A routed army often degenerates into a sense of "every man for himself" as the surviving combatants attempt to flee to safety. A disorganized rout often results in much higher casualties for the retreating force than an orderly withdrawal. On many occasions, more soldiers are killed in the rout than in the actual battle. Normally, though not always, routs either effectively end a battle, or provide the decisive victory the winner needs to gain the momentum with which to end a battle (or even campaign) in their favor.
The opposite of a rout is a rally, in which a military unit that has been giving way and is on the verge of being routed suddenly gathers itself and turns back to the offensive.
Historically, lightly equipped soldiers such as auxiliaries, light cavalry, partisans or militia were important when pursuing a fast-moving, defeated enemy force, and could often keep up the pursuit into the following day, causing the routed army heavy casualties or total dissolution. The slower moving heavy forces could then either seize objectives or pursue at leisure. However, with the advent of armoured warfare and blitzkrieg style operations, an enemy army could be kept more or less in a routed or disorganized state for days or weeks on end.
Routs may be feigned to entice an enemy into pursuing the "retreating" force, with the intent of causing the enemy to abandon a strong defensive position or leading the enemy into a prepared ambush. However this carries some risk; a feigned rout can quickly turn into a real one. It is thought that Breton cavalry performed this maneuver at the Battle of Hastings.
Other uses of the term 
A rout is also a synonym for an overwhelming defeat as well as a verb meaning "to put to disorderly retreat" or "to defeat utterly", and is often used in sports to describe a blowout.
In law, a rout is a disturbance of the public peace by three or more persons acting together in a manner that suggests an intention to riot, although they do not actually carry out the intention.
See also 
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