|- City -|
Location of Rostov Oblast in Russia
|City Day||Third Sunday of September|
|Administrative status (as of May 2011)|
|Federal subject||Rostov Oblast|
|Administratively subordinated to||Rostov-na-Donu Urban Okrug|
|Administrative center of||Rostov Oblast, Rostov-na-Donu Urban Okrug|
|Municipal status (as of November 2008)|
|Urban okrug||Rostov-na-Donu Urban Okrug|
|Administrative center of||Rostov-na-Donu Urban Okrug|
|Mayor||Mikhail Chernyshyov|
|Population (2010 Census)||1,089,261 inhabitants|
|- Rank in 2010||10th|
|Time zone||MSK (UTC+04:00)|
|Founded||December 15, 1749|
|City status since||1796|
|Dialing code(s)||+7 863|
Rostov-on-Don (Russian: Росто́в-на-Дону́, tr. Rostov-na-Donu; IPA: [rɐˈstof nə dɐˈnu]) is a port city and the administrative center of Rostov Oblast and the Southern Federal District of Russia. It lies on the Don River, 32 kilometers (20 mi) from the Sea of Azov. Population: 1,089,261 (2010 Census); 1,068,267 (2002 Census); 1,019,305 (1989 Census).
Since ancient times, the area around the mouth of the Don has been of cultural and commercial importance. Ancient indigenous inhabitants include the Scythian, Sarmat, and Savromat tribes. It was the site of Tanais, an ancient Greek colony, Fort Tana, under the Genoese and Fort Azak in the time of the Ottoman Empire.
On December 15, 1749, a custom house was established on the Temernik River, a tributary of the Don, by edict of Empress Elizabeth, the daughter of Peter the Great, in order to control trade with Turkey. It was co-located with a fortress named for Dimitry of Rostov, a metropolitan bishop of the old northern town of Rostov the Great. Azov, a town closer to the Sea of Azov on the Don, gradually lost its commercial importance in the region to the new fortress. In 1756, the "Russian commercial and trading company of Constantinople" was founded at the "merchants' settlement" (Kupecheskaya Sloboda) on the high bank of the Don. In 1796, the settlement became a township. In 1806, the name of this founding site was changed to Rostov and later to Rostov-on-Don, thus, the modern day town was established.
In the early 20th century, epidemics of cholera during the summer months were not uncommon.
In 1779, Rostov-on-Don became associated with a settlement of Armenian refugees from the Crimea. The two settlements were separated by a field of wheat. In 1928, the two towns were merged. The former town border lies beneath the Teatralnaya Square of central Rostov-on-Don.
Political history 
Russian civil war 
During the Russian Civil War, the Whites and the Reds contested Rostov-on-Don, then the most heavily industrialized city of South Russia. By 1928, the regional government had moved from the old Cossack capital of Novocherkassk to Rostov-on-Don.
World War II 
During World War II, German forces occupied Rostov-on-Don (for seven days from November 21, 1941 after attacks by the German first panzer army in the battle of Rostov and for seven months from July 24, 1942 to February 14, 1943). The town was of strategic importance as a railway junction and a river port accessing the Caucasus, a region rich in oil and minerals. It took ten years to restore the city from the ruins.
October Revolution 
In the Soviet years, the Bolsheviks demolished two of Rostov-on-Don's principal landmarks, St. Alexander Nevsky Cathedral (1908) and St. George Cathedral (1783–1807).
Administrative and municipal status 
Within the framework of administrative divisions, it is incorporated as Rostov-na-Donu Urban Okrug—an administrative unit with the status equal to that of the districts. As a municipal division, this administrative unit also has urban okrug status.
City districts 
Rostov-on-Don is divided into eight city districts:
Rostov's favorable geographical position at trading crossroads promotes economic development. The Don River is a major shipping lane connecting southwestern Russia with the north. Rostov-on-Don is a trading port for Russian, Italian, Greek and Turkish merchants selling, for example, wool, wheat and oil. It is also an important river port for passengers. The Rostov-on-Don agricultural region produces one-third of Russia's vegetable oil from sunflowers.
Volga–Don Canal 
Modern industry 
In modern times, Rostov-on-Don has experienced economic growth. Numerous start-up companies have established headquarters in the city, the median income is increasing, and the city is being transformed into a modern, industrial and technology-rich hub. For instance, Rostov-on-Don is a center for helicopter and farm machinery manufacturing. The "Tebodin" engineering company opened its fourth office in Rostov-on-Don in June 2010.
Market produce 
- Fresh fish
- Fruit, including strawberries, pomegranates, tangerines, watermelons.
- Fresh flowers, including sunflowers.
Rostov-on-Don is a major transport center. Some refer to it as the "gateway to the Caucasus".
Public transport 
Intercity transport 
Rostov-on-Don Airport caters for domestic travel, as well as flights to and from the former C.I.S., Europe, Africa and Asia. Its IATA code is "ROV". Donavia airlines (formerly "Aeroflot Don") has its head office in Rostov-on-Don. The Bataysk military aerodrome (which is located 5.0 miles (8.0 km) northwest of the city center) may be developed into a new airport hub for Southern Russia.
The main railway stations in Rostov-on-Don are "Rostov-Glavny" and "Rostov-Prigorodny". The "St. Petersburg-Rostov-Caucasus" railway crosses the territory of Rostov-on-Don. The North Caucasus Railway offices are in Rostov-on-Don.
Several highways of federal and regional significance cross Rostov. The M-4 “Don” route passes Rostov to the east and crosses the Don river in the Aksay city area. The “Rostov-Novoshakhtinsk” starts from the Northern housing block area of the city running north to connect with the M-4 “Don” route between Shakhty and Novoshakhtinsk.
In 1929, the first automatic telephone exchange in Russia with a capacity of 6,000 numbers commenced in Rostov-on-Don. Since 2004, standard telephone numbers in Rostov-on-Don have been seven digits in length. Since 2009, city numbers have begun with "2". The city dialing code is "863".
Albert Parry, born 1901, Rostov-on-Don, wrote this of the summers of his childhood,
- "There were sultry days of brassy sun, but also cool evenings on the balconies facing the Don River, with the soft glow of charcoal in the samovar, with the ripe cherries crushed by your spoon against the bottom and sides of your glass of scalding tea." 
Rostov-on-Don lies in a humid continental climate (Dfa). The winter is cold, with an average February temperature of −3.1 °C (26.4 °F). The lowest recorded temperature of −31.9 °C (−25.4 °F) occurred in January 1940. The summers are long, warm, and sunny. July temperatures average +23.3 °C (73.9 °F). The city's highest recorded temperature of +40.1 °C (104.2 °F) was reported on 1 August 2010. The mean annual precipitation is 643 millimeters (25.3 in), the average wind speed is 2.7 m/s, and the average air humidity is 72%.
|Climate data for Rostov-on-Don|
|Record high °C (°F)||15.0
|Average high °C (°F)||−0.1
|Daily mean °C (°F)||−2.9
|Average low °C (°F)||−5.3
|Record low °C (°F)||−31.9
|Precipitation mm (inches)||59
|Avg. precipitation days||4||5||7||12||11||9||10||8||9||9||12||10||106|
|Mean monthly sunshine hours||65.1||84.1||127.1||189.0||263.5||285.0||313.1||294.5||240.0||158.1||63.0||37.2||2,119.7|
|Source: pogoda.ru.net, Hong Kong Observatory for data of sunshine hours|
In December 1996, Rostov-on-Don adopted a coat of arms, a flag and a mayoral decoration as the symbols of the town.
Coat of arms 
The first coat of arms of Rostov-on-Don was designed in 1811 and approved by the Tsar. In 1904, some changes were made. One lasting oil painting of the coat-of-arms is kept in the regional local lore museum but its accuracy and authenticity is uncertain. In June 1996, the Rostov-on-Don City Duma adopted a variant of the coat-of-arms in which a tower represents the St. Dimitry Rostovsky Fortress. The ancient Russian arms reference the role Rostov played in the defense of Russia's borders. The coat-of-arms adorns the mayor's decoration but all other cases of its use are first considered for approval by the City Duma.
The flag of Rostov-on-Don was approved by the Duma on September 20, 1864. At the end of the 19th and beginning of the 20th centuries the home guard regiments, which defended the Southern borders of Russia, were raised under this flag.
The "Flag of Rostov" is kept in the town's municipal building under glass. Its length is 1370 mm and width, 850 mm. The flag is taken out of the building only on Victory Day and Rostov-on-Don Day by a guard of honor.
Mayoral decoration 
In 1870, an oval shape mayoral decoration wrought from precious or semi-precious white metal was introduced. On the front is written "Rostov-on-Don" at the top, the Rostov-on-Don coat-of-arms is in the center and the inscription, "Mayor of the City" is written at the bottom. On its reverse side, the day of its adoption, April 9, 1996, is recorded. The decoration is worn over the suit on a large chain. The mayor returns the decoration to the Duma on his or her retirement from office.
Emblem of the Don Host Oblast 
The Emblem of the Don Host Oblast was introduced in July 5 (18), 1878. The flag of the All Great Don Army was introduce in May 1918 on the "Circle of the Don Saving". Its three length-wise stripes of blue, yellow and red of equal width represent the three indigenous populations of the Don region: the Don Cossacks (blue), Kalmyks (yellow) and the Russian peasants (scarlet).
- December 1970: Order of Lenin
- 1982: Order of the Great Patriotic War (1st Degree)
- 2008: City of Military Glory status 
Rostov-on-Don hosts higher educational establishments, including universities, academies, secondary schools of vocational training including colleges, technical schools, specialized schools, and elementary schools of vocational training including lyceums, professional colleges  and schools of general education.
The largest educational establishments of the city include:
- Southern Federal University 
- Don State Technical University
- Rostov State University of Economy
- Rostov State University of Transport Routes (The Railway Engineers' University)
- Rostov State University of Economy
- Rostov State University of Civil Engineering
- Rostov State Medical University
- Rostov State Conservatory named after Sergei Rachmaninoff
- Branch of the Moscow State Academy named after F.F. Ushakov
- Rostov Eparchy Religious College
- Rostov Institute of Advocacy of Entrepreneurs
- Rostov Institute of Foreign Languages
- Rostov International Institute of Economy and Management
- Rostov Juridical Institute of Ministry of Internal Affairs of the Russian Federation
- Rostov Institute of Physical Training and Sports (branch of the Cuban State University of Physical Training, Sports and Tourism)
- Rostov Social & Economic Institute
- Rostov branch of Moscow Institute of Economy, Management and Law
- South-Russian Institute of the Humanities
- North-Caucasian Academy of Public Service
- North-Caucasian Institute of Anthropology and Applied Psychology
- The Modern University for the Humanities
- Russian State University of Trade & Economy
- Institute of Management, Business and Law,
- Rostov Institute of Law of the Russian Juridical Academy of the Russian Federation
- Rostov State Academy of Architecture and Arts,
- Rostov College of Arts named after M.B. Grekov.
|Southern Federal University||Rostov State University of Means of Communication||Don State Technical University||Southern Russian humanitarian institute|
Along with the higher educational institutions there is a French cultural centre (Alliance Francaise), a British Council and German Goethe Institute (DAAD and Bosch foundation), and a Korean Cultural Centre.
The most conspicuous architectural feature of the central part of the city is the Cathedral of Virgin's Nativity (1860–1887), designed by Konstantin Thon.
Rostov-on-Don's libraries include:
- The Don State Public Library,
- Central Library named after Maxim Gorky,
- Regional Children’s Library named after V.M. Velichkina
- Rostov Regional Special Library for the Blind,
- Scientific Library of the Medical University,
- Central State Children’s Library named after Lenin
- Children’s Library named after A.S. Pushkin
- Children’s Library named after Mayakovsky
- South-Russian Don State Public Library.
- Maxim Gorky Academic Drama Theater
- Rostov State Puppet Theater
- Rostov Regional Academic Theater of the Youth
- Rostov Musical Theater
- Philharmonic center
- Kim Nazaretov jazz center
In the Academic Drama Theater named after Maxim Gorky works Mikhail Bushnov, who is the national artist of the USSR and an honorary citizen of Rostov-on-Don.
- Museum of Local Lore,
- Rostov Regional Museum of Fine Arts
- Museum of Fine Arts on Dmitrovskaya
- Museum of Russian & Armenian Friendship
- Pioneer and Railway Museum and Children's Railway
The small collections of the Art Gallery and the Museum of Arts include some works by Repin, Surikov, Perov, Levitan, Aivazovsky as well as of modern Rostov artists.
Other facilities 
The Greater Rostov 
Ministry of Regional Development of Russia has prepared a program to create eight “Super Cities”, that is, agglomerated centers with multimillion populations. The project includes the Rostov Oblast as well. “The Greater Rostov” metropolitan area will include the cities of Rostov-on-Don, Novocherkassk, Taganrog, Aksay, Bataysk and Azov.
The Administration of Rostov and Novocherkassk Eparchy of the Russian Orthodox Church is located in Rostov. In Rostov-on-Don are the Roman Catholic "Church of the Lord's Supper", the Old Believers' temple, a synagogue  a mosque, Armenian and Greek churches, and the Diamond Way Buddhist Center of the Karma Kagyu Tradition.
Mass media 
The construction of the Rostov TV center began in 1956 and was completed on 26 April 1958. The first television program was broadcast on 30 April 1958. Color television was first broadcast in 1974.
Radio transmission began in Rostov-on-Don on October 17, 1975. In 2009, there were fourteen FM radio stations in Rostov-on-Don.
|FC Rostov||Football||1930||Russian Premier League||1st||Olimp – 2|
|SKA Rostov-on-Don||Football||1937||Russian Second Division||3rd||SKA SKVO Stadium|
|Ataman Rostov-on-Don||Basketball||2010||Russian Basketball Super League||2nd||Express CSC|
|Rostov-Don||Handball||2010||Woman's Handball Championship||1st||Sport-Don Sports Palace|
The Rostov-on-Don women's handball team plays in the Russian Handball Championship. The men's team is known as the "TIBL-Group".
Environmental protection 
The "And Quiet Flows the Don" ecologicak association is named after M.A. Sholokhov's famous novel about the Cossacks. It documents the state of the environment and provides its results to the public. The group has reforested 25 hectares of land on the left bank of the river Don. Peace Corps volunteers have assisted.
Notable people 
Notable people include, Alexander Suvorov military commander, Yulia Belokobylskaya artistic gymnast, Andrei Chikatilo (1936–1994), a serial killer and Alexander Pechersky (1909–1990), a ringleader of the rebellion at the Sobibor extermination camp.
Writers and poets 
Authors of Rostov-on-Don include Anton Chekhov, Mikhail Sholokhov, Zakrutkin, Fadeyev, Safronov, Kalinin, Alexander Pushkin, Maxim Gorky, Sergey Yesenin, Aleksey Nikolayevich Tolstoy, and Alexander Solzhenitsyn, Zhdanov and Mikael Nalbandian. After visiting Rostov in 1831, Pushkin published his poem "The Don". The monument to Pushkin on Pushkin Boulevard is dedicated to these events. Maxim Gorky, worked as a docker in Rostov-on-Don in his youth. Vera Panova (1905–1973) was a Soviet era writer. Modern era includes such names as Danil Korezky and Tony Vilgotsky.
Musicians and composers 
Musicians of Rostov-on-Don include Efrem Zimbalist the violinist, Zaslavsky, Kim Nazaretov, and Modest Mussorgsky, Irina Allegrova (1952), a pop singer and Yuri Bashmet, and Sergey Vladimirovich Rodionov, composer.
Actors and playwrights 
Architects and artists 
Architects and artists of the city include Yevgeny Vuchetich, Seyran Khatlamajyan, Ashot Melkonian, Natalia Duritskaya, Martiros Saryan (1880–1972), landscape painter, graphic artist, and theatre artist.
Scientists and adventurers 
Scientists and explorers include, doctors N. Bogoraz and S. Fedosov, scientists Dmitri Mendeleev, A. S. Popov, L. P. Pavlov, George Sedov the Arctic Sea explorer, Yakov Frenkel (1894–1952) a solid-state physicist, Svyatoslav Fyodorov (1927–2000), ophthalmologist, Sabina Spielrein (1885–1942), psychoanalyst.
Tourist sites and excursions 
- Local bazaars and markets of fresh fish.
- Bridges over the Don river and embankment.
- Don river lookout.
- Armenian Holy Cross Church
- Rostovchanka statue
- River Steamboat rides
- Orthodox Cathedral of the Nativity of the Holy Virgin
- Pushkinskaya street.
- Maxim Gorky park.
- Traditional cossack villages (Stanitsas)
- State Sholokov museuam and reserve.
- Azov ancient fortress.
- Taganrog, home of Anton Chekov.
- Rostov circus
- Rostov state opera and ballet theatre
- Monastery of St Jacob
International relations 
Twin towns and sister cities 
- Law #340-ZS
- Law #238-ZS
- "Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года. Том 1" [2010 All-Russian Population Census, vol. 1]. Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года (2010 All-Russia Population Census) (in Russian). Federal State Statistics Service. 2011. Retrieved June 29, 2012.
- Правительство Российской Федерации. Постановление №725 от 31 августа 2011 г. «О составе территорий, образующих каждую часовую зону, и порядке исчисления времени в часовых зонах, а также о признании утратившими силу отдельных Постановлений Правительства Российской Федерации». Вступил в силу по истечении 7 дней после дня официального опубликования. Опубликован: "Российская Газета", №197, 6 сентября 2011 г. (Government of the Russian Federation. Resolution #725 of August 31, 2011 On the Composition of the Territories Included into Each Time Zone and on the Procedures of Timekeeping in the Time Zones, as Well as on Abrogation of Several Resolutions of the Government of the Russian Federation. Effective as of after 7 days following the day of the official publication.).
-  Russian postal objects. (Russian)
- "Численность населения России, субъектов Российской Федерации в составе федеральных округов, районов, городских поселений, сельских населённых пунктов – районных центров и сельских населённых пунктов с населением 3 тысячи и более человек" [Population of Russia, its federal districts, federal subjects, districts, urban localities, rural localities—administrative centers, and rural localities with population of over 3,000]. Всероссийская перепись населения 2002 года (All-Russia Population Census of 2002) (in Russian). Federal State Statistics Service. May 21, 2004. Retrieved February 9, 2012.
- Demoscope Weekly (1989). "Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 г. Численность наличного населения союзных и автономных республик, автономных областей и округов, краёв, областей, районов, городских поселений и сёл-райцентров." [All Union Population Census of 1989. Present population of union and autonomous republics, autonomous oblasts and okrugs, krais, oblasts, districts, urban settlements, and villages serving as district administrative centers]. Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 года (All-Union Population Census of 1989) (in Russian). Institute of Demographics of the State University—Higher School of Economics. Retrieved February 9, 2012.
-  Russian cruises website. Accessed July 20, 2012.
-  Районы города.
-  "Rostov-on-Don: land of sunflowers and hi-tech hub." Russia Close up. RT.com. TV Novosti. Accessed July 20, 2012.
-  "Rostov-on-Don: Quiet Flows the Don" Filatova, Irena. The Moscow Times. Accessed July 19, 2012.
-  Tebodin website. Accessed July 20, 2012.
-  "From the streets of Rostov-on-Don". "Russia with love" blog. 26 March 2012. Accessed 20 July 2012.
-  "Rostov-on-Don, the gates to the Caucasus". Rus Language, centre for Russian language studies. Accessed July 20, 2012.
-  Airport.com. Accessed 20 July 2012
-  Аэропорт Ростова-на-Дону. (Russian)
-  Контакты авиакомпании. Accessed 29 June 2010. "Адрес: 344009, г. Ростов-на-Дону, пр. Шолохова, 272."
-  Речные порты России.
-  Rostov-on-Don shipping information. Marinetraffic.com. Accessed July 20, 2012.
-  Ростовская область — транспорт.
-  Автоматизация телефонной связи
-  Ростов-на-Дону перешёл на семизначную нумерацию городских телефонов.
-  Rostov-on-Don. Jewish Family History Organisation. Accessed 19 July 2012
-  "World Map of Köppen−Geiger Climate Classification".
-  Архив данных о погоде в Ростове-на-Дону. (in Russian)
- "Погода и Климат – Климат Ростова-на-Дону".
- "Climatological Information for Rostov-na-Donu, Russia".
-  Взгляд.
-  Учреждения высшего профессионального образования Ростова-на-Дону.
-  Учреждения среднего профессионального образования Ростова-на-Дону.
-  Учреждения начального профессионального образования Ростова-на-Дону.
-  Энциклопедия «Мой город», Ростов-на-Дону.
-  Southern Federal University website. Accessed 20 July 2012.
-  Alliance Francaise.
- Бушнов Михаил Ильич на сайте kino-teatr.ru
-  Ростовский цирк.
-  Ботанический сад РГУ.
-  Synagogues and Jewish prayer houses of Rostov-on-Don.
-  Rostov-on-Don Diamond Way Buddhist Center of the Karma Kagyu Tradition (In Russian).
-  Most Popular People Born In "Rostov-on-Don/ Russia" (26 names) IMDb. Accessed 20 July 2012.
-  Отдел внешних связей, Официальный портал городской Думы и Администрации города. Ростов-на-Дону. Город Воинской Славы.
-  List of Twin Towns in the Ruhr District. Twins2010.com. Accessed 28, October, 2009 Dead Link 19 July 2012
-  Yerevan Municipality – Sister Cities. Yerevan.am. Accessed 22 June 2009.
- Законодательное Собрание Ростовской области. Закон №340-ЗС от 25 июля 2005 г. «Об административно-территориальном устройстве Ростовской области», в ред. Закона №962-ЗС от 25 октября 2012 г. «О внесении изменений в областной Закон "Об административно-территориальном устройстве Ростовской области" и признании утратившим силу абзаца сорок первого пункта 5 статьи 1 областного Закона "О внесении изменений в областной Закон "Об административно-территориальном устройстве Ростовской области"». Вступил в силу со дня официального опубликования. Опубликован: "Наше время", №187–190, 28 июля 2005 г. (Legislative Assembly of Rostov Oblast. Law #340-ZS of July 28, 2005 On the Administrative-Territorial Structure of Rostov Oblast, as amended by the Law #962-ZS of October 25, 2012 On Amending the Oblast Law "On the Administrative-Territorial Structure of Rostov Oblast" and on Abrogating Paragraph Forty-One of Item 5 of Article 1 of the Oblast Law "On Amending the Oblast Law "On the Administrative-Territorial Structure of Rostov Oblast". Effective as of the official publication date.).
- Законодательное Собрание Ростовской области. Закон №238-ЗС от 27 декабря 2004 г. «Об установлении границы и наделении статусом городского округа муниципального образования "Город Ростов-на-Дону"», в ред. Закона №153-ЗС от 28 ноября 2008 г «О внесении изменений в областные Законы "Об установлении границы и наделении статусом городского округа муниципального образования "Город Ростов-на-Дону", "Об установлении границ и наделении соответствующим статусом муниципального образования "Аксайский район" и муниципальных образований в его составе" и "Об административно-территориальном устройстве Ростовской области"». Вступил в силу 1 января 2005 г. Опубликован: "Наше время", №339, 29 декабря 2004 г. (Legislative Assembly of Rostov Oblast. Law #238-ZS of December 27, 2004 On Establishing the Border and Granting Urban Okrug Status to the Municipal Formation of the "City of Rostov-na-Donu", as amended by the Law #153-ZS of November 28, 2008 On Amending the Oblast Laws "On Establishing the Border and Granting Urban Okrug Status to the Municipal Formation of the "City of Rostov-na-Donu", "On Establishing the Borders and Granting an Appropriate Status to the Municipal Formation of "Aksaysky District" and to the Municipal Formations It Comprises", and "On the Administrative-Territorial Structure of Rostov Oblast". Effective as of January 1, 2005.).
-  Official website of Rostov-on-Don (Russian)
-  Railway museum at Rostov-on-Don
-  Rostov-on-Don entertainment website (Russian)
-  1983 Rostov and surrounds topographic map 1:100,000 made by Soviet Army HQ (Service use only) (Russian)
-  Archeological museum and reserve, Tanais(Russian)
-  Rostov-on-Don photos
-  Rostov-on-Don city portal (Russian)
-  Football Club FC Rostov (Russian)
-  Football Club FC SKA Rostov (Russian)
-  Jewish Rostov
-  Jewish Community of Rostov-on-Don
-  Rostov State Medical University
-  The Rostov State Rakhmaninov Conservatoire