|Rosa rugosa flower|
Rosa rugosa (rugosa rose, Japanese rose, or Ramanas rose) is a species of rose native to eastern Asia, in northeastern China, Japan, Korea and southeastern Siberia, where it grows on the coast, often on sand dunes. It should not be confused with Rosa multiflora, which is also known as "Japanese rose".
Vernacular names 
In Japanese, it is called hamanasu (ハマナス), meaning "shore eggplant" and also hamanashi ([clarification needed]) meaning "shore pear". The Chinese call it "meiguihua" (玫瑰花). In Korean, the species is called haedanghwa (해당화, 海棠花), literally "flowers near seashore".
It is a suckering shrub which develops new plants from the roots and forms dense thickets 1–1.50 m tall with stems densely covered in numerous short, straight prickles 3–10 mm long. The leaves are 8–15 cm long, pinnate with 5–9 leaflets, most often 7, each leaflet 3–4 cm long, with a distinctly corrugated (rugose, hence the species' name) surface. The flowers are pleasantly scented, dark pink to white, 6–9 cm across, with somewhat wrinkled petals; flowering occurs in spring.
The hips are large, 2–3 cm diameter, and often shorter than their diameter, not elongated; in late summer and early autumn the plants often bear fruit and flowers at the same time. The leaves typically turn bright yellow before falling in autumn.
Cultivation and uses 
Rugosa rose is widely used as an ornamental plant. It has been introduced to numerous areas of Europe and North America. It has many common names, several of which refer to the fruit's resemblance to a tomato, including beach tomato or sea tomato; saltspray rose, beach rose, and beach plum (not to be confused with the beach plum) are others.
This species hybridises readily with many other roses, and is valued by rose breeders for its considerable resistance to the diseases rose rust and rose black spot. It is also extremely tolerant of seaside salt spray and storms, commonly being the first shrub in from the coast. It is widely used in landscaping, being relatively tough and trouble-free. Needing little maintenance, it is suitable for planting in large numbers; its salt-tolerance makes it useful for planting beside roads which need deicing with salt regularly.
Numerous cultivars have been selected for garden use, with flower colour varying from white to dark red-purple, and with semi-double to double flowers where some or all of the stamens are replaced by extra petals. Popular examples include 'Fru Dagmar Hastrup' (pink, single), 'Pink Grootendorst' (pink, semi-double), 'Blanc Double de Coubert' (white, double) and the more common 'Roseraie de L’Haÿ' (pink, double), which is often used for its very successful rootstock and its ornamental rose hips.
Invasive species 
Rugosa rose is naturalized in many parts of Europe, and it is considered an invasive species in some habitats, particularly in seashores of North Europe. It can out-compete native flora, thereby threatening biological diversity. It is also considered a noxious weed in the USA.
- "Flora of China". eFlora. Retrieved 15 October 2011.
- "Haedanghwa (해당화)" (in Korean). Korea National Arboretum. Retrieved 2008-08-06.[dead link]
- Weidema, I. (2006). "NOBANIS — Invasive Alien Species Fact Sheet — Rosa rugosa". Online Database of the European Network on Invasive Alien Species — NOBANIS www.nobanis.org. Retrieved 29 August 2012.
- USDA, NRCS (2012). "Rosa rugosa Thunb. rugosa rose". The PLANTS Database. National Plant Data Team, Greensboro, NC, USA. Retrieved 29 August 2012.
- Huxley, A., ed. (1992). New RHS Dictionary of Gardening. Macmillan.
- Bruun, H.H. (2005). "Rosa rugosa Thunb. ex Murray". Journal of Ecology 93 (2): 441–470. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2745.2005.01002.x.
- hort.net profile Rosa rugosa
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