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The Rouen is a heavyweight breed of domesticated duck raised primarily for decoration or as general purpose ducks, since they are not prolific egg layers. The breed originated in France sometime before the 19th century.
The plumage coloring of both the Rouen drake and the Rouen hen are nearly identical to that of the Mallard drake and Mallard hen: males have green heads, white collars, black tail feathers, a gray body, and a deep claret breast. The female Rouen hens are mottled light and dark brown, with a black crown and eye-stripes. Rouen hens can be much darker brown than Mallard hens. Both sexes also have blue speculum feathers. However, Rouen speculum feathers are brighter in color and larger in size than that of the Mallard. Adult Rouen ducks are typically significantly larger than Mallard ducks. The Rouen duckling is identical to the Mallard duckling in terms of plumage coloring. In North America, two distinct types are bred: the common, or production-bred, variety that is larger than a Mallard but has a typical duck conformation, and the much larger and squarer standard-bred variety. The production variety normally weighs 6–8 lbs (2.7–3.6 kg) while the standard-bred weighs 9–12 lb (4.1–5.4 kg).
The breed was first raised in France, but it was not until it reached England in the 19th century that it was refined into the breed recognized as the Rouen today. The French version resembled a larger than average Mallard, but by selective breeding the British managed to double the size of the bird, improve its colouration, and add bulk, giving it a more "boat-like" aspect. It was used chiefly as a roasting bird; though it produced 35 to 125 eggs a year, there were other breeds which were more reliable egg-layers with higher production. In 1861, Mrs Beeton said of it:
|“||The Rouen, or Rhone duck, is a large and handsome variety, of French extraction. The plumage of the Rouen duck is somewhat sombre; its flesh is also much darker, and, though of higher flavour, not near so delicate as that of our own Aylesbury.||”|
The origin of the name is not known. When they arrived in England, they were variously called Rhône, after the region in southwest-central France, Rohan, after the cardinal of that name, Roan, for the mixture of colours, and Rouen after the northern French town, with Rouen eventually being adopted in both England and France. In France they are called Rouen Foncé (dark) as opposed to Rouen Clair, which are lighter in colour.
In 1850 the first Rouens were introduced to the USA by D. W. Lincoln of Worcester, Massachusetts, and used as general farm ducks until becoming popular as show birds. They were included in the Standard of Perfection of the American Poultry Association in 1874 and since then have won many titles, often having the most entries in the heavyweight class and doing well in competition with other breeds.