||This article may require copy editing for grammar, style, cohesion, tone, or spelling. (July 2013)|
|Launched||13 May 1991|
|Picture format||576i 4:3 (SDTV)
1080i 16:9 (HDTV)
|Broadcast area||Russia-wide and CIS|
|Formerly called||1965–1967: Program Three
1967–1976: All-Union Program Two
1976–1984: All-Union Television 2
1984–1991: All-Union Channel 2
1991: Russian Television
1991–1997, 1998–2002: RTR
|Sister channel(s)||Russia-2, Carousel, Russia-K, Russia-24, Sport, RTR-Planeta|
|Analogue||Channel 3 (1965–1967)
Channel 2 (Since 1967)
|Natsionalnye Kabelnye Seti||Channel 1|
Russia-1 (Russian: Россия-1) is a state-owned Russian television channel founded in 1991. It belongs to the All-Russia State Television and Radio Company (VGTRK). Russia Channel was previously known as RTR (Russian: РТР). Russia-1 has the second largest audience in Russian television. In a typical week, it is viewed by 75% of urban Russians, compared to 83% for the leading channel, Channel One. The two channels are similar in their politics, and they compete directly in entertainment. Russia-1 has many regional variations and broadcasts in many languages.
Russia-1 had started in 1965 as Program 3 in the Soviet Union and moved to Channel 2 in 1967 when a new channel, Program 4 (now known as NTV) and Moscow Program was transferred to Channel 3. Program 3 was actually All-Union Program 2 until 1976 and renamed All-Union Television 2 all the way until 1984. The last 7 years, All Union Television 2 was renamed All-Union Channel 2 until it was renamed RTR Television in 1991.
On January 1, 1982 Channel acquires the status of the country's total cultural, educational, artistic and athletic programs of the Central Television. "The second program is" allowed to take greater account of the needs and tastes of spectators. Significant place in it occupied informational, non-fiction, music, films, documentaries and children's programs.
Since 1984, the "second program" got another name - the "second channel".
January 6, 1985 "second channel" held the first transfer of rhythmic gymnastics. Since January 1987the air of "second channel" main news program of the country "Time" has come out with sign language.
The main screen saver program was the star of the second antenna on a blue background with moving rings, symbolizing the radio waves, and the signature at the bottom of «II program", which then changed to "TV USSR." Around February 1988, screensaver has been changed: circles were fixed, disappeared inscription "TV USSR", and the background was light blue with a white gradient.
Since 1989, the RSFSR hatched the idea of the organization of the Russian national TV channel. By this time in all the Union republics, with the exception of Russia, had its own republican TV channels. In 1990, the creator of the program "The Fifth Wheel", People's Deputy of the Supreme Soviet of the RSFSR Bella Kurkova requested the Chairman of the Supreme Soviet of Russia, Boris Yeltsin, a Russian television, due to the fact that the central television channels reflect the views of the federal authorities. At that time, the country experienced a confrontation between the union and republican authorities.
On July 13, 1990 decision of the Supreme Soviet of the established state television and radio RSFSR. Prior to September 15, 1990, according to the decree, the Council and the Committee of Ministers of the RSFSR Supreme Soviet of the RSFSR on the media, communications with public organizations, mass movements of citizens and public opinion research should address the issue of the ownership of the material-technical base of the Second Channel of the Central television. On July 14, 1990 decree № 107-1 of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the RSFSR was formed All-Russia State Television and Radio Broadcasting Company. Chairman of the Council of Ministers of the RSFSR Ivan Silaev helped acquire the building for RTR, from which could be conducted and broadcasting.
March 7, 1991 "second channel" came under the All-Union State Television and Radio Broadcasting Company. At the same time, the leadership of the channel has been promised at least 6 hours for broadcasting programs made the All-Russian State Television and Radio, including the news program was planned to provide 2 release of 20 minutes. Due to opposition views of the Republican team, a new team faced difficulties ranging from an inability to rent a studio in the telecentre "Ostankino" failure to provide the promised before air time for new programs.
At the same time, there were problems with the recruitment of a still non-existent, "Russian television." Many presenters left the Union STRC free from censorship TV. The first Director General of the "Russian Television" was Sergei Podgorbunsky. The team All-STRC thought through time to their programs and the name of the main news programs. Suggested several names, including "Russian Gazette" and the "Bulletin". As a result, the news program was named "News" and the time of its release is scheduled for 18.00 and 20.00 for (an hour before the channel program "Time"). Most of the staff of "Vesti" "Russian Television" were former employees of the closed Central Television program "Television News Service." Created four studios - information "News" journalistic "Republic" art "Lad" entertainment "Artel".
On May 13, 1991 recently appointed to the post of first deputy chairman of the State Television and Radio Valentin Lazutkin gave air time to programs at the All-Russia State Television and Radio "Second Channel" Broadcaster: from 11.35 to 13.35, from 17.00 to 19.00 and from 21.45 to 23.45.
At 17.00 in the aired program "Vesti". Leading the first issue of "Vesti" was Svetlana Sorokina. From this time on the "second button" aired a program of the All-Union State Television and Radio, and the All-Russian State Television and Radio programs. Compared with the program "Time", "News" became acute, short, specific and operational information program. In television, a new name- "RTV" ("Russian Television") and the first logo. In the first week of broadcasting on the air go jumping to RTR, "Good night, kids!" And Odessa "Gentleman show." Two weeks later, television has changed its name to "RTR" ("Russian Television and Radio"), and changed the logo.
In August 1991, RTR stopped broadcasting in Latvia and was replaced by LTV2 (now LTV7).
During the August coup, August 19, 1991 all-Russian STRC transfer was canceled by order of the Emergency Committee. Instead of the planned programs broadcast ballet "Swan Lake". Unknown to the coup, the TV channel "RTR" secretly organized a broadcast to the States, so that the residents of the USSR saw a special edition of "Vesti" with a "picture" of the events in Moscow. Studio "Vesti" in the "Ostankino" was sealed, the transfer was recorded on video tape to "Shabolovke" for emergency situations has been prepared by a mobile studio. Emergency Committee blocked the building on RTR Yamskov field. Clandestine broadcasting "RTR" continued until the complete victory of defenders of the White House.  After the August Putsch "RTR" by order of Valentine Lazutkina passed the whole evening from 19.00 to 00.00 (instead of 17.00 to 19.00 and 21.45 to 23.45).
On September 16, 1991 "The Second Channel" Central Television was closed and production of large parts of its transmission ("Time of business people," etc.) were transferred to RTR. Since then, the TV channel "RTR" is becoming a major broadcaster in the country, is to broadcast all day. On 30 December 1991 the program "Vesti" began to appear three times a day, and from 20 January 1992 to four times a day. In 1993, the channel changed twice logo.
In February 1992, at the frequencies of RTR in Ukraine was established channel UT-2 (now 1 +1).
During the political crisis of 1993 "RTR" to speak to all parties to the conflict. During the shooting of the White House director of the channel has violated the order to conduct the bombing broadcast live on that point, as long as the line of fire were Muscovites to avoid a civil war. After the police pushed the townspeople, "RTR" started broadcasting «CNN». At that time the building was shelled, which housed the studio of "Vesti" In a hole punched in the building of a grenade launcher, broke armed men began shelling the building on fire.
The director of the program "Vesti" Irina Vinogradova was able to save the footage. Technical Director Stanislav Bunevich able to carry TV broadcasts control of the country in building the All-Russian STRC on Yamskov field. Broadcasting channel was restored, "RTR" was the only television channel, remaining on the air and which showed the events . Broadcasting was done in a hurry equipped studio in the basement with the lights off. Later, in a building opposite were found maturation snipers. For coverage of the 1993 First Deputy Prime Minister of Russia Vladimir Shumeyko "Vesti" were donated to the mantel clock.
Showing important events, "Vesti" become the most influential program.  In the same year, Yuri Rostov, Vladislav Flyarkovsky and Alexander Gurnov correspondents were appointed to lead the border, and the editor in chief of information programs was Alexander Nekhoroshev.
Since 1994, the program began to leave a comment, "Details", which became a leading political commentator Nikolai Svanidze news. In October 1995, the RTR with ORT program went "Ivanov, Petrov, Sidorov."
In 1996 Oleg Poptsov, Anatoly Lysenko, Alexander and Alexander Podgorbunsky Nekhoroshev were relieved of their posts. The "Details" was closed. New Chairman of the All-Russia State Television and Radio Company became Edward Sagalaev, Director-General of the Russian television became Cyril Legat, editor in chief of information programs of Russian Television Boris Forgetful. The channel will have emerged a number of new programs - information-analytical program "Mirror", which became a leading Nikolai Svanidze, the actual interview «VIP», talk show "Open News", which became the leading Edward Sagalaev, Svetlana Sorokina and Oksana Naychuk a manufacturer of private television ATV.
In 1997, the chairman of the All-Russia State Television and Radio Company was Nikolai Svanidze. Programs «VIP» and «Open News" were closed, she was dismissed leading "Vesti" Svetlana Sorokina. On November of that year, "RTR" changed to "RTR-1" has changed the logo. The reason for the name change - the creation of a new TV channel "RTR-2" (now "Russia-Culture").
On May 8, 1998 in the RTR includes regional television and radio. Since then, "RTR" broadcasts in 54 languages of the peoples of Russia, RTR became the largest media group in Europe. The general is not only the design of the channel, but the editorial policy. On 7 September of that year, on the air for the first time block out the morning program "Good Morning, Russia!".
September 8, 1998 "RTR-1" again changed its name to "RTR", changed the logo. At that time there were many Latin American television series production and a lot of new TV shows: Two piano Household chores, Schedule, Purple haze, 50x50, Hakuna matata-.
In 1999, the channel was disbanded edition sports "Arena" and instead was established sports studio, headed by Vladimir Gomelsky. The daily "Vesti" began to be broadcast at 13:00, 17:00, 19:00, 21:00, 23:00.
Up to 1999, the national channel was plagued by broadcasting problems resulting from its dependence on its local state affiliates (GTRKs) for retransmission of its signal. GTRKs had no incentive to consistently broadcast only federal programming on their local frequencies and would often mix in programming they had produced themselves or acquired from other sources, thus hampering the national channel’s ability to control its own programming schedule at the regional level. The first step leading to the solution of this problem was the creation of the state holding company VGTRK, which united 89 state-owned regional studios under the aegis of the Moscow-based Channel 2. In February 2004, the Russian government issued a resolution on the reorganization of VGTRK through affiliation of subsidiaries, including regional GTRK companies. By the end of 2004, the scale of the reorganization became obvious. Local news programmes were organized on network principles and local companies turned into “re-transmitters” of the Moscow-produced content: VGTRK management had decided to cut all types of broadcasting in the regions, except news. This decision caused an inevitable reduction of GTRK broadcasting volume from 900 - 1,200 to 590 hours, the closure of whole subdivisions and departments and the dismissal of hundreds of employees in each of the 89 companies.
Russia 1's broadcasts are structured into such genres as information programs, TV miniseries and series, political journalism, talk shows, game shows, comedies and game formats, full-length feature films and documentaries, broadcasts of sporting and political events, entertainment.
"Vesti" (News) news program is the leading information program in Russia. During the previous TV season, "Vesti" adopted a 24/7 production cycle with two-hour intervals, which allows for the news to be broadcast live across all Russian time zones.
- Alexei Bessudnov, "Media Map" (183–189), Index on Censorship, Volume 37, Number 1, 2008, p. 184.
- Вести“. Первые двадцать лет». Документальный фильм, 2011.