Canal Gardens, Roundhay Park
Roundhay shown within West Yorkshire
|OS grid reference|
|Metropolitan borough||City of Leeds|
|Metropolitan county||West Yorkshire|
|Region||Yorkshire and the Humber|
|Sovereign state||United Kingdom|
|EU Parliament||Yorkshire and the Humber|
|UK Parliament||Leeds North East|
Roundhay is a large suburb and City Council ward of north-east Leeds, West Yorkshire, England, largely within the LS8 postcode. The ward boundary is the A6120 ring road on the north and the A58 Wetherby Road on the south and east. The boundary follows Gledhow Valley Road to the west before heading north-east to the A6120. The ward includes Gledhow and Oakwood, which are often considered distinct suburbs. Adjacent wards are Alwoodley and Harewood to the north, Moortown to the west, Chapel Allerton to the south-west, Gipton and Harehills to the south, and Killingbeck and Seacroft to the south-east. On the north-east boundary is Shadwell, part of the Cross Gates and Whinmoor ward.
Roundhay derives from Old French rond 'round' and the medieval English word whose Old English form is (ge)hæg 'enclosure', denoting a round hunting enclosure or deer park. The Roundhay estate map of 1803 showed its circular shape. It does not appear in the Domesday Book of 1086, but seems to have been formed soon afterwards, the first mention being in about 1153. It was formerly a hunting park for the De Lacy family of Pontefract Castle. Coal and iron ore were mined and a smelting furnace was recorded in 1295. Once these were exhausted (and woodland had been cleared for fuel) the area turned to farming.
Roundhay was historically a township in the ancient parish of Barwick in Elmet, except for a small area in the east around Roundhay Grange (originally a grange of Kirkstall Abbey), which was a detached part of the township of Shadwell in the parish of Thorner. Roundhay was a hamlet until 1803 when the park estate was bought by Thomas Nicholson who started a programme of landscaping and built the Mansion House. Housing was built for workers and more land sold on which other gentry built houses.
Until 1810 Gipton Wood was Gibton Forest separating Leeds from Roundhay Park and a turnpike road was constructed "from Sheepscar to Roundhay Bridge". After the road was built the population increased from 84 in 1801 to 186 in 1822, mainly in grand houses for wealthier citizens of Leeds.
In 1826 St John's Church was established to serve the population of Roundhay, Shadwell and Seacroft, a combined population of about 1100, who would otherwise have had to travel up to three miles to worship. This made the area more attractive, the population rose to 300 in the 1830s in the form of a "township and genteel village" with "elegant villas, walks and plantations".
In 1866 Roundhay and Shadwell both became separate civil parishes.
In 1872 Roundhay Park estate was purchased by the City of Leeds and opened as a public park by His Royal Highness Prince Arthur on 19 September 1872. At the time, there was much opposition as many considered the park was too far out of Leeds for the majority of the population to enjoy, and the park had just one access road and led to the park being dubbed a 'white elephant' in its early years.
However, there was interest in developing housing, and a suburb began to develop around Lidgett Park. Development was accelerated in 1848 by the provision of a horse-drawn public omnibus service between Leeds and Roundhay Park, then a horse-drawn tram, and on 11 November 1891 the first public electric tram service, which by 1894 provided a quarter-hourly service from 6 a.m. The city sold surplus land, but placed restrictions in its use, stipulating stone for building and the prohibition of offensive trades.
The area acquired a Post Office in 1868 and by the start of the 20th century some parts were lit by electricity. Brick-built detached and semi-detached housing was created along new roads such as The Avenue. In 1901 a second Anglican Church and in 1902 a Congregational Church were established to provide worship within walking distance for the new working class population. Lidgett Park Wesleyan Church followed in 1906.
In June 1907 an open air swimming pool or 'lido' opened, at a cost of just over £1,600, built mainly by unemployed citizens. During the 1950s and 1960s about 100,000 people a year visited the Roundhay 'swimming baths'. In 1912, the civil parishes of Roundhay and Shadwell were abolished, and Roundhay became part of Leeds.
During the First World War Roundhay was used as a gathering place for soldiers, hence land by Prince's Avenue is known as Soldiers Field. After the war, new estates were built to the south and west of the park. Roundhay School for Boys was opened in 1926, and the School for Girls in 1932. After the Second World War housing filled available spaces, with smaller residences built in the grounds of larger ones, and large converted to flats.
The area was scene of a murder on 26 December 2003, when policeman Ian Broadhurst was shot and two of his colleagues were wounded by a man whose car they had stopped on Dib Lane. David Bieber, a former American Marine, was arrested five days later in Gateshead and charged with murder. He was found guilty of murder and two charges of attempted murder on 2 December 2004, and sentenced to life imprisonment. After his trial, it was revealed he had fled from Florida in the mid-1990s and entered Britain using a false identity after being suspected of conspiracy to commit the murder of a love rival.
The Mansion and other country estates
In 1811, John Clarke (died 1857) of York, architect of the 'Commercial Buildings' in Leeds city centre, was commissioned by Nicholson to design the Mansion House. It was built within the following years in the classical style; of two storeys with seven bays, the centre three set behind an iron portico, built in ashlar stone. It was one of Clarke's early works. It is of modest size, but elevated to command views southwards over the park, and provides a focal point to Thomas Nicholson's designed park landscape.
The Mansion stood empty for many years after the departure of catering firm, Gilpins. Events and catering company 'Dine' was appointed by Leeds City Council to run The Mansion, and in 2009, after refurbishment and gaining a civil ceremony licence, The Mansion re-opened to the public. The venue contains a restaurant and cafe, and hosts private functions. By the 1860s, a number of country estates in Gledhow/Roundhay had been established and their houses are now grade II listed; The Mansion at Roundhay Park (c1817), Gledhow Hall (1764–67) and its Georgian Bath House (1768;1800), Gledhow Mount Mansion (c1820), Elmete Hall (1865), Gledhow Grove (c1835) and Beechwood (c1820).
In December 2008 a small library of books on parks, wildlife and nature was opened in The Mansion complex.
Roundhay Park comprises over 700 acres (2.8 km2) of parkland, lakes and woodland. The park has scented gardens for the blind, National Plant Collections, Canal Gardens, the Monet and Alhambra Gardens, and Tropical World which attracts visitors all year round. In 2005 the Friends Garden was opened, alongside Canal Gardens and the Rainbow Garden.
Woodpeckers, common warblers in spring and summer, mute swans, visiting whooper swans, great-crested grebes and herons can be found at the park. The Upper Lake is maintained as a wildlife area, and the larger Waterloo Lake is used for fishing. Roundhay Park provides the venue for special events including sporting events, flower and animal shows, music festivals and a bonfire and firework display on 5 November, (Guy Fawkes Night).
Facilities include tennis courts, skateboard ramps, sports pitches, bowling greens, a sports arena, a golf course, and fishing. A lakeside cafe overlooks Waterloo Lake: it was damaged by fire in 2007 but restored and re-opened in 2008.
Sport and culture
Leeds Carnegie RUFC, were founded after the merger of the Headingley and Roundhay Rugby Union Clubs. The Roundhegians RFC were the old boys association of Roundhay School but now operate as a Rugby Club for the whole of Roundhay. The club plays at Chelwood Drive at the west end of Roundhay, near Moortown. Leeds Golf Club is situated within Roundhay Park and has a restaurant.
Roundhay Park was the first place an aircraft landed in Leeds after a flight from Amsterdam, the Netherlands. It was also the place where a moving picture was first filmed: Roundhay Garden Scene (1888). Tropical World is located to the west of the park and contains many rare birds and butterflies.
There are several public houses on Street Lane, a Co-op, banks, a post office, a Wine Rack off licence, The Flying Pizza Italian Restaurant, Pera Tapas Restaurant, a Pizza Express restaurant, a Texaco filling station, a Starbucks coffee shop, a bookmaker, charity shops and other small retailers. Near Oakwood Clock are two supermarkets, a Co-op and a Tesco. Other areas have corner shops. The local centres in Moortown and Chapel Allerton are close by. Roundhay has a private hospital. Roundhay School and Allerton Grange High School have been rebuilt along with several primary schools in Roundhay and Gledhow.
Roundhay has a wide variety of housing. There is a mixture of Victorian through terraces, villas and twentieth century detached and semi detached housing. All of the housing in Roundhay is privately built, there are no council estates. Because there has never been any mass house building in Roundhay at any one time, there is no consistent style throughout the area. There are flats adjacent to the park and along the northern edge of Roundhay.
According to the 2001 census 21,823 people were counted, of whom 60.77% gave their religion as Christian, 17.06% as No religion, 8.09% religion not stated, 6.57% Muslim, 3.52% Jewish, 2.83% Sikh, 0.72% Hindu, 0.20% Buddhist, 0.23% Others.
- All Nations Community Church
- St. Johns CE Church (Closed June 2008)
- St. Edmunds CE Church
- Roundhay Methodist Church
- Lidgett Park Methodist Church
- St. Andrew's URC Church
- Roundhay Evangelical Church
- Society of Friends (Quakers)
- Sinai Synagogue
- Allerton Grange High School
- Roundhay School
- Gledhow Primary School
- Talbot Primary School
- Kerr Mackie Primary School
- St. John's Church of England Primary School, Roundhay
References and notes
- Leeds Metropolitan Ward Boundaries
- West Yorkshire Archaeology Advisory Service Roundhay Park Conservation Area; Victor Watts (ed.), The Cambridge Dictionary of English Place-Names Based on the Collections of the English Place-Name Society (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2004), s.v. ROUNDHAY.
- A circular fence requires the minimum length to enclose any given area, reducing the materials and work required
- Steven Burt (2000) Roundhay Park - an illustrated history
- "Roundhay Park Conservation Area". West Yorkshire Archaeological Advisory Service. 2007. Retrieved 6 April 2014.
-  J. Dickinson & G.D. Webster (1967) A History of St John's Church Roundhay
- Roundhay Bridge was near the Lido Car Park on Wetherby Road
- Vision of Britain: Roundhay CP/Tn
- Daily News 20 September 1872 Prince Arthur at Leeds
- See various issues of the Leeds Mercury in 1871 and 1872
- St Edmund's Parish Church History
- St Andrew's Story
- "DJ and TV presenter Jimmy Savile dies, aged 84". BBC News. 30 October 2011. Retrieved 29 October 2011.
- Listed Buildings, English. "English Heritage Listed - Georgian Buildings". Leeds - Gledhow/Roundhay - English Listed Buildings. UK Government. Retrieved August 12, 2013.
- Yorkshire Evening Post 17 June 2008 "Cheers all round as lake cafe re-opens"
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Roundhay.|
- YEP Roundhay Today Community Website
- The Friends of Roundhay Park - Registered Charity
- The Roundhegians
- Images of Roundhay
- All Nations Community Church
- History of Roundhay Park Conservation Area
- The Ancient Parish of Barwick in Elmet at GENUKI: Roundhay was in this parish