Rosetta (spacecraft)

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Rosetta
Rosetta probe
Computer model of Rosetta
Mission type Comet orbiter/lander
Operator European Space Agency
COSPAR ID 2004-006A
SATCAT № 28169
Website www.esa.int/rosetta
Mission duration 10 years, 4 months and 26 days elapsed
Spacecraft properties
Manufacturer Astrium
Launch mass Orbiter: 2,900 kg (6,400 lb)
Lander: 100 kg (220 lb)
Dry mass Orbiter: 1,230 kg (2,710 lb)
Payload mass Orbiter: 165 kg (364 lb)
Lander: 27 kg (60 lb)
Dimensions 2.8 × 2.1 × 2 m (9.2 × 6.9 × 6.6 ft)
Power 850 watts at 3.4 AU[1]
Start of mission
Launch date 2 March 2004, 07:17 (2004-03-02UTC07:17Z) UTC
Rocket Ariane 5G+ V-158
Launch site Kourou ELA-3
Contractor Arianespace
Flyby of Mars
Closest approach 25 February 2007
Distance 250 km (160 mi)
Flyby of 2867 Šteins
Closest approach 5 September 2008, 20:38 UTC
Distance 800 km (500 mi)
Flyby of 21 Lutetia
Closest approach 10 July 2010, 16:10 UTC
Distance 3,162 km (1,965 mi)
67P/Churyumov–Gerasimenko orbiter
Orbital insertion August 2014 (planned)[2]
Orbit parameters
Periapsis 200 km (120 mi) planned
Transponders
Band S band (low gain antenna)
X band (high gain antenna)
Bandwidth 7.8 bit/s (S Band)
22 kbit/s (X Band)[3]
Instruments
ALICE: Ultraviolet Imaging Spectrometer
CONSERT: COmet Nucleus Sounding Experiment by Radio wave Transmission
COSIMA: COmetary Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometer
GIADA: Grain Impact Analyser and Dust Accumulator
MIDAS: Micro-Imaging Dust Analysis System
MIRO: Microwave Spectrometer for the Rosetta Orbiter
OSIRIS: Optical, Spectroscopic, and InfraRed Remote Imaging System
ROSINA: Rosetta Orbiter Spectrometer for Ion and Neutral Analysis
RPC Rosetta Plasma Consortium
RSI: Radio Science Investigation
VIRTIS: Visible and Infrared Thermal Imaging Spectrometer

Rosetta is a robotic spacecraft built and launched by the European Space Agency to perform a detailed study of comet 67P/Churyumov–Gerasimenko.[4] It is part of the ESA Horizon 2000 cornerstone missions and is the first mission designed to both orbit and land on a comet.[5]

Rosetta was launched in March 2004 on an Ariane 5 rocket and is scheduled to reach the comet in August 2014.[2] The spacecraft consists of two main elements: the Rosetta space probe orbiter, which features 12 instruments, and the Philae robotic lander, with an additional nine instruments.[6] The Rosetta mission will orbit 67P for 17 months and is designed to complete the most detailed study of a comet ever attempted. The mission is controlled from the European Space Operations Centre (ESOC), in Darmstadt, Germany.[7]

The probe is named after the Rosetta Stone, a basalt slab of Egyptian origin featuring a decree in three scripts. The lander is named after the Nile island Philae, where an obelisk was discovered with inscriptions. A comparison of the hieroglyphs on the Rosetta Stone and the obelisk led to greater understanding of the Egyptian writing system. Similarly, it is hoped that these spacecraft will result in better understanding of comets and the early Solar System.[8][9]

The spacecraft has already performed two successful asteroid flyby missions on its way to the comet.[10] In 2007, Rosetta also performed a Mars swingby (flyby), and returned images.[11] The craft completed its fly-by of asteroid 2867 Šteins in September 2008 and of 21 Lutetia in July 2010.[12] On 20 January 2014, Rosetta was taken out of a 31-month hibernation mode and is continuing to its target.[13][14]

Mission timeline[edit]

This is the planned timeline for the Rosetta mission:

  • Launch (2 March 2004)
  • First Earth flyby (4 March 2005)
  • Mars flyby (25 February 2007)
  • Second Earth flyby (13 November 2007)
  • Flyby of asteroid 2867 Šteins (5 September 2008)
  • Third Earth flyby (13 November 2009)
  • Flyby of asteroid 21 Lutetia (10 July 2010)
  • Deep-space hibernation (June 2011 – January 2014)
  • Comet approach (January–May 2014)
  • Deceleration burns (May-July 2014)
  • Orbital insertion, comet mapping and characterisation (August 2014)
  • Landing on the comet (November 2014)
  • Escorting the comet around the Sun (November 2014 – December 2015)
  • End of mission (December 2015)

Rosetta's current location can be found on the ESA website.[15]

Mission overview[edit]

Background[edit]

During the 1986 approach of Halley's Comet, a number of international space probes were sent to explore the comet, most prominent among them being ESA's Giotto. After the probes returned valuable scientific information, it was becoming obvious that follow-ons were needed that would shed more light on the cometary composition and answer newly opened questions.

Both ESA and NASA started cooperatively developing new probes. The NASA project was the Comet Rendezvous Asteroid Flyby (CRAF) mission. The ESA project was the follow-on Comet Nucleus Sample Return (CNSR) mission. Both missions were to share the Mariner Mark II spacecraft design, thus minimising costs. In 1992, after NASA cancelled CRAF due to budgetary limitations, ESA decided to develop a CRAF-style project on its own. By 1993 it was evident that the ambitious sample return mission was unfeasible with the existing ESA budget, so the mission was redesigned, with the final flight plan resembling the cancelled CRAF mission, an asteroid flyby followed by a comet rendezvous with in-situ examination, including a lander.

Construction[edit]

Rosetta was built in a clean room according to COSPAR rules, but "sterilisation [was] generally not crucial since comets are usually regarded as objects where you can find prebiotic molecules, that is, molecules that are precursors of life, but not living microorganisms",[16] according to Gerhard Schwehm, Rosetta's Project Scientist.

Launch[edit]

Rosetta was set to be launched on 12 January 2003 to rendezvous with the comet 46P/Wirtanen in 2011.

Trajectory of the Rosetta space probe

However, this plan was abandoned after a failure of the Ariane 5 carrier rocket during a communications satellite launch on 11 December 2002, grounding it until the cause of the failure could be determined. A new plan was formed to target the comet Churyumov–Gerasimenko, with a revised launch date of 26 February 2004 and comet rendezvous in 2014. The larger mass and the resulting increased impact velocity made modification of the landing gear necessary.[17] After two scrubbed launch attempts, Rosetta was launched on 2 March 2004 at 7:17 GMT. Aside from the changes made to launch time and target, the mission profile remains almost identical.

Deep space manoeuvres[edit]

To achieve the required velocity to rendezvous with 67P/C-G Rosetta used gravity assist manoeuvres to accelerate throughout the inner Solar System. The asteroid's orbit was known before Rosetta's launch, from ground-based measurements, to an accuracy of approximately 100 km (62 mi). Information gathered by the onboard cameras beginning at a distance of 24 million kilometres (15,000,000 mi) were processed at ESA's Operation Centre to refine the asteroid's position in its orbit to a few kilometres. The first flyby of Earth occurred on 4 March 2005.

On 25 February 2007, the craft was scheduled for a low-altitude bypass of Mars, to correct the trajectory after the first launch attempt in 2003 was delayed by one year. This was not without risk, as the estimated altitude of the flyover manoeuvre was a mere 250 kilometres (160 mi). During that encounter the solar panels could not be used since the craft was in the planet's shadow, where it would not receive any solar light for 15 minutes, causing a dangerous shortage of power. The craft was therefore put into standby mode, with no possibility to communicate, flying on batteries that were originally not designed for this task.[18] This Mars manoeuvre was therefore nicknamed "The Billion Euro Gamble".[19] Fortunately, the flyby was successful and the mission continued as planned.[20]

The second Earth flyby occurred on 13 November 2007.[21][22] In 2007, as it approached Earth for a fly-by, the spacecraft was briefly designated as minor planet 2007 VN84 due to it being misidentified as an asteroid.

The spacecraft performed a close flyby of asteroid 2867 Šteins on 5 September 2008. Its onboard cameras were used to fine-tune the trajectory, achieving a minimum separation of less than 800 km (500 mi). Onboard instruments measured the asteroid from 4 August to 10 September. Maximum relative speed between the two objects during the flyby was 8.6 km/s (19,000 mph; 31,000 km/h).[23]

Rosetta's third and final flyby of Earth happened on 12 November 2009.[24]

Reconstruction of the comet's shape

In May 2014, Rosetta began a series of eight deceleration burns. These will reduce the relative velocity between the spacecraft and 67P/C-G from 775 m/s (2,540 ft/s) to 7.9 m/s (26 ft/s).[2] Further burns in August 2014 will put Rosetta into orbit around 67P/C-G.[2]

Orbit of 67P/C-G[edit]

In August 2014, Rosetta will enter a slow orbit around the comet and gradually slow down in preparation for releasing a lander that will make contact with the comet itself. The exact surface layout of the comet is currently unknown and the orbiter has been built to map this before detaching the lander. It is anticipated that a suitable landing site can be found, although few specific details exist regarding the surface.

Philae lander[edit]

The lander, named Philae, will approach Churyumov–Gerasimenko at relative speed around 1 m/s (2.2 mph; 3.6 km/h) and on contact with the surface, two harpoons will be fired into the comet to prevent the lander from bouncing off. Additional drills are used to further secure the lander on the comet.

Once attached to the comet, expected to take place in November 2014, the lander will begin its science mission:

  • Characterisation of the nucleus
  • Determination of the chemical compounds present, including enantiomers[25]
  • Study of comet activities and developments over time

Instruments[edit]

Mockup of Philae

Core[edit]

The investigation of the core is done by three spectroscopes, one microwave radio antenna and one radar:

  • ALICE (an ultraviolet imaging spectrograph). The ultraviolet spectrograph will search for the abundance of noble gas in the comet core, from which the temperature during the comet creation could be estimated. The detection is done by an array of potassium bromide and caesium iodide photocathodes. The 3.1 kg (6.8 lb) instrument uses 2.9 watts and was produced in the USA, and an improved version is used in the New Horizons spacecraft. It operates in the extreme and far ultraviolet spectrum, between 700 and 2,050 ångströms (70 and 205 nm).[26][27]
  • OSIRIS (Optical, Spectroscopic, and Infrared Remote Imaging System). The camera system has a narrow-angle lens (700 mm) and a wide-angle lens (140 mm), with a 2048x2048 pixel CCD chip. The instrument was constructed in Germany.[28]
  • VIRTIS (Visible and Infrared Thermal Imaging Spectrometer). The Visible and IR spectrometer is able to make pictures of the core in the IR and also search for IR spectra of molecules in the coma. The detection is done by a mercury cadmium teluride array for IR and with a CCD chip for the visible wavelength range. The instrument was produced in Italy, and improved versions were used for Dawn and Venus Express.[29]
  • MIRO (Microwave Instrument for the Rosetta Orbiter). The abundance and temperature of volatile substances like water, ammonia and carbon dioxide can be detected by MIRO via their microwave emissions. The 30 cm (12 in) radio antenna was constructed in Germany, while the rest of the 18.5 kg (41 lb) instrument was provided by the USA.
  • CONSERT (Comet Nucleus Sounding Experiment by Radiowave Transmission). The CONSERT experiment will provide information about the deep interior of the comet using a radar. The radar will perform tomography of the nucleus by measuring electromagnetic wave propagation between the Philae lander and the Rosetta orbiter through the comet nucleus. This allows it to determine the comet's internal structure and deduce information on its composition. The electronics were developed by France and both antennas were constructed in Germany.[30]
  • RSI (Radio Science Investigation). RSI makes use of the probe's communication system for physical investigation of the nucleus and the inner coma of the comet.[31]

Gas and particles[edit]

  • ROSINA (Rosetta Orbiter Spectrometer for Ion and Neutral Analysis). The instrument consists of a double-focus magnetic mass spectrometer DFMS and a reflectron type time of flight mass spectrometer RTOF. The DFMS has a high resolution (can resolve N2 from CO) for molecules up to 300 amu. The RTOF is highly sensitive for neutral molecules and for ions.[32]
  • MIDAS (Micro-Imaging Dust Analysis System). The high-resolution atomic force microscope will investigate several physical aspects of the dust particles which are deposited on a silicon plate.[33]
  • COSIMA (Cometary Secondary Ion Mass Analyser). COSIMA analyses the composition of dust particles by secondary ion mass spectrometry, after the surface is cleaned by indium ions. It can analyse ions up to a mass of 4000 amu.[34]
  • GIADA (Grain Impact Analyser and Dust Accumulator) [35]

Solar wind interaction[edit]

  • RPC (Rosetta Plasma Consortium).[36][37]

Reaction control system problems[edit]

In 2006, Rosetta suffered a leak in its reaction control system (RCS).[38] The system, which consists of 24 bipropellant 10-newton thrusters,[2] is responsible for fine tuning the trajectory of Rosetta throughout its journey. Due to the leak the RCS will operate at a lower pressure than designed. This may cause the propellants to mix incompletely and so burn 'dirtier' and less efficiently, though ESA engineers are confident that they have sufficient fuel reserves to allow successful completion of the mission.[39]

Additionally, Rosetta's reaction wheels are exhibiting higher than expected vibration, though testing revealed the system can be operated with less wear on the wheels. New software has been uploaded to allow Rosetta to function with only two out of the three reaction wheels functioning.[38]

Misidentification[edit]

In November 2007, during its second flyby, the Rosetta spacecraft was mistaken for a near-Earth asteroid and given the designation 2007 VN84. Based upon images taken by a 0.68-metre telescope of the Catalina Sky Survey, an astronomer 'discovered' the spacecraft and misidentified it as an asteroid about 20 m (66 ft) in diameter, and performed a trajectory calculation showing that it would make its closest flyby of the Earth at a distance of 5,700 km (3,500 mi) on 13 November 2007. This extremely close approach (in astronomical terms) led to speculation that 2007 VN84 might be at risk of impacting the Earth.[40] However, astronomer Denis Denisenko recognised that the trajectory matched that of the Rosetta probe, which was performing a flyby of Earth en route to its rendezvous with a comet.[41] The Minor Planet Center later confirmed in an editorial release that 2007 VN84 was actually the spacecraft.[42]

Timeline of major events and discoveries[edit]

2004
  • 2 March – ESA's Rosetta mission was successfully launched at 07:17 UTC (04:17 local time) from Kourou, French Guiana. The upper stage and payload were successfully injected into an eccentric coast orbit of 200 km × 4,000 km (120 mi × 2,490 mi). At 09:14 UTC the upper stage engine fired to bring the spacecraft to escape velocity, leaving Earth and entering heliocentric orbit. Rosetta was released 18 minutes later. The ESOC in Darmstadt, Germany, established contact with the probe shortly after that.[43]
  • 10 May – The first and most important deep space manoeuvre was successfully executed to adjust the course of the space craft, with a reported inaccuracy of 0.05%.
2005
  • 4 March – Rosetta executed its first planned close flyby of Earth. The Moon and the Earth's magnetic field were used to test and calibrate the instruments on board of the spacecraft. The minimum altitude above the Earth's surface was about 1,954.7 km (1,214.6 mi) at 22:09 UTC and images of the space probe passing by were captured by amateur astronomers.[44]
  • 4 July – Imaging instruments on board observed the collision between the comet Tempel 1 and the impactor of the Deep Impact mission.[45]
2007
  • 25 February – Mars swing-by. Philae's ROMAP (Rosetta Lander Magnetometer and Plasma Monitor) instrument measures the complex Martian magnetic environment,[46] while Rosetta's OSIRIS (Optical, Spectroscopic, and Infrared Remote Imaging System) took various images of the planet using different photographic filters.[11] While in Mars' shadow most of the instruments were turned off and the Philae lander was autonomously running on batteries. During this operation the ÇIVA instrument on the lander took pictures of Mars.[20] Among others, both actions were meant to test the spacecraft's instruments. The spacecraft used the gravity of Mars to change course towards its second Earth flyby in November.[47]
  • 8 November – Misidentification of Rosetta spacecraft as an asteroid (see Misidentification).
2008
  • 5 September – Flyby of asteroid 2867 Šteins. The spacecraft passed the main-belt asteroid at a distance of 800 km (500 mi) and the relatively slow speed of 8.6 km/s (19,000 mph; 31,000 km/h).[48]
2009
  • 13 November – Last swingby (gravity assist passage) of Earth. The spacecraft made its closest approach (perigee passage) at 2,481 km (1,542 mi) altitude over 109°E and 8°S – just off the coast of the Indonesian island of Java, at 07:45 UTC.[49]
Hubble view of P/2010 A2
2010
  • 16 March – Observation of the dust tail of asteroid P/2010 A2. Together with observations by Hubble Space Telescope it could be confirmed that P/2010 A2 is not a comet but an asteroid and that the tail most likely consists of particles from an impact by a smaller asteroid.[50]
  • 10 July – Flew by and photographed the asteroid 21 Lutetia.[51]
2011
  • 8 June – The spacecraft was transferred into a spin stabilised mode and all electronics except the on-board computer and the hibernation heaters were switched off.[52]
2014
  • 20 January – At 10:00 UTC the spacecraft computer was taken out of hibernation mode and started post-hibernation procedures. Rosetta restored communications with ESOC through NASA's Goldstone ground station at 18:18 UTC.[53][54]
  • May to July - Starting on 7 May, Rosetta began orbital correction manoeuvres to bring itself into orbit around 67P/C-G. At the time of the first deceleration burn Rosetta was approximately 2,000,000 km (1,200,000 mi) away from 67P/C-G and had a relative velocity of +775 m/s (2,540 ft/s); by the end of the last burn, scheduled for 23 July, the distance will have been reduced to just over 4,000 km (2,500 mi) with a relative velocity of +7.9 m/s (26 ft/s).[2][55] Eight burns are planned in total with the majority of the deceleration scheduled during three burns: Delta-v's of 291 m/s (950 ft/s) on 21 May, 271 m/s (890 ft/s) on 4 June, and 91 m/s (300 ft/s) on 18 June.[2]
  • 14 July - The OSIRIS on-board imaging system returned images of Comet 67P/C-G which confirm the irregular structure of the comet, and suggest that it may be a contact binary, though other formation scenarios exist.[56][57]
  • August - In August Rosetta will undergo two orbital insertion manoeuvres. The final burn that will place Rosetta into orbit around 67P/C-G is currently scheduled for 6 August.[58]

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