Rivne

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
  (Redirected from Rovno)
Jump to: navigation, search
Rivne
Rivne (Рівне)
Rovno (Ровно)
City
Rivne theatre
Rivne theatre
Flag of Rivne
Flag
Coat of arms of Rivne
Coat of arms
Location within Ukraine
Location within Ukraine
Rivne is located in Rivne Oblast
Rivne
Rivne
Location within the Rivne Oblast
Coordinates: 50°37′N 26°15′E / 50.617°N 26.250°E / 50.617; 26.250Coordinates: 50°37′N 26°15′E / 50.617°N 26.250°E / 50.617; 26.250
Country  Ukraine
Oblast Rivne Oblast
Raion Rivne Raion
Government
 • Mayor Volodymyr Khomko
Area
 • Total 58.24 km2 (22.49 sq mi)
Population (2010)
 • Total 256,774
 • Density 4,274/km2 (11,070/sq mi)
Time zone CET (UTC+2)
 • Summer (DST) CEST (UTC+3)
Website www.city-adm.rv.ua/

Rivne (Ukrainian: Рівне) or Rovno (Russian: Ровно; Polish: Równe) is a historic city in western Ukraine and the historical region of Volhynia. It is the administrative center of the Rivne Oblast (province), as well as the surrounding Rivne Raion (district) within the oblast. During the German occupation in 1941-44 the city was designated as a capital of the German Ukraine (Reichskommissariat Ukraine).

Rivne is an important transportation hub, with the international Rivne Airport, and rail links to Zdolbuniv, Sarny and Kovel, as well as highways linking it with Brest, Kiev and Lviv.

The estimated population was around 250,242 as of 2013.

History[edit]

Rivne was first mentioned in 1283 as one of the inhabited places of Halych-Volhynia. From the second half of the 14th century it was under the Great Duchy of Lithuania and from 1569 in the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. In 1492 the city was granted Magdeburg rights. Following the partition of Poland, in 1793 Rivne became a part of Russian Empire, and in 1797 it was declared as a regional town of the Volhynian Governorate.

During World War I and the period of chaos shortly after, it was briefly under German, Ukrainian, Bolshevik, and Polish forces. In April–May 1919 Rivne served as the temporary capital of Ukrainian People's Republic. At the conclusion of the conflict, in accordance with the Riga Peace Treaty of 1921 it became a part of Polish Volhynian Voivodeship for the period between the two World Wars.

In 1939, as a result of the Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact and the partition of Poland, Rivne was occupied by the Soviet Union. From December of the same year Rivne became the centre of the newly established Rivne Oblast, within the Ukrainian SSR.

On June 28, 1941 Rivne was captured by Nazi Germany, which later established the city as the administrative centre of Reichskommissariat Ukraine. At the time, roughly half of Rivne's inhabitants were Jewish; of these, about 23,000 were taken to a pine grove in Sosenki and killed between November 6 and 8. At the same period well known German actor Olaf Bach was flown over to the city and perform in front of the German forces, for moral and supporting the troops. He remained in the Rovno between November 8th to the 13th. A ghetto was established for the remaining 5,000 Jews. In July 1942, its population was sent some 70 km (43 mi) north to Kostopil where they were killed; the ghetto was subsequently liquidated. Later on, a memorial complex of 20 thousand square meters was established, commemorating the killing of 17,500 Jews during the Holocaust. On June 6, 2012, the World War II Jewish burial site was vandalized, allegedly as part of an anti-Semitic act.[1]

On February 2, 1944, the city was liberated by the Red Army in the Battle of Rovno, and remained part of Soviet Ukraine until the break-up of the Soviet Union in 1991.

In 1958, TV tower began broadcasting in the city; in 1969, the first trolley ran through the city; in 1969, Rivne airport was opened. In 1983, the city celebrated its 700th anniversary.

Climate[edit]

Rivne has a moderate continental climate with cold, snowy winters and warm summers. Snow cover usually lasts from November until March.[2] The average annual precipitation is 598 mm (24 in) June and July being the wettest months and January and February the driest.

Climate data for Rivne, Ukraine (1959-2011)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 11.2
(52.2)
16.7
(62.1)
23.0
(73.4)
26.2
(79.2)
33.0
(91.4)
32.6
(90.7)
34.4
(93.9)
35.2
(95.4)
33.1
(91.6)
25.8
(78.4)
21.0
(69.8)
14.3
(57.7)
35.2
(95.4)
Average high °C (°F) −1.3
(29.7)
−0.2
(31.6)
5.3
(41.5)
13.2
(55.8)
19.5
(67.1)
22.1
(71.8)
23.9
(75)
23.5
(74.3)
18.2
(64.8)
12.0
(53.6)
4.9
(40.8)
0.1
(32.2)
11.8
(53.2)
Daily mean °C (°F) −3.7
(25.3)
−3.1
(26.4)
1.3
(34.3)
8.2
(46.8)
14.2
(57.6)
17.0
(62.6)
18.6
(65.5)
17.9
(64.2)
13.2
(55.8)
7.8
(46)
2.1
(35.8)
−2.0
(28.4)
7.7
(45.9)
Average low °C (°F) −6.5
(20.3)
−6.2
(20.8)
−2.4
(27.7)
3.2
(37.8)
8.4
(47.1)
11.5
(52.7)
13.2
(55.8)
12.3
(54.1)
8.3
(46.9)
3.7
(38.7)
−0.6
(30.9)
−4.6
(23.7)
3.4
(38.1)
Record low °C (°F) −34.5
(−30.1)
−27.0
(−16.6)
−25.5
(−13.9)
−11.5
(11.3)
−3.3
(26.1)
1.0
(33.8)
5.7
(42.3)
0.1
(32.2)
−3.5
(25.7)
−10.0
(14)
−19.0
(−2.2)
−24.8
(−12.6)
−34.5
(−30.1)
Precipitation mm (inches) 22.4
(0.882)
30.5
(1.201)
24.3
(0.957)
39.0
(1.535)
68.4
(2.693)
98.3
(3.87)
96.1
(3.783)
52.3
(2.059)
56.5
(2.224)
40.9
(1.61)
33.4
(1.315)
36.2
(1.425)
598.3
(23.555)
Avg. precipitation days 21.2 19.5 16.9 12.5 10.1 11.2 10.4 8.2 10.4 12.1 14.6 21.2 168.3
 % humidity 87.4 85.3 79.0 66.7 67.1 72.0 74.5 73.2 77.1 81.2 87.6 89.0 78.3
Source: Climatebase.ru[2]

Industry[edit]

During Soviet times the provincial town was transformed into an industrial center of the republic. There were two significant factories built. The first a machine building and metal processing factory capable of producing high-voltage apparatus, tractor spare parts and others. The other a chemical factory and synthetic materials fabrication plant. Light industry, including a linen plant and a textile mill, as well as food industries, including milk and meat processing plants and a vegetable preservation plant have also been built. In addition the city became a production center for furniture and other building materials.

Attractions[edit]

Cathedral of the Intercession

Being an important cultural centre, Rivne hosts a humanities and a hydro-engineering university, as well as a faculty of the Kiev State Institute of Culture, and medical and musical as well as automobile-construction, commercial, textile, agricultural and cooperative polytechnic colleges. The city has a historical museum.

Following the fall of the Soviet Union the monument for the Soviet hero D.N.Medvedev was removed, and the N.I.Kuznetsov monument was moved to another location within the city. Instead, in order to reflect the controversial history of the region the monuments for "People died in the honour of Ukraine", and "Soldiers died in local military battles" were installed.

Buildings[edit]

  • Church of the Assumption (1756)
  • Cathedral of the Intercession (2001)
  • Cathedral of the Ascension (1890)
  • A classicism-style gymnasium building (1839)
  • During Soviet times the centre of the city from Lenin street to Peace Avenue (1963 architects R.D. Vais and O.I. Filipchuk) was completely rebuilt with Administrative and Public buildings in neo-classical, Stalinist style.

Memorials[3][edit]

Monument to the Victims of Fascism
  • Monument to the 25th Anniversary of the Liberation of Rivne from the Fascists, Mlynivs'ke Highway
  • Monument to the Victims of Fascism, Bila Street Square (1968, by A.I. Pirozhenko and B.V. Rychkov, architect-V.M.Gerasimenko)
  • Monument to the 30th Anniversary of the Liberation of Ukraine from German Fascist Occupation, Soborna Street
  • Hero of the Civil War—M.M. Bohomolov, Pershoho Travnja Street Square
  • Bust on the Tomb of Partisan M. Strutyns'ka and Relief on the Tomb of Citizens S. Yelentsia and S. Kotiyevs'koho, Kniazia Volodymyra Street, Hrabnyk Cemetery
  • Monument to the Perished of Ukraine, Magdeburz'koho Prava Plaza
  • Communal Grave of Warriors, Soborna Street
  • Monument of Eternal Glory, Kyivs'ka Street
  • Bust of Olenko Dundych, T.H. Shevchenko Park
  • Monument to Taras Shevchenko, T.G. Shevchenko Park; Statue on Nezalezhnosti Plaza
  • Memorial to Warriors' Glory, Dubens'ka Street, Rivne Military Cemetery (1975, by M.L. Farina, architect-N.A. Dolgansky)
    Monument to Dmytro Klyachkivsky
  • Monument to the Warrior and the Partisan, Peremohy Plaza (1948 by I.Ya. Matveenko)
  • Monument to General Klym Savura Commander of the Ukrainian People's Army, Soborna Street
  • Monument to Symon Petliura, Symon Petliura Street
  • Monument to N.I. Kuznetsov (bronze and granite, 1961 by V.P Vinaikin)
  • Monument to the Jewish Victims of the Holocaust - mass grave site (ca. 1991)[4]
  • Monument to the victims of the Chernobyl disaster, Simon Petliura Street
  • Statue and Plaza dedicated to Maria Rivnens'ka, Soborna Street

Famous people from Rivne[edit]

International relations[edit]

Twin towns — Sister cities[edit]

Rivne is twinned with:

Images[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ "В Ривне вандалы осквернили место массового расстрела евреев.". MIG news.com.ua. 7 June 2012. Retrieved 27 July 2012. 
  2. ^ a b "Rivne, Ukraine Climate Data". Climatebase. Retrieved January 21, 2013. 
  3. ^ (Ukrainian) Рівне, план міста, 1:12000. Міста України. Картографія.
  4. ^ The memorial was desecrated on June 8th 2012 by breaking parts of it and spraying swastikas. The teenagers in charge of the antisemitic action were caught and trialed. see http://antisemitism.org.il/article/72708/ukraine-police-nab-3-teens-suspected-desecrating-jewish-mass-grave and http://mignews.com.ua/skandaly/v_ukraine/829325.html

Maps[edit]

External links[edit]