Rose Bowl Game

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Rose Bowl Game
Rose Bowl Game presented by Northwestern Mutual[1]
"The Granddaddy of Them All"
Rose Bowl 2015 logo.png
Stadium Rose Bowl
Location Pasadena, California
Previous stadiums Tournament Park
(1902, 1916–1922)
Duke Stadium, now Wallace Wade Stadium
(1942)[2]
Previous locations Durham, North Carolina
(1942)[2]
Operated 1902, 1916–present
Conference tie-ins Big Ten, Pac-12[3]
Previous conference tie-ins Pacific Coast
Payout US$18,000,000 (As of 2009)[4]
Sponsors
Pasadena Tournament of Roses Association (1902, 1916–1998)
AT&T (1999–2002)
Sony/PlayStation 2 (2003)
Citi (2004–2010)
Vizio (2011–2014)
Northwestern Mutual (2015–2020)
Former names
Tournament East–West football game (1902, 1916–1922)
Rose Bowl (1923–1998)
Rose Bowl presented by AT&T (1999–2002)
Rose Bowl presented by PlayStation 2 (2003)
Rose Bowl presented by Citi (2004–2010)
Rose Bowl presented by Vizio (2011–2014)
2014 matchup
Stanford vs. Michigan State (MSU 24–20)

The Rose Bowl (officially known as the Rose Bowl presented by Northwestern Mutual for sponsorship purposes, beginning in 2015) is an annual American college football bowl game, usually played on January 1 (New Year's Day) at the Rose Bowl in Pasadena, California.[2] When New Year's Day falls on a Sunday, the game is played on Monday, January 2 (14 times now). The Rose Bowl is nicknamed "The Granddaddy of Them All" because it is the oldest bowl game. It was first played in 1902, and has been played annually since 1916. Since 1945, it has been the highest attended college football bowl game.[5] It is a part of the Tournament of Roses "America's New Year Celebration", which also includes the historic Tournament of Roses Parade. Except in the years when the Rose Bowl Game served as the BCS National Championship Game, it has continued to be played in the afternoon. In 2014, the Rose Bowl Game celebrated its 100th game.[6] Previously, it was known as the Rose Bowl Game presented by Vizio (2011-2014)

In 2002 and 2006 (2001 and 2005 football seasons), the Rose Bowl game was also the BCS National Championship Game. In the current BCS alignment, the Rose Bowl hosts the Big Ten and Pacific-12 conference champions unless they are involved in the national championship game. Beginning with the 2012 Rose Bowl, Rose Bowl game representative teams from the Big Ten and Pacific-12 conferences are determined by Big Ten Football Championship Game and Pacific-12 Football Championship Game, respectively.

History[edit]

Originally titled the "Tournament East-West football game," the first Rose Bowl was played on January 1, 1902, starting the tradition of New Year's Day bowl games. The football game was added in 1902 to help fund the cost of the Rose Parade.[7] The inaugural game featured Fielding H. Yost's dominating 1901 Michigan team, representing the East, which crushed a previously 3-1-2 team from Stanford University, representing the West, by a score of 49–0 after Stanford quit in the third quarter. Michigan finished the season 11–0 and was crowned the national champion. Yost had been Stanford's coach the previous year. The game was so lopsided that for the next 13 years, the Tournament of Roses officials ran chariot races, ostrich races, and other various events instead of football.[8] But, on New Year's Day 1916 football returned to stay as The State College of Washington (now Washington State University) defeated Brown University in the first annual Rose Bowl with that explicit name.

Tournament Park and Rose Bowl stadium[edit]

Before the Rose Bowl was built for the January 1, 1923 match, games were played in Pasadena's Tournament Park, approximately three miles southeast of the current Rose Bowl stadium near the campus of Caltech. Tournament Park was determined to be unsuitable for the larger and larger crowds gathering to watch the game and a new, permanent home for the game was commissioned.

The very first Rose Bowl Game at Tournament park in 1902

The Rose Bowl stadium, designed after the Yale Bowl in New Haven, then hosted the first "Rose Bowl" game in 1923. The name of the stadium was alternatively "Tournament of Roses Stadium" or "Tournament of Roses Bowl", until the name "Rose Bowl" was settled on before the 1923 Rose Bowl game.[9]

The stadium seating has been reconfigured several times since its original construction in 1922. For many years, the Rose Bowl stadium had the largest football stadium capacity in the United States, eventually being surpassed by Michigan Stadium in 1998.[10][11] The maximum stated seating capacity was 104,594 from 1972 to 1997. Capacity was lowered following the 1998 Rose Bowl. The 2006 Rose Bowl game, which was also the BCS championship game, had a crowd of 93,986; and a crowd of 94,118 saw the 2011 Rose Bowl game between TCU and Wisconsin.[12] As of 2012, the Rose Bowl is number seven on the List of American football stadiums by capacity with a current official seating capacity of 92,542 and is still the largest stadium that hosts post-season bowl games.[13] The Rose Bowl is also the only BCS bowl game that is held in a non-NFL stadium.

Team selection 1916–1946[edit]

In the game’s early years, except during World War I, the Rose Bowl always pitted a team—not necessarily the conference champion—from the Pacific Coast Conference (PCC), the predecessor of the current Pacific-12 Conference, against an opponent from the Eastern U.S. During the last two years of World War I, teams from military bases met in the Rose Bowl. During its history, a number of notable matchups have been made with the top football teams and top coaches of the time. These include the 1925 Rose Bowl, featuring Knute Rockne's Notre Dame team, featuring the Four Horsemen, against “Pop” Warner’s Stanford team; the 1926 Rose Bowl, featuring Alabama Crimson Tide’s win over Washington; and the 1940 Rose Bowl, featuring Howard Jones’ USC Trojans against Bob Neyland’s Tennessee Volunteers. During this period, there were ten games in which undefeated teams were matched.

1942 venue change to Durham, North Carolina[edit]

See also: 1942 Rose Bowl

After the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor on December 7, 1941, and a series of attacks on West Coast shipping beginning on December 18, 1941,[14] there were concerns about a possible Japanese attack on the West Coast. The Rose Parade, with a million watchers, and the Rose Bowl, with 90,000 spectators, were presumed to be ideal targets for the Japanese. Lieutenant General John L. DeWitt recommended that the Rose Parade and Rose Bowl festivities be canceled.[15][16][17] The Rose Bowl committee originally planned to cancel the game. On December 16, 1941, Duke University invited the game and Oregon State to Duke's home stadium in Durham, North Carolina.[18][19]

Big Nine–PCC agreement[edit]

During World War II, many college football schools had dropped some conference opponents and instead played football against local military base teams. Many colleges could not even field teams due to the draft and manpower requirements.[20] After the war was over, demobilization and the G.I. Bill enabled returning servicemen to attend college. The 1946 season was the first true post-war college football season with travel restrictions lifted and civilian college opponents returning to schedules.

The Big Nine and PCC were of the same accord when it came to treating players as amateurs, as compared to the semi-professional status that the Southern Universities proposed. Also, the Big Nine and PCC both had the same attitudes towards desegregation and allowing African-Americans to play football.[21] Many other universities were still segregated. None of the Southeastern Conference schools had an African American athlete until 1966. The Cotton Bowl, Orange Bowl, and Sugar Bowl would not be integrated until 1948, 1955, and 1956 respectively.[22]

The Big Nine agreed,[when?] after eight years of negotiating over payments, rules, and ticket allocations, to a five-year exclusive deal with the Rose Bowl to send the conference champion to meet the PCC conference champion.[23] UCLA, USC, Minnesota and Illinois all voted against it.[24]

Big Ten–AAWU/Pac-8/10 agreement[edit]

When the PCC dissolved prior to the 1959 season following a pay-for-play scandal in 1958, there was no official agreement in force. The Tournament of Roses selected from the former members of PCC and invited Washington, the first champion of the newly formed Athletic Association of Western Universities (AAWU), to play Big Ten champion Wisconsin in the 1960 Rose Bowl. The Big Ten authorized its members to accept any Rose Bowl invitation at their discretion.

The AAWU signed an agreement with the Rose Bowl that remained in force from the 1961 Rose Bowl until the advent of the BCS era in 1998. In 1962, after Minnesota changed its vote against pursuing a new agreement (resolving a 5–5 voting deadlock which had prevented any new negotiations for years), a Big Ten agreement was finalized, which went into effect with the 1963 Rose Bowl and lasted until the BCS era.

While the Big Ten supplied the "East" representative and the PCC, AAWU, or Pac-8/10 supplied the "West" representative from the 1947 Rose Bowl to the BCS era, statements about an "exclusive" Rose Bowl agreement existing during this period are not entirely accurate: the Big Ten was not part of any agreement for the 1961 and 1962 games and the status of the agreement for 1960 is questionable, at best. The fact that the 1961 Big Ten champion, Ohio State, declined the invitation to play in the 1962 Rose Bowl (without penalty) is the clearest evidence that this "exclusive agreement" did not exist in these years.

The AAWU used "Big Five", "Big Six", and "Pacific-8" as unofficial nicknames (each reflecting the number of conference members). It officially adopted the "Pacific-8" name for the 1968 season. The name changed to "Pacific-10" with the arrival of Arizona and Arizona State in 1978, its last official name change prior to the formation of the BCS in 1998. The Big Ten Conference retained the same name throughout this period, even though it had eleven members by the start of the BCS era due to the addition of Penn State in 1990.

Both conferences had a "no repeat" rule in force for a number of years. Under this rule, any team that had appeared in the Rose Bowl game the previous season could not go again, even if they were the conference champion. The notable exceptions to this rule were Washington playing in the 1960 and 1961 games and Minnesota playing in the 1961 and 1962 games during the period when the conference agreements were in a state of flux. The Big Ten abolished this rule in 1972. The AAWU/Pac-8 had abandoned its no-repeat rule by the time Southern California played in four consecutive Rose Bowl games from 1967 to 1970.

Both conferences also had "exclusive agreements" with the Rose Bowl game, in the sense that member schools were not allowed to play in any other bowl game. Both conferences abolished this rule before the 1975 college football season. As a result, Michigan and USC were allowed to play in the 1976 Orange Bowl and the 1975 Liberty Bowl, respectively.

Bowl Championship Series[edit]

The Rose Bowl with the banners for the Rose Bowl Game (the right scoreboard has been removed during the 2011 renovation)
Stanford defeated Wisconsin 20–14 in the 2013 Rose Bowl on January 1, 2013

Since the 1998 season, with the creation of the Bowl Championship Series, team selection for the Rose Bowl was tied to the other three BCS bowls, although in any given year the Rose Bowl still attempts, if possible, to maintain the traditional Pac-10 (currently Pac-12 after the addition of Utah and Colorado in 2011) versus Big Ten format. Twice in this era, the Rose Bowl has served as the BCS championship game.

The 2002 game served as the BCS championship game between the BCS #1 ranked Miami, then a member of the Big East Conference, and the BCS #2 ranked Nebraska, then a member of the Big 12 Conference. The Nebraska selection as the BCS #2 team was controversial because Oregon was ranked #2 in both the AP and Coaches Polls, while Nebraska was ranked #4 in both polls and did not play in its conference championship game (#3 Colorado, who played Oregon in that year's Fiesta Bowl, did and won the Big 12's automatic bid to the BCS). This prevented a West Coast team playing in the Rose Bowl for the first time, and it also marked the first match up since 1946 to not feature the traditional pairing of Pac-10 vs. Big Ten teams.

The 2006 Rose Bowl game featured offensive powerhouses Texas, riding a 19-game winning streak, and USC, which entered the game with a 34-game winning streak and 2 Heisman Trophy winners. Texas won 41–38. The game's television viewership was the highest for college football contest since the 1987 Fiesta Bowl between Penn State and Miami.

On two other occasions during the BCS era, Rose Bowl participation has expanded beyond the Big Ten and Pac-10. The 2003 Rose Bowl couldn't select Big Ten co-champion and automatic qualifier Ohio State, who finished #2 in the BCS and thus received a bid to the Fiesta Bowl to play for the national championship. The Rose Bowl was poised to select Big Ten co-champion Iowa as an at-large in order to preserve the traditional Big Ten/Pac-10 match up. However, the Orange Bowl, which selected ahead of the Rose Bowl that year, chose the Hawkeyes. As a result, the Rose Bowl featured the first appearance by Oklahoma, who faced Pac-10 Champion Washington State. The 2005 game featured Texas of the Big 12 Conference, selected, amid some controversy, over California of the Pac-10, marking the second time a West Coast team did not make the Rose Bowl. The controversy was the result of the BCS computer rankings which elevated Texas over California. Texas went on to defeat Michigan in the 2005 game, featuring a 4-touchdown performance by Vince Young, foreshadowing his 467-yard performance a year later in the 2006 defeat of USC that won the National Title for Texas.

The 2004 game is also noteworthy. In this game, USC defeated Michigan, 28–14, thus earning the top ranking in the AP Poll and a share of the national championship with BCS champion LSU (USC, despite being #1 in the AP poll, did not qualify for the BCS championship game because of their standing in the BCS system).

The current Rose Bowl arrangement, which will run until the 2014 Rose Bowl Game, is as follows. The Big Ten and Pac-12 (the new name of the Pac-10) retain their bids. A provision has been inserted mandating that the first time that either conference cannot fill their bid, due to a school from the Big Ten or Pac-12 qualifying for the BCS National Championship Game, and if a non-BCS conference school qualifies, the Rose Bowl is required to take that school.[25]

Texas Christian University (TCU) became the first team from a non-automatic qualifying conference to play in the Rose Bowl in the BCS era. The 2010 TCU Horned Frogs finished their second consecutive regular season at 12–0, were back-to-back champions of the Mountain West Conference, and ranked #3 in the final BCS Poll. TCU defeated #5 Wisconsin 21–19 in the 2011 Rose Bowl. TCU's appearance satisfied the 'first time' clause of the current agreement.

The 100th Rose Bowl Game featured a traditional pairing of Big Ten Champion versus Pac-12 Champion, with Michigan State playing against Stanford on January 1, 2014. Michigan State won the game, 24–20.

The Bowl Championship Series ended with the January 6, 2014 BCS National Championship Game. Beginning with the 2014 college football season, the Rose Bowl game will be a semifinal game of the College Football Playoff every three years, replacing the BCS.

Sponsorship and broadcasting rights[edit]

Large card stunt[26] performed at the 2004 Rose Bowl Game

For many years the Rose Bowl eschewed sponsorship, but for the 1999 Rose Bowl, the game became known as The Rose Bowl Game presented by AT&T. Unlike the other bowl games, the sponsor was not added to the title of the game, but instead as a presenter.[27] In 2002 it was branded The Rose Bowl Game presented by PlayStation 2. From 2003 to 2010, after the agreement with Sony expired, the game was presented by Citi.

On June 2010, Citi decided to end sponsorship of the Rose Bowl games, including the National Championship game.[28] In October 2010, HDTV maker Vizio signed a 4-year contract to be the official sponsor of the Rose Bowl games through 2014.[29] After Vizio declined to renew sponsorshipin in 2014, financial services giant Northwestern Mutual became the new presenting sponsor.[30]

The 1952 Rose Bowl game was the first nationally televised bowl game and the first nationally televised college game of any sport.[31] From 1952 to 1988, the Rose Bowl was televised by NBC at 2 p.m. PST, and in most years was the only New Year's Day bowl airing at that time. The 1962 Rose Bowl was the first college football game broadcast in color. From 1989 to 2010, the game was broadcast on ABC, usually at 2 p.m. PST; the 2005 Rose Bowl was the first one broadcast in HDTV. Though, beginning in 2007, FOX had the broadcast rights to the other Bowl Championship Series games, the Rose Bowl, which negotiates its own television contract independent of the BCS, had agreed to keep the game on ABC.

Beginning with the 2010 season, ESPN (majority-owned by ABC's parent company, The Walt Disney Company) now broadcasts all the BCS games, including the Rose Bowl game.[32][33] The game is also broadcast nationally by ESPN Radio and by ESPN International for Latin America. In 2013 ESPN Deportes provided the first Spanish language telecast in the U.S. of the Rose Bowl Game.[34]

The Rose Bowl game contract with ESPN was extended on June 28, 2012, to 2026, for a reportedly $80 million per year.[35][36] Northwestern Mutual takes over as presenting sponsor beginning in 2015 until 2020.

Frequent participants[edit]

2006 Rose Bowl: Texas defeated Southern California 41–38 on January 4, 2006

USC has played the most times in the Rose Bowl, with 33 appearances, followed by Michigan (20); Ohio State, Stanford, and Washington (14 each); and UCLA (12). Alabama, 4–1–1 in Rose Bowls, has made the most appearances of any team outside the Pac-12 and Big Ten conferences. Among Pac-8/10/12 and Big Ten schools, the record for longest drought since a team's last Rose Bowl appearance is held by California (1959), followed by Minnesota (1962), Oregon State (1965), and Indiana (1968).

USC has also won the most Rose Bowls (24), followed by Michigan (8), Washington and Ohio State (7 each), and Stanford (6). Michigan has lost the most (12), followed by USC (9), Ohio State, UCLA and Stanford (7 each), Washington and Wisconsin (6 each). Among Pac-8/10/12 and Big Ten schools who have played in at least one Rose Bowl, the record for the longest period since a win is held jointly by Indiana and Nebraska, which have never won, followed by Washington State (1916), Cal (1939), Oregon State (1942), Northwestern (1949), and Iowa (1959). As of 2013, head coaches Howard Jones (5-0) and John Robinson (4-0) lead the list of undefeated Rose Bowl records.[37]

The most frequent Rose Bowl matchup is USC–Michigan, occurring for the eighth time in 2007, with USC holding a 6–2 advantage (including rare meetings outside the Rose Bowl, USC leads this series 6–4). The next most frequent matchup is USC–Ohio State, occurring for the seventh time in 1985, with USC holding a 4–3 advantage.

From the 1946 season (1947 Rose Bowl), when the Big Ten-Rose Bowl agreement began, through the 1971 season (1972 Rose Bowl), the Big Ten did not permit the same team to represent that Conference in the Rose Bowl in consecutive years. There was one exception: Minnesota played in the 1961 Rose Bowl and 1962 Rose Bowl games, as previously explained in the section on the conference agreements after the collapse of the Pacific Coast Conference.

Also of note, during this era Big Ten and Pac-8 teams could play only in the Rose Bowl; this restriction was not lifted until the 1975 season.

Archie Griffin of Ohio State and Brian Cushing of USC are the only players to ever start in four Rose Bowl games. Legendary coach Woody Hayes led Ohio State to the Rose Bowl from 1973 to 1976, while USC head coach Pete Carroll led the Trojans to the Rose Bowl from 2006 to 2009.

Current members of the Pac-12 or the Big Ten to have not appeared in the Rose Bowl are Arizona (who joined the then-Pac-10 in 1978), Colorado and Utah (who both joined the Pac-12 in 2011), and Maryland and Rutgers (who both will join the Big Ten in Fall 2014), though California appeared in the Rose Bowl only as a member of a predecessor league to the Pac-12.[38] Similar to Cal, Nebraska played in the 1941 and 2002 games, but was not a member of the Big Ten Conference at these times. Penn State has played in three Rose Bowls (1923, 1995, and 2009), but was not a member of the Big Ten for the 1923 game. Idaho and Montana, who were members of the Pacific Coast Conference from 1922 until 1958 and 1950 respectively, never finished near the top in the PCC football standings. Former Big Ten member Chicago withdrew from the league prior to the bowl arrangement being set. Relatively new Pac-12 members Colorado and Utah have yet to appear in one, Colorado and Utah having joined their new conferences on July 1, 2011. The most recent additions to the Big Ten, Maryland and Rutgers, will join the conference in Fall 2014, and have no pre-1947 appearances or BCS-era appearances prior to their move to the Big Ten.

USC has played every current Big Ten school in the Rose Bowl except for Iowa, Nebraska, Minnesota, Maryland, and Rutgers. Michigan has played every school in the Pac-12 in the Rose Bowl except Oregon, Arizona, Utah, and Colorado.

The Rose Bowl was exclusively a Big Ten-Pac-10 affair for 52 years, from 1946 (1947 Rose Bowl) through 1997 (1998 Rose Bowl). While the Big Ten dominated the game in the late 1940s and 1950s, and the Pac-10 dominated during the 1970s and early 1980s, over the entire 52-year span, each conference won 26 games.

The BCS era covered sixteen games, starting with the 1999 (85th) Rose Bowl to the last game in the BCS era, the 2014 (100th) Rose Bowl . Since then, of the eleven games featuring a Big Ten-Pac-12 matchup, the Pac-12 leads in wins, 7-4. However, the 2007 (93rd) Rose Bowl and 2008 (94th) Rose Bowl, each Big Ten losses to the Pac-12, actually featured the Big Ten runner-up, as conference champion Ohio State was selected to play each of those years in the BCS National Championship Game.

The 2002 and 2006 Rose Bowls represented the National Championship game. In 2002, there was neither a Big 10 or Pac 10 school. Oregon was in the Fiesta Bowl, while Illinois was in the Sugar Bowl. In 2006, USC, BCS No. 1, represented the Pac 10 in the National Championship Game in the Rose Bowl. Big Ten Champion Penn State, BCS No. 3, played in the Orange Bowl. Ohio State, BCS No. 4, also played in Fiesta Bowl that year.

Other non Big 10 vs Pac 10 matchups in the BCS era, include the 2003 (89th) Rose Bowl with Oklahoma from the Big 12 Conference and 2005 (91st) Rose Bowl with Texas from the Big 12 Conference.

The 2011 Rose Bowl Game marked the first time during the BCS era that a school from a non-BCS conference played in the game (as Oregon, the Pacific-10 champion, was selected to play in the BCS National Championship Game). TCU, led by QB Andy Dalton, beat Wisconsin 21–19.

Game arrangements[edit]

Beginning with the 1947 Rose Bowl, the Pacific Coast representative was the home team, and the Big Nine representative was with visiting team. This arrangement would alternate each year. The stadium seating started with the Big Nine representatives in the end zone, but eventually was set with the Big Ten fans and team on the West (press box) side, and Pacific-10 fans and team on the East side. The home team wears their darkest home jerseys, and the visiting team wears the visiting jerseys. There have been exceptions. UCLA wore their home jerseys in the 1962, 1966, and 1976 Rose Bowl games.

From 1947 through 2001, the Big Ten team was the home team in odd-numbered years, and the Pac-10 team was the home team in even-numbered years. In 2003, Washington State was the home team, as a non-Big Ten or Pac-10 school (Oklahoma of the Big 12) was the opponent; the same applied in 2005, when Michigan played another Big 12 school, Texas.

Beginning with the 2002 Rose Bowl, Nebraska was the home team and fans and team were on the East sideline. Since 2006, the home team has been the team with the highest BCS season ending ranking. For the 2005 Rose Bowl, the Michigan team was on the East sideline, Texas was the visiting team and was on the West sideline. For the 2006 Rose Bowl, USC was the home team and Texas was the visiting team on the West sideline. Traditionally, the Big Ten (or its BCS replacement) is on the West side (press box) and the Pac-12 team is on the East side.

The institution with the highest BCS ranking performs the national anthem, and performs first at halftime. Except in BCS championship years, the National Anthem is performed by the band. In BCS Championship years, a performer has been invited to sing the Anthem, the last being LeAnn Rimes in 2006. The Rose Bowl does not have other performers during the halftime show besides the school marching bands. As part of the television contract, a portion of each band's halftime performance is shown on television. Each school and each conference are allocated television spots to advertise. For the 100th game on January 1, 2014, Merry Clayton, Lisa Fischer, Judith Hill and Darlene Love sang the national anthem. This was the first time in Rose Bowl history that the anthem was performed by singers rather than by a marching band.[39]

Appearances and wins-loss records[edit]

In 1918 and 1919 the Rose Bowl hosted football games with military personnel and are not actually college football games. Big Ten and Pacific-12 conference records are based on all Rose Bowl games.

† Nebraska was not a member of the Big Ten at the time of either of their appearances. Therefore, as of 2014, they have not represented the Big Ten in the Rose Bowl.

^ The Pacific Coast Conference, predecessor to the Pacific-12 Conference, had their first football season in 1916, so Washington State's appearance in 1916 for the 1915 season and Stanford's appearance in 1902 for the 1901 season do not count toward the conference's total.

Game results[edit]

Winners in boldface. Italics denote a tie game.

Date played West / PCC / Pac-12 East / Big Ten Notes
January 1, 1902 Stanford 0 Michigan 49 notes
January 1, 1916 Washington State 14 Brown 0 notes
January 1, 1917 Oregon 14 Pennsylvania 0 notes
January 1, 1918* Mare Island - USMC 19 Camp Lewis - US Army 7 notes
January 1, 1919* Mare Island - USMC 0 Great Lakes - US Navy 17 notes
January 1, 1920 Oregon 6 Harvard 7 notes
January 1, 1921 California 28 Ohio State 0 notes
January 2, 1922 California 0 Washington & Jefferson 0 notes
January 1, 1923 USC 14 Penn State 3 notes
January 1, 1924 Washington 14 Navy 14 notes
January 1, 1925 Stanford 10 Notre Dame 27 notes
January 1, 1926 Washington 19 Alabama 20 notes
January 1, 1927 Stanford 7 Alabama 7 notes
January 2, 1928 Stanford 7 Pittsburgh 6 notes
January 1, 1929 California 7 Georgia Tech 8 notes
January 1, 1930 USC 47 Pittsburgh 14 notes
January 1, 1931 Washington State 0 Alabama 24 notes
January 1, 1932 USC 21 Tulane 12 notes
January 2, 1933 USC 35 Pittsburgh 0 notes
January 1, 1934 Stanford 0 Columbia 7 notes
January 1, 1935 Stanford 13 Alabama 29 notes
January 1, 1936 Stanford 7 SMU 0 notes
January 1, 1937 Washington 0 Pittsburgh 21 notes
January 1, 1938 California 13 Alabama 0 notes
January 2, 1939 USC 7 Duke 3 notes
January 1, 1940 USC 14 Tennessee 0 notes
January 1, 1941 Stanford 21 Nebraska 13 notes
January 1, 1942^ Oregon State 20 Duke 16 notes
January 1, 1943 UCLA 0 Georgia 9 notes
January 1, 1944 USC 29 Washington 0 notes
January 1, 1945 USC 25 Tennessee 0 notes
January 1, 1946 USC 14 Alabama 34 notes
January 1, 1947 UCLA 14 Illinois 45 notes
January 1, 1948 USC 0 Michigan 49 notes
January 1, 1949 California 14 Northwestern 20 notes
January 2, 1950 California 14 Ohio State 17 notes
January 1, 1951 California 6 Michigan 14 notes
January 1, 1952 Stanford 7 Illinois 40 notes
January 1, 1953 USC 7 Wisconsin 0 notes
January 1, 1954 UCLA 20 Michigan State 28 notes
January 1, 1955 USC 7 Ohio State 20 notes
January 2, 1956 UCLA 14 Michigan State 17 notes
January 1, 1957 Oregon State 19 Iowa 35 notes
January 1, 1958 Oregon 7 Ohio State 10 notes
January 1, 1959 California 12 Iowa 38 notes
January 1, 1960 Washington 44 Wisconsin 8 notes
January 2, 1961 Washington 17 Minnesota 7 notes
January 1, 1962 UCLA 3 Minnesota 21 notes
January 1, 1963 USC 42 Wisconsin 37 notes
January 1, 1964 Washington 7 Illinois 17 notes
January 1, 1965 Oregon State 7 Michigan 34 notes
January 1, 1966 UCLA 14 Michigan State 12 notes
January 2, 1967 USC 13 Purdue 14 notes
January 1, 1968 USC 14 Indiana 3 notes
January 1, 1969 USC 16 Ohio State 27 notes
January 1, 1970 USC 10 Michigan 3 notes
January 1, 1971 Stanford 27 Ohio State 17 notes
January 1, 1972 Stanford 13 Michigan 12 notes
January 1, 1973 USC 42 Ohio State 17 notes
January 1, 1974 USC 21 Ohio State 42 notes
January 1, 1975 USC 18 Ohio State 17 notes
January 1, 1976 UCLA 23 Ohio State 10 notes
January 1, 1977 USC 14 Michigan 6 notes
January 2, 1978 Washington 27 Michigan 20 notes
January 1, 1979 USC 17 Michigan 10 notes
January 1, 1980 USC 17 Ohio State 16 notes
January 1, 1981 Washington 6 Michigan 23 notes
January 1, 1982 Washington 28 Iowa 0 notes
January 1, 1983 UCLA 24 Michigan 14 notes
January 2, 1984 UCLA 45 Illinois 9 notes
January 1, 1985 USC 20 Ohio State 17 notes
January 1, 1986 UCLA 45 Iowa 28 notes
January 1, 1987 Arizona State 22 Michigan 15 notes
January 1, 1988 USC 17 Michigan State 20 notes
January 2, 1989 USC 14 Michigan 22 notes
January 1, 1990 USC 17 Michigan 10 notes
January 1, 1991 Washington 46 Iowa 34 notes
January 1, 1992 Washington 34 Michigan 14 notes
January 1, 1993 Washington 31 Michigan 38 notes
January 1, 1994 UCLA 16 Wisconsin 21 notes
January 2, 1995 Oregon 20 Penn State 38 notes
January 1, 1996 USC 41 Northwestern 32 notes
January 1, 1997 Arizona State 17 Ohio State 20 notes
January 1, 1998 Washington State 16 Michigan 21 notes
January 1, 1999 UCLA 31 Wisconsin 38 notes
January 1, 2000 Stanford 9 Wisconsin 17 notes
January 1, 2001 Washington 34 Purdue 24 notes
January 3, 2002† Miami (FL) 37 Nebraska 14 notes
January 1, 2003 Washington State 14 Oklahoma 34 notes
January 1, 2004 USC 28 Michigan 14 notes
January 1, 2005 Texas 38 Michigan 37 notes
January 4, 2006† USC 38 Texas 41 notes
January 1, 2007 USC 32 Michigan 18 notes
January 1, 2008 USC 49 Illinois 17 notes
January 1, 2009 USC 38 Penn State 24 notes
January 1, 2010 Oregon 17 Ohio State 26 notes
January 1, 2011 TCU 21 Wisconsin 19 notes
January 2, 2012 Oregon 45 Wisconsin 38 notes
January 1, 2013 Stanford 20 Wisconsin 14 notes
January 1, 2014 Stanford 20 Michigan State 24 notes
January 1, 2015‡ notes

* During WWI, military teams played.
^ Following the attack on Pearl Harbor, the 1942 game was moved to Duke University's Wallace Wade Stadium in Durham, North Carolina, as officials were wary of allowing such a large crowd to congregate anywhere on the West Coast due to World War II security concerns.
† Denotes BCS National Championship Game under the original format, teams outside the usual parameters played this year.
‡ Denotes College Football Playoff semifinal bowl game.

Rose Bowl Player of the Game Awards[edit]

Rose Bowl records at the Hall of Champions

The most valuable player in the Rose Bowl game is given a crystal trophy that is the Rose Bowl Player of the Game Award. The award was created in 1953 and awarded retroactively for players all the way back to the 1902 Rose Bowl. Occasionally, the award has been shared by two players. Beginning with the 2005 Rose Bowl Game, the Rose Bowl Player of the Game Award has been given to both offensive and defensive players of the game.[40] Only four players have ever been named the Player of the Game in more than one Rose Bowl: Bob Schloredt, Washington (1960, 1961), Charles White, USC (1979, 1980), Ron Dayne, Wisconsin (1999, 2000), and Vince Young, Texas (2005, 2006).

Year played MVP Team Position
1902 Neil Snow Michigan FB
1916 William Henry Dietz Washington State FB
1917 John Beckett Oregon T
1918 Hollis Huntington Mare Island FB
1919 George Halas Great Lakes E
1920 Edward Casey Harvard HB
1921 Harold Muller California E
1922 Russell Stein Washington & Jefferson T
1923 Leo Calland USC G
1924 Ira McKee Navy QB
1925 Elmer Layden Notre Dame FB
Ernie Nevers Stanford FB
1926 Johnny Mack Brown Alabama HB
George "Wildcat" Wilson Washington HB
1927 Fred Pickhard Alabama T
1928 Clifford "Biff" Hoffman Stanford FB
1929 Benjamin Lom California HB
1930 Russell Saunders USC QB
1931 John "Monk" Campbell Alabama QB
1932 Erny Pinckert USC HB
1933 Homer Griffith USC QB
1934 Cliff Montgomery Columbia QB
1935 Millard "Dixie" Howell Alabama HB
1936 James "Monk" Moscrip Stanford E
Keith Topping Stanford E
1937 Bill Daddio Pittsburgh E
1938 Victor Bottari California HB
1939 Doyle Nave USC QB
Al Krueger USC E
1940 Ambrose Schindler USC QB
1941 Peter Kmetovic Stanford HB
1942 Donald Durdan Oregon State HB
1943 Charles Trippi Georgia HB
1944 Norman Verry USC G
1945 Jim Hardy USC QB
1946 Harry Gilmer Alabama HB
1947 Claude "Buddy" Young Illinois HB
Julius Rykovich Illinois HB
1948 Bob Chappuis Michigan HB
1949 Frank Aschenbrenner Northwestern HB
1950 Fred "Curly" Morrison Ohio State FB
1951 Don Dufek Michigan FB
1952 William Tate Illinois HB
1953 Rudy Bukich USC QB
1954 Billy Wells Michigan State HB
1955 Dave Leggett Ohio State QB
1956 Walter Kowalczyk Michigan State HB
1957 Kenneth Ploen Iowa QB
1958 Jack Crabtree Oregon QB
1959 Bob Jeter Iowa HB
1960 Bob Schloredt Washington QB
George Fleming Washington HB
1961 Bob Schloredt Washington QB
1962 Sandy Stephens Minnesota QB
1963 Pete Beathard USC QB
Ron Vander Kelen Wisconsin QB
1964 Jim Grabowski Illinois FB
1965 Mel Anthony Michigan FB
1966 Bob Stiles UCLA DB
1967 John Charles Purdue DB
1968 O.J. Simpson USC TB
1969 Rex Kern Ohio State QB
1970 Bob Chandler USC FL
1971 Jim Plunkett Stanford QB
1972 Don Bunce Stanford QB
1973 Sam Cunningham USC FB
1974 Cornelius Greene Ohio State QB
1975 Pat Haden USC QB
John McKay, Jr. USC SE
1976 John Sciarra UCLA QB
1977 Vince Evans USC QB
1978 Warren Moon Washington QB
1979 Charles White USC TB
Rick Leach Michigan QB
1980 Charles White USC TB
1981 Butch Woolfolk Michigan RB
1982 Jacque Robinson Washington RB
1983 Don Rogers UCLA FS
Tom Ramsey UCLA QB
1984 Rick Neuheisel UCLA QB
1985 Tim Green USC QB
Jack Del Rio USC LB
1986 Eric Ball UCLA TB
1987 Jeff Van Raaphorst Arizona State QB
1988 Percy Snow Michigan State LB
1989 Leroy Hoard Michigan FB
1990 Ricky Ervins USC TB
1991 Mark Brunell Washington QB
1992 Steve Emtman Washington DT
Billy Joe Hobert Washington QB
1993 Tyrone Wheatley Michigan RB
1994 Brent Moss Wisconsin RB
1995 Danny O'Neil Oregon QB
Ki-Jana Carter Penn State RB
1996 Keyshawn Johnson USC WR
1997 Joe Germaine Ohio State QB
1998 Brian Griese Michigan QB
1999 Ron Dayne Wisconsin RB
2000 Ron Dayne Wisconsin RB
2001 Marques Tuiasosopo Washington QB
2002 Ken Dorsey Miami QB
Andre Johnson Miami WR
2003 Nate Hybl Oklahoma QB
2004 Matt Leinart USC QB
2005 Vince Young Texas QB
LaMarr Woodley Michigan LB
2006 Vince Young Texas QB
Michael Huff Texas S
2007 Dwayne Jarrett USC WR
Brian Cushing USC OLB
2008 John David Booty USC QB
Rey Maualuga USC LB
2009 Mark Sanchez USC QB
Kaluka Maiava USC LB
2010 Terrelle Pryor Ohio State QB
Kenny Rowe Oregon DE
2011 Andy Dalton TCU QB
Tank Carder TCU LB
2012 Lavasier Tuinei Oregon WR
Kiko Alonso Oregon LB
2013 Stepfan Taylor Stanford RB
Usua Amanam Stanford DB
2014 Connor Cook Michigan State QB
Kyler Elsworth Michigan State LB

Game records[edit]

Team Performance vs. opponent Year
Most points scored 49, USC vs. Illinois (tied with 2 others) 2008
Most points scored in a half (both teams) 56 (first half), Oregon and Wisconsin 2012
Most points scored in regulation (both teams) 83, Oregon and Wisconsin 2012
Fewest points allowed 0, Washington vs. Iowa (tied with 17 others) 1982
First downs 32, Wisconsin vs. USC 1963
Rushing yards 503, Michigan vs. Stanford 1902
Passing yards 456, Oregon vs. Penn State 1995
Total yards 633, USC vs. Illinois 2008
Individual Performance, team vs. opponent Year
Total offense 467, Vince Young, Texas vs. USC (59 plays) 2006
Rushing yards 247, Charles White, USC vs. Ohio State (39 attempts, 1 TD) 1980
Rushing TDs 5, Neil Snow, Michigan vs. Stanford 1902
Passing yards 456, Danny O'Neil, Oregon vs. Penn State (41-61-2, 2 TD) 1995
Tackles 17, John Boyett, Oregon vs. Wisconsin (tied with 1 other) 2012
Sacks 3, Kenny Rowe, Oregon vs. Ohio State (tied with 3 others) 2010
Interceptions 3, Bill Paulman, Stanford vs. SMU (tied with 1 other) 1936
Long plays Performance, team vs. opponent Year
Touchdown run 91, De'Anthony Thomas, Oregon vs. Wisconsin 2012
Touchdown pass 76, Rick Leach to Curt Stephenson, Michigan vs. Washington 1978
Kickoff return 103, Al Hoisch, UCLA vs. Illinois (TD) 1947
Punt return 86, Aramis Dandoy, USC vs. Ohio State (TD) 1955
Interception return 78, Elmer Layden, Notre Dame vs. Stanford (TD) 1925
Fumble return 53, Daylon McCutcheon, USC vs. Northwestern (TD) 1996
Punt 73, Don Bracken, Michigan vs. Washington 1981
Field goal 52, Rob Houghtlin, Iowa vs. UCLA 1986

Note: When there is a tie, the most recent one will be listed.

Top ranked teams[edit]

No. 1 ranked teams[edit]

  • 1954 Season/1955 Game: No. 1 Ohio State defeated No. 17 USC, 20–7
  • 1960 Season/1961 Game: No. 6 Washington defeated No. 1 Minnesota, 17–7
  • 1962 Season/1963 Game: No. 1 USC defeated No. 2 Wisconsin, 42–37
  • 1965 Season/1966 Game: No. 5 UCLA defeated No. 1 Michigan State, 14–12
  • 1968 Season/1969 Game: No. 1 Ohio State defeated No. 2 USC, 27–16
  • 1972 Season/1973 Game: No. 1 USC defeated No. 3 Ohio State, 42-17
  • 1975 Season/1976 Game: No. 11 UCLA defeated No. 1 Ohio State, 23-10
  • 1979 Season/1980 Game: No. 3 USC defeated No. 1 Ohio State, 17–16
  • 1997 Season/1998 Game: No. 1 Michigan defeated No. 8 Washington State, 21–16
  • 2001 Season/2002 BCS Championship Game: No. 1 Miami defeated No. 4 Nebraska, 37–14
  • 2003 Season/2004 Game: No. 1 USC defeated No. 4 Michigan, 28–14
  • 2005 Season/2006 BCS National Championship Game: No. 2 Texas defeated No. 1 USC, 41–38

No. 1 vs. No. 2 teams[edit]

  • 1962 Season/1963 Game: No. 1 USC defeated No. 2 Wisconsin, 42–37
  • 1968 Season/1969 Game: No. 1 Ohio State defeated No. 2 USC, 27–16. Ohio State was voted national champion
  • 2005 Season/2006 BCS National Championship Game: No. 2 Texas defeated No. 1 USC, 41–38. Texas was voted national champion

Twice in a season[edit]

Five times in Rose Bowl Game history, the two participants had played during the regular season. In three of those occurrences the same team won both the regular season game and the Rose Bowl Game. UCLA won three of those five Rose Bowl games.

  • 1956 Iowa 14, Oregon State 13; 1957 Rose Bowl Rematch: Iowa 35, Oregon State 19
  • 1965 Michigan State 13, UCLA 3; 1966 Rose Bowl Rematch: UCLA 14, Michigan State 12
  • 1975 Ohio State 41, UCLA 20; 1976 Rose Bowl Rematch: UCLA 23, Ohio State 10
  • 1982 UCLA 31, Michigan 27; 1983 Rose Bowl Rematch: UCLA 24, Michigan 14
  • 1987 Michigan State 27, USC 13; 1988 Rose Bowl Rematch: Michigan State 20, USC 17

Rose Bowl Hall of Fame[edit]

Inductees (by year):

All-Century Class[edit]

The Rose Bowl Game All-Century Class was announced by Rose Bowl Hall of Fame member Keith Jackson, on Sunday, December 8, 2013 at 4:00 p.m. at Tournament House.

They are:

In addition to being named as All-Century representatives for their respective decades, John McKay and Archie Griffin were named the 100th Rose Bowl Game All-Century Coach and Player respectively. Griffin and McKay (represented by his son John McKay, Jr.) will participate in the 2014 Rose Parade.

The finalists:

  • 1900–1919: Patty Driscoll (Great Lakes Navy, 1919), Neil Snow (Michigan, 1902) and George Halas (Great Lakes Navy, 1919)
  • 1920–1929: Ernie Nevers (Stanford, 1925), Elmer Layden (Notre Dame, 1925) and Johnny Mack Brown (Alabama, 1926)
  • 1930–1939: Millard "Dixie" Howell (Alabama, 1935), Don Hutson (Alabama, 1935) and Howard Jones (USC, 1930, 1932–33, 1939–40)
  • 1940–1949: Bob Chappuis (Michigan, 1948), Harry Gilmer (Alabama, 1946) and Charley Trippi (Georgia, 1943)
  • 1950–1959: Alan Ameche (Wisconsin, 1953), Bob Jeter (Iowa, 1959) and Woody Hayes (Ohio State, 1954, 1957, 1968, 1970, 1972–1975)
  • 1960–1969: Ron Vander Kelen (Wisconsin, 1963), O.J. Simpson (USC, 1968-69) and John McKay (USC, 1963, 1967–70, 1973–1975)
  • 1970–1979: Jim Plunkett (Stanford, 1971), Charles White (USC, 1979–1980) and Archie Griffin (Ohio State, 1973–1976)
  • 1980–1989: Don James (Washington, 1978, 1981–82, 1991–93), John Robinson (USC, 1977, 1979–80, 1996) and Bo Schembechler (Michigan, 1970, 1972, 1977–79, 1981, 1983, 1987, 1989–90)
  • 1990–1999: Barry Alvarez (Wisconsin, 1994, 1999, 2000 and 2013), Keyshawn Johnson (USC, 1996) and Ron Dayne (Wisconsin, 1999 and 2000)
  • 2000–2009: Matt Leinart (USC, 2004 and 2006), Vince Young (Texas, 2005–06) and Brian Cushing (USC, 2006–09), John David Booty (USC 2006–07)
  • 2010–2012: Terrelle Pryor (Ohio State, 2010), Tank Carder (TCU, 2011) and Montee Ball (Wisconsin, 2011–13)

Nominated by The Football Writers Association of America.[42]

Player and coach[edit]

Eight former players have come back to coach a team in the game (played and coached, as listed by the Tournament of Roses Association):[43]

  • Bret Bielema: Iowa (1991); Wisconsin (2011, 2012)
  • Bob Stoops: Iowa (1982); Oklahoma (2002)
  • Terry Donahue: UCLA (1966); UCLA (1983, 1984, 1986, 1994)
  • Bump Elliott: Michigan (1948); Michigan (1965)
  • Pete Elliott: Michigan (1948); California (1959); Illinois (1964)
  • Jess Hill: USC (1930); USC (1953, 1955)
  • Rick Neuheisel: UCLA (1983, 1984 – MVP); Washington (2001)
  • John Robinson: Oregon (1958); USC (1977, 1979, 1980, 1996)
  • Chuck Taylor: Stanford (1941); Stanford (1952)

Coaches with two teams[edit]

  • Hugo Bezdek: Oregon, 1917; Mare Island, 1918; Penn State, 1923 (three teams)
  • John Cooper: Arizona State, 1987; Ohio State, 1997 (Only coach to win the Rose Bowl Game with both a Big Ten and Pac-10 team)
  • Bill “Lone Star” Dietz: Washington State, 1916; Mare Island, 1919
  • Pete Elliott: California, 1959; Illinois, 1964
  • Robert Folwell: Pennsylvania, 1917; Navy 1924
  • Tommy Prothro: Oregon State, 1965; UCLA 1966
  • Wallace Wade: Alabama, 1926, 1927, 1931; Duke 1939, 1942

Related events[edit]

  • Selection Sunday, December 8, 2013[44]
  • Lawry's Beef Bowl – December 27, 28, 2013
  • Hall of Fame ceremony, Pasadena Convention Center, December 30, 2013
  • Kickoff Luncheon, Rose Bowl, December 31, 2013
  • Rose Bowl Game Public Tailgate, January 1, 2014

Related notes[edit]

  • January 1, 1918 – Hugo Bezdek was the first college football coach to lead two separate schools (Oregon, 1917 and Mare Island, 1918) to victories; He also coached Penn State in a loss in the 1923 Rose Bowl
  • January 2, 1922 – First bowl game not played on New Year's Day
  • January 3, 2002 – First time hosting the BCS National Championship where Miami defeated Nebraska, 37-14, and the Rose Parade and the Rose Bowl Game were held on separate days

Related books[edit]

  • America's New Year Celebration. The Rose Parade & Rose Bowl Game. Albion Publishing Group, Santa Barbara, CA. 1999
  • Samuelsen, Rube - The Rose Bowl Game. Doubleday Company and Inc. 1951
  • Big Ten Conference football media guide (PDF copy available at http://bigten.cstv.com)
  • Pacific-10 Conference football media guide (PDF copy available at http://www.pac-10.org)
  • Moran Malcolm, Keith Jackson – The Rose Bowl: 100th: The History of the Granddaddy of Them All. Whitman Publishing, LLC, 06/01/2013. ISBN 9780794837938.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Paul Myerberg, Northwestern Mutual to sponsor Rose Bowl, USA Today, May 14, 2014
  2. ^ a b c The 1942 game was played in Wallace Wade Stadium in Durham, North Carolina, due to a restriction on crowds allowed on the West Coast after Pearl Harbor.
  3. ^ If either conference champion is in the BCS National Championship Game, the champion is replaced by a BCS at-large team.
  4. ^ Tournament of Roses Press Release, December 7, 2008
  5. ^ NCAA Division 1 football records book. NCAA, 2007 Edition, pages 296-302 Major Bowl Game Attendance
  6. ^ Celebrating the Rose Bowl Game, Tournament of Roses via YouTube, Jul 30, 2013
  7. ^ Mary L. Grady, Mercer Island High School Marching Band to march in 2012 Tournament of Roses Parade, Mercer Island Reporter, September 24, 2010
  8. ^ Bowl Games: College Football's Greatest Tradition, by Robert Ours, 2004, pgs. 3-4
  9. ^ Huge Flagstaff For Pasadena. Enormous Steel Pole 122 and ½ Feet Long Will Stand in Rose Bowl. Los Angeles Times, December 10, 1922. Monday afternoon at 2 o'clock the new flagstaff of the Tournament of Roses stadium, now called the Rose Bowl, will be put in place with suitable ceremony under auspices of the Pasadena Lions Club, donor of the pole.
  10. ^ The Michigan Stadium Story
  11. ^ University of Michigan Official Athletics site – Michigan Stadium
  12. ^ Tournament of Roses Parade FAQs. In 2006, attendance was 93,986.
  13. ^ Historic information on the Rose Bowl
  14. ^ The Way We Really Were: The Golden State in the Second Great War. Lotchin, Roger W. 2000. Board of Trustees of the University of Illinois. ISBN 0-252-02505-9. page 14.
  15. ^ "ROSE BOWL GAME CALLED OFF", San Antonio Light, December 14, 1941, pB-1
  16. ^ Forbidding Crowds. Los Angeles Times, December 16, 1941
  17. ^ Zimmerman, Paul - Duke Likely to Play Beavers in Durham. Blue Devils Invite Foes Rose Bowl, Shrine Grid Games Halted as Other Sports Events in Balance. Los Angeles Times, December 15, 1941.
  18. ^ "Rose Bowl Timeline". Pasadena Tournament of Roses. Retrieved 2007-11-05. 
  19. ^ Zimmerman, Paul - Scene of Rose Bowl Shifted to Durham, N.C. Los Angeles Times, December 16, 1941. Perpetuation of the annual Rose Bowl intersectional football classic was assured yesterday when the Tournament of Roses officials and Oregon State College accepted the hospitality of Duke University.
  20. ^ R.I.P. Time Magazine, December 6, 1943
  21. ^ Michael Oriard - King Football: Sport and Spectacle in the Golden Age of Radio & Newsreels, Movies & Magazines, The Weekly & The Daily Press. Published 2004 UNC Press. ISBN 0-8078-5545-6 Chapter 3:Who cares about reform?
  22. ^ football, gridiron. (2008). In Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved January 28, 2008, from Encyclopædia Britannica Online: www.britannica.com/eb/article-234274. Football in the United States - The racial transformation of American football. Encyclopædia Britannica
  23. ^ Big Ten Football media guide (2007 Edition) page 5
  24. ^ Rose Bowl History Big Ten Tamed the West from 1948–59. Seattle Post-Intelligencer (Seattle, WA), December 30, 1997
  25. ^ Non-BCS teams to get vacated bids
  26. ^ https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=tc6hFmhOxxw
  27. ^ RICHARD SANDOMIR - TV SPORTS; A Private Line for the Rose Bowl. New York Times, January 1, 1999
  28. ^ Citi out as Rose Bowl sponsor, ESPN.com, June 22, 2010
  29. ^ [1],'sportsillustrated.com', October 19, 2010
  30. ^ "Northwestern Mutual lands Rose Bowl deal". L.A. Biz. 
  31. ^ Gruver, 2002 pg. 48
  32. ^ Disney makes $125 million BCS bid. Variety, November 12, 2008
  33. ^ Reid Cherner & Tom Weir, "Rose Bowl headed to ESPN", USA today, June 12, 2009
  34. ^ "BCS National Championship and Bowl Games on ESPN Deportes". ESPN. Retrieved 24 December 2012. 
  35. ^ ESPN REACHES LONG-TERM EXTENSION WITH PASADENA TOURNAMENT OF ROSES, BIG TEN AND PAC-12, Tournament of Roses Association, June 28, 2012
  36. ^ Sam Farmer, ESPN agrees to pay $80 million a year to broadcast Rose Bowl, Los Angeles Times, July 16, 2012
  37. ^ Rittenberg, Adam (December 26, 2012). "Alvarez savors return to Rose Bowl". ESPN. Retrieved December 29, 2012. 
  38. ^ "List of Rose Bowl Games from official website". 
  39. ^ Celebrated Singers Merry Clayton, Lisa Fischer, Judith Hill and Darlene Love to Sing National Anthem at Historic 100th Rose Bowl Game, Tournament of Roses Association, December 8, 2013
  40. ^ 2008 Rose Bowl Program, 2008 Rose Bowl. Accessed 26 January 2008.
  41. ^ Knute Rockne, Dick Vermeil and Ki-Jana Carter to be Inducted into the Rose Bowl Hall of Fame, Tournament of Roses Association, August 26, 2014
  42. ^ First Group of Finalists Unveiled for Rose Bowl Game All-Century Class, Tournament of Roses Association, September 22, 2013
  43. ^ 2012 Rose Bowl Game presented by Vizio Historical Media Guide, Pasadena Tournament of Roses Association, December 2011
  44. ^ All Events, Tournament of Roses Association, July 25, 2013

Bibliography[edit]

External links[edit]

Coordinates: 34°09′41″N 118°10′03″W / 34.16125°N 118.16757°W / 34.16125; -118.16757