|Born||Rouben Zachary Mamoulian
October 8, 1897
Tbilisi, Russian Empire
(modern-day Tbilisi, Georgia)
|Died||December 4, 1987
Hollywood, California, U.S.
Cause of death
|Occupation||Film director, theatre director|
|Spouse(s)||Azadia Newman (1945–1987; his death)|
Mamoulian was born in Tbilisi, Georgia (ruled at that time by imperial Russia), to an Armenian family. His mother Virginia (née Kalantarian) was a director of the Armenian theater, and his father, Zachary Mamoulian, was a bank president. Mamoulian relocated to England and started directing plays in London in 1922. He was brought to America the next year by Vladimir Rosing to teach at the Eastman School of Music and was involved in directing opera and theatre.
In 1925, Mamoulian was head of the School of Drama, where Martha Graham was also working at the time. Among other performances, together they produced a short two-color film called The Flute of Krishna, featuring Eastman students. Mamoulian left Eastman shortly thereafter and Graham chose to leave also, even though she was asked to stay on. In 1930, Mamoulian became a naturalized citizen of the United States. Child star Jackie Cooper stated in his autobiography that Rouben Mamoulian was his uncle, and this fact helped establish Cooper's early movie career.
Mamoulian began his Broadway director career with a production of DuBose Heyward's Porgy, which opened on October 10, 1927. He directed Wings Over Europe from late 1928 to 1929. He directed the revival of Porgy in 1929 along with George Gershwin's operatic treatment, Porgy and Bess, which opened on October 10, 1935. Mamoulian was also the first to stage such notable Broadway works as Oklahoma! (1943), Carousel (1945) and Lost in the Stars (1949).
He directed his first feature film in 1929, Applause, which was one of the earliest talkies. It was a landmark film owing to Mamoulian's innovative use of camera movement and sound, and these qualities were carried through to his other films released in the 1930s. Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde (1931) benefits from having been made before the Production Code came into full force, and is regularly considered the best version of Robert Louis Stevenson's tale. Queen Christina (1933) was the last film Greta Garbo made with John Gilbert. The musical film Love Me Tonight was released in 1932.
He directed the first three-strip Technicolor film, Becky Sharp (1935), based on Thackeray's Vanity Fair, as well as the 1937 musical High, Wide, and Handsome. His next two films earned him wide admiration, The Mark of Zorro (1940) and Blood and Sand (1941), both remakes of silent films. Blood and Sand, on bull fighting, was filmed in Technicolor, and used color schemes based on the work of Spanish artists such as Diego Velázquez and El Greco. His foray into screwball comedy genre in 1942 was a success with Rings on Her Fingers starring Henry Fonda and Gene Tierney.
His last completed musical film was MGM's 1957 film version of the Cole Porter musical Silk Stockings. This had been one of Porter's less successful stage musicals and was based on the 1939 Greta Garbo classic Ninotchka. The film Silk Stockings starred Fred Astaire and Cyd Charisse, with Janis Paige and Peter Lorre in support (with Lorre singing in the film).
Mamoulian's film directing career came to an end when he was fired from two consecutive films, Porgy and Bess (1959) and Cleopatra (1963). He had previously been fired as director of Laura (1944). After directing the highly successful original stage productions of Oklahoma! and Carousel, he worked on only a few other theatrical productions, such as St. Louis Woman, which introduced Pearl Bailey to Broadway audiences.
He was personally recruited by Directors Guild of America (DGA) co-founder King Vidor in 1936 to help unionize fellow movie directors. Mamoulian's lifelong allegiance to the DGA, and more so his general unwillingness to compromise, contributed to his being targeted in Hollywood blacklisting of the 1950s.
He died in 1987 of natural causes at the age of 90 in Woodland Hills, California.
The critical appraisal Rouben Mamoulian, by Tom Milne, was published as Cinema One Series no. 13 by Thames & Hudson, 1969.
The biography Mamoulian: Life on Stage and Screen, by David Luhrssen, was published in 2013 (University of Kentucky Press).
In the interview compilation book Directing the Film (Acrobat Books), Mamoulian declared a strong preference for a stylized look to his scenes, stating that he was more interested in creating a poetic look to his films than in showing ordinary realism. Parts of Becky Sharp, and almost the whole of Blood and Sand, with their heightened and artificial use of Technicolor, demonstrate what Mamoulian meant by this. He also wrote a book called Applause.
In 1982 Mamoulian received a Lifetime Achievement Award from the Directors Guild of America and he has a star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame at 1709 Vine Street.
|1944||Laura||20th Century Fox||Gene Tierney / Clifton Webb / Dana Andrews||Fired, footage unused|
|1952||The Wild Heart||David O. Selznick||Jennifer Jones||Shot extra scenes for US version of Gone to Earth (GB 1950) / Technicolor film|
|1959||Porgy & Bess||Samuel Goldwyn Co.||Sidney Poitier / Dorothy Dandridge||Fired, one scene used / Technicolor film|
|1963||Cleopatra||20th Century Fox||Elizabeth Taylor / Richard Burton||Resigned, footage unused / Color film|
Studies and Biographies
- Rouben Mamoulian, Tom Milne, Cinema One Series no. 13, Thames & Hudson 1969
- Luhrssen, David (2013). Mamoulian: Life on Stage and Screen. University Press of Kentucky. ISBN 9780813136769.
- Charles Earle Funk, What's the Name, Please?, Funk & Wagnalls, 1936.
- Peter B. Flint, "Rouben Mamoulian, Broadway Director, Is Dead", The New York Times, December 6, 1987.
- Johnson, Carley (Winter 2013). "Books: Mamoulian, Eastwood, and Directing". DGA Quarterly (Winter): 71–72. Retrieved 12 January 2013.
- "26 Elected to the Theater Hall of Fame." The New York Times, March 3, 1981.
- Rouben Mamoulian at the Internet Broadway Database
- Rouben Mamoulian at the Internet Movie Database
- Rouben Mamoulian at Find a Grave
- Theater programs, playbills and miscellany from the Rouben Mamoulian Collection at the Library of Congress