Rose water is the hydrosol portion of the distillate of rose petals. Rose water, itself a by-product of the production of rose oil for use in perfume, is used to flavour food, as a component in some cosmetic and medical preparations, and for religious purposes throughout Europe and Asia. Rose syrup is made from rose water, with sugar added.
Since ancient times, the rose has been highly prized for its source of perfume, medicinal use and nutritional properties. In fact so much so that ancient Greeks, Romans and Phoenecians placed as much importance on large public rose gardens as they did on wheat fields and fruit orchards.
Rose perfumes are made from rose oil, also called attar of roses, which is a mixture of volatile essential oils obtained by steam-distilling the crushed petals of roses, a process first developed in Iran (Persia). Rose water is a by-product of this process.
Rose water has a very distinctive flavour and is used heavily in Persian and Mesopotamian cuisine—especially in sweets such as nougat, raahat and baklava. For example, rose water is used to give some types of loukoum (or "Turkish Delight") their distinctive flavours. Beside its usage in food, it is also used as a perfume, especially in religious ceremonies (both Muslim and Zoroastrian).
The Cypriot version of mahalebi uses rosewater.[unreliable source?]In Iran, it is also added to tea, ice cream, cookies and other sweets in small quantities, and in the Arab world and India it is used to flavour milk and dairy-based dishes such as rice pudding. It is also a key ingredient in sweet lassi, a drink made from yogurt, sugar and various fruit juices, and is also used to make jallab. In Malaysia and Singapore, rose water is mixed with milk, sugar and pink food colouring to make a sweet drink called bandung. Rose water is frequently used as a halal substitute for red wine and other alcohols in cooking.
In Western Europe, rose water (as well as orange flower water) is sometimes used to flavour marzipan. Rose water was also used to make Waverly Jumbles. American and European bakers enjoyed the floral flavouring of rose water in their baking until the 19th century when vanilla flavouring became popular.
A rose water ointment is occasionally used as an emollient, and rose water is sometimes used in cosmetics such as cold creams. Water used to clean the Kaaba, the Qibla for Muslims located in Mecca, combines Zamzam water with rose water as an additive. Rose water is used in some Hindu rituals as well. Rose water also figures in Christianity, particularly in the Eastern Orthodox Church.
In parts of the Middle East, rose water is commonly added to lemonade.
In India, rose water is used as eye drops to clear them. Some people in India also use rose water as spray applied directly to the face for natural fragrance and moisturiser, especially during winters. It is also used in Indian sweets and other food preparations (particularly gulab jamun, named from the Persian word for rose water). Rose water is often sprinkled in Indian weddings to welcome guests.
Depending on the origin and type of manufacturing method of rosewater obtained from the sepals and petals of Rosa damascena from Central Iran through steam distillation, the following monoterpenoid and alkane components could be identified with GC-MS: mostly citronellol, nonadecane, geraniol and phenyl ethyl alcohol, and also henicosane, 9-nonadecen, eicosane, linalool, citronellyl acetate, methyleugenol, heptadecane, pentadecane, docosane, nerol, disiloxane, octadecane, and pentacosane. Usually, phenylethyl alcohol is responsible for the typical odour of rose water but not always present in rosewater products.
See also 
- "The rose in Ancient times". Rosense.uk.com. Retrieved 2012-06-30.
- "Mahalebi and Rose Water". Kopiaste.org. Retrieved 2012-06-30.
- "Journey through Holy Week & Pascha". Holy Apostles Greek Orthodox Church.
- Ahmad Y Hassan, Transfer Of Islamic Technology To The West, Part III: Technology Transfer in the Chemical Industries, History of Science and Technology in Islam.
- Loghmani-Khouzani H, Fini Sabzi O, Safari J H (2007). “Essential Oil Composition of Rosa damascena”. Scientia Iranica 14 (4), pp 316-319. Sharif University of Technology, Research Note
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