Rosetta

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For other uses, see Rosetta (disambiguation).

Coordinates: 31°24′N 30°25′E / 31.400°N 30.417°E / 31.400; 30.417

Rosetta
رشيد
Rashid
Rosetta is located in Egypt
Rosetta
Rosetta
Location in Egypt
Coordinates: 31°24′16″N 30°24′59″E / 31.40444°N 30.41639°E / 31.40444; 30.41639
Country  Egypt
Governorate Beheira
Population (1996)
 • Total 58,432
Time zone EST (UTC+2)

Rosetta (Arabic: رشيدRašīd  IPA: [ɾɑˈʃiːd]; French: Rosette) is a port city of the Nile Delta, located 65 km (40 mi) east of Alexandria, in Egypt's Beheira governorate.

Founded around in the 9th century, Rashid boomed with the decline of Alexandria following the Ottoman conquest of Egypt in 1517, only to wane in importance after Alexandria's revival. During the 19th century it was a popular British tourist destination, known for its charming Ottoman mansions, citrus groves and comparative cleanliness.

Name[edit]

Both the Arabic name Rašīd (meaning "guide") and the western name Rosette or Rosetta ("little rose") are corruptions (or folk etymologies) of a Coptic toponym, Trashit.[1] Rosette or Rosetta was the name used by the French at the time of Napoleon Bonaparte's campaign in Egypt and thus became eponymous of the Rosetta Stone (French: Pierre de Rosette) which was found by French soldiers at the nearby Fort Julien in 1799.

History[edit]

The site of Rosetta was inhabited throughout the history of Ancient Egypt, then known as Khito[citation needed] In the Ptolemaic era, the town was renamed to Bolbitine (Bolbitinum, Bolbitinon, the name of one of the seven mouths of the Nile in Herodotus).[2] In Christian Egypt, the town was again known by the vernacular (Coptic) name, now in the form (t-)Rashit / Rakhit / Rexi[clarification needed] In the 850s, the Abbassid caliph ordered a fort to be built on the site of the Ptolemaic city, and the medieval city grew around this fort. During the Seventh Crusade, Louis IX of France briefly occupied the town in 1249. [3] Under the Mamelukes, the city became an important commercial center, and remained so throughout Ottoman rule, until the eventual resurgence of the importance of Alexandria following the construction of the Mahmoudiyah canal in 1807. Rosetta witnessed the defeat of the British Fraser campaign, on 19 September 1807.

Climate[edit]

Köppen-Geiger climate classification system classifies its climate as hot desert (BWh), but blowing winds from the Mediterranean Sea greatly moderate the temperatures, typical to the Egypt's north coast, making its summers moderately hot and humid while its winters mild and moderately wet when sleet and hail are also common.

Rafah, Alexandria, Abu Qir, Rosetta, Baltim, Kafr el-Dawwar and Mersa Matruh are the wettest places in Egypt.

Climate data for Rosetta
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °C (°F) 18.8
(65.8)
18.9
(66)
20.9
(69.6)
24
(75)
27.2
(81)
29.3
(84.7)
30.7
(87.3)
31.5
(88.7)
30.5
(86.9)
28.8
(83.8)
25
(77)
20.8
(69.4)
25.53
(77.93)
Daily mean °C (°F) 14.5
(58.1)
14.4
(57.9)
16
(61)
18.6
(65.5)
21.8
(71.2)
24.4
(75.9)
26.2
(79.2)
26.9
(80.4)
25.9
(78.6)
23.9
(75)
20.3
(68.5)
16.4
(61.5)
20.78
(69.4)
Average low °C (°F) 10.2
(50.4)
10
(50)
11.2
(52.2)
13.2
(55.8)
16.4
(61.5)
19.5
(67.1)
21.7
(71.1)
22.4
(72.3)
21.3
(70.3)
19
(66)
15.7
(60.3)
12
(54)
16.05
(60.92)
Precipitation mm (inches) 50
(1.97)
26
(1.02)
13
(0.51)
4
(0.16)
3
(0.12)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
9
(0.35)
25
(0.98)
51
(2.01)
181
(7.12)
Source: climate-data.org[4]

Population[edit]

The population of Rashid has increased since the 1980s, as follows:

  • 1983: 36,711 (approximate);
  • 1986: 51,789; and
  • 1996: 58,432

Gallery[edit]

References[edit]

Bibliography[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Sir Richard Francis Burton, A Plain and Literal Translation of the Arabian Nights Entertainments, Kamashastra Society, 1885, p. 288[unreliable source?]
  2. ^ James Talboys Wheeler, The geography of Herodotus, 1854, p. 363
  3. ^ Peter Jackson, The Seventh Crusade, 1244-1254: Sources and Documents, Volume 16 of Crusade Texts in Translation, Ashgate Publishing, Ltd., 2009, p. 72
  4. ^ "Climate: Rosetta - Climate graph, Temperature graph, Climate table". climate-data.org. Retrieved 13 August 2013. 

External links[edit]