. It was very influential, nurturing more than half of all successful African-American writers between 1950 and 1971; they were associated with the workshop. Guy also belonged to the Black nationalist literary organization On Guard for Freedom, founded by Calvin Hicks on the Lower East Side of New York City. Among On Guard's other members were LeRoi Jones, Sarah E. Wright and Harold Cruse.
Rosa Guy died in 2012. Her obituary was included in The Socialite who Killed a Nazi with Her Bare Hands: And 144 Other Fascinating People who Died this Year, a collection of New York Times obituaries published in 2012.
Rosa Guy's work has received The New York Times Outstanding Book of the Year citation, and the American Library Association′s Best Book Award.
In 1954, Rosa Guy wrote and performed in her first play, Venetian Blinds, which was successfully produced Off-Broadway at the Tropical Theater.
Most of Guy's books are about the dependability of family members who care and love each other.
Her 1985 novel, My Love, My Love: Or, The Peasant Girl, was described as a Caribbean re-telling of Hans Christian Andersen's "The Little Mermaid", and "with a dash of Shakespeare's Romeo and Juliet." It was adapted for the Broadway musical, Once on This Island by Lynn Ahrens and Stephen Flaherty, which ran for a year from 1990 to 1991.
- Bird at My Window (London: Souvenir Press, 1966; Allison & Busby, 1985; Virago, 1989; Coffee House Press, 2001)
- Children of Longing (essays, introduction by Julius Lester; Holt, Rinehart, 1971)
- The Friends (New York: Holt, Rinehart & Winston, 1973; Macmillan Educational, 1982; New York: Bantam Books, 1983; Perfection Learning, 1995; Bantam Doubleday Dell Books for Young Readers, 1996; Heinemann, 1996; Glencoe McGraw-Hill, 2001)
- Ruby (New York: Viking Press, 1976; London: Gollancz, 1981; Puffin Books, 1989)
- Edith Jackson (New York: Viking Juvenile, 1978; London: Gollancz, 1978; Longman, 1989; Puffin, 1995)
- The Disappearance (New York: Delacorte, 1979; Puffin, 1985)
- Mirror of Her Own (New York: Delacorte, 1981)
- Mother Crocodile: An Uncle Amadou Tale from Senegal (illustrated by John Steptoe - Coretta Scott King Award; New York: Delacorte, 1981; Doubleday, 1993)
- A Measure of Time (New York: Henry Holt, 1983; London: Virago, 1983)
- New Guys Around the Block (New York: Delacorte, 1983; London: Gollancz, 1983; Laurel Leaf, 1992: Puffin, 1995)
- Paris, Pee Wee and Big Dog (London: Gollancz, 1984; New York: Delacorte, 1985; Puffin, 1986; Nelson Thornes Ltd, 1988)
- My Love, My Love, or the Peasant Girl (New York: Holt, Rinehart & Winston, 1985; London: Virago, 2000; Coffee House Press, 2002)
- And I Heard a Bird Sing (New York: Delacorte, 1987; London: Gollancz, 1987; Puffin, 1994)
- The Ups and Downs of Carl Davis III (Delacorte, 1989; Gollancz, 1989; Collins Educational, 1994)
- Billy the Great Child (London: Gollancz, 1991; New York: Delacorte, 1992)
- The Music of Summer (New York: Delacorte, 1992)
- The Sun, the Sea, A Touch of the Wind (New York: E. P. Dutton, 1995)
- Margalit Fox, "Rosa Guy, 89, Author of Forthright Novels for Young People, Dies", New York Times, June 7, 2012.
- "Rosa Guy obituary". African American Literature Book Club. 1925-09-01. Retrieved June 5, 2012.
- Nagueyalti Warren. William L. Andrews, Frances Smith Foster & Trudier Harris, ed. "Rosa Guy". The Oxford Companion to African American Literature. Answers.com. pp. 331–32. Retrieved 2012-06-05.
- "The Harlem Writers Guild, History". Theharlemwritersguild.org. Retrieved 2012-06-05.
- McDonald, William (2012). The Socialite who Killed a Nazi with Her Bare Hands: And 144 Other Fascinating People who Died this Year : the Best of the New York Times Obituaries. Workman Pub. pp. 141–142. ISBN 9780761170877. Retrieved 28 September 2014.
- "The Modern Mermaid", Epinions.
- James L. Seay, "A Review of Theatre in the Park's production of Lynn Ahrens and Stephen Flaherty's Once on this Island", Pamphlet.
- Gargeau, Angeline (1985-12-01). "Review of 'My Love, My Love: Or The Peasant Girl', The New York Times, December 1, 1985". Nytimes.com. Retrieved 2012-06-05.
J. Saunders Redding, review of Bird at My Window, Crisis 103.3 (April 1966), pp. 225–227.
- Banyan: Interview with Rosa Guy, 2nd International Conference of Caribbean Women Writers, Trinidad & Tobago, April 27, 1990.
- African American Literary Bookclub: Rosa Guy