Roxy Music

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This article is about the British art rock group. For their self-titled debut album, see Roxy Music (album).
Roxy Music
Roxy Music band.jpg
Roxy Music live in Toronto 1974
Background information
Origin London, England
Genres Art rock, glam rock, protopunk,[1] progressive rock, new wave (later), disco (later)
Years active 1971–1976, 1979–1983, 2001–2014
Labels Island, E.G., Virgin, Atco, Reprise/Warner Bros.
Associated acts The Explorers, 801
Website www.roxymusic.co.uk
Past members Bryan Ferry
Andy Mackay
Paul Thompson
Phil Manzanera
Graham Simpson
Roger Bunn
Dexter Lloyd
Brian Eno
David O'List
Peter Paul
Rik Kenton
Eddie Jobson
John Gustafson
Paul Carrack
Alan Spenner
Gary Tibbs

Roxy Music were a British art rock group formed in 1971 by Bryan Ferry, who became the group's lead vocalist and chief songwriter, and bassist Graham Simpson. Alongside Ferry, the other longtime members were Phil Manzanera (guitar), Andy Mackay (saxophone and oboe) and Paul Thompson (drums and percussion), and other former members include Brian Eno (synthesiser and "treatments"), Eddie Jobson (synthesiser and violin), and John Gustafson (bass). Although the band took a break from group activities in 1976 and again in 1983, they reunited for a concert tour in 2001, and toured together intermittently between that time and their break-up in 2014. Ferry frequently enlisted many Roxy members as session musicians for his solo releases.

Roxy Music attained popular and critical success in Europe and Australia during the 1970s and early 1980s, beginning with their debut album, Roxy Music (1972).[2] The band was highly influential, as leading proponents of the more experimental, musically sophisticated element of glam, as well as a significant influence on early English punk music.[3] They also provided a model for many new wave acts and the experimental electronic groups of the early 1980s. The group is distinguished by their visual and musical sophistication and their preoccupation with style and glamour.[4] Ferry and co-founding member Eno have also had influential solo careers, the latter becoming one of the most significant record producers and collaborators of the late 20th century. Rolling Stone magazine ranked Roxy Music No. 98 on its "The Immortals – 100 The Greatest Artists of All Time" list.[5]

Their music was influenced by other British artists, such as The Beatles, The Rolling Stones, The Kinks, The Who, The Pretty Things, Pink Floyd, The Creation, The Move, Traffic, David Bowie, King Crimson, and Elton John, as well as American artists like Little Richard, Elvis Presley and The Velvet Underground.[6]

The band's last studio album was 1982's Avalon. In 2005 they began recording a new studio album, which would have been their ninth, and would have been their first record since 1973 with Brian Eno, who wrote two songs for it and also played keyboards.[7] However, Bryan Ferry eventually confirmed that material from these sessions would be released as a Ferry solo album, with Eno playing on "a couple of tracks,"[8] and that he doesn't think they'll ever record as Roxy Music again.[9] The album ultimately became Ferry's 2010 album Olympia. It was announced on 3 November 2014 that the group had officially split up.[10]

History[edit]

Formation and early years (1970–71)[edit]

In November 1970, Bryan Ferry, who had recently lost his job teaching ceramics at a girls' school for holding impromptu record listening sessions,[11] advertised for a keyboard player to collaborate with him and Graham Simpson, a bass player he knew from his Newcastle art college band, the Gas Board, and with whom he collaborated on his first songs. In early 1970 Ferry had auditioned as lead singer for King Crimson, who were seeking a replacement for departed vocalist Greg Lake. Although Robert Fripp and Pete Sinfield decided that Ferry's voice was unsuitable for King Crimson's material, they were impressed with his talent and helped the fledgling Roxy Music to obtain a contract with E.G. Records.

Andy Mackay replied to Ferry's advertisement, not as a keyboard player but a saxophonist and oboist, though he did have a VCS3 synthesizer. Mackay had already met Brian Eno during university days, as both were interested in avant-garde and electronic music. Although Eno was a non-musician, he could operate a synthesizer and owned a Revox reel-to-reel tape machine, so Mackay convinced him to join the band as a technical adviser. Before long Eno was an official member of the group. When founding drummer Dexter Lloyd, a classically trained timpanist, left the band, an advertisement was placed in Melody Maker saying "wonder drummer wanted for an avant rock group".[12] Paul Thompson responded to the advertisement and joined the band in June 1971. The group's name was partly an homage to the titles of old cinemas and dance halls, and partly a pun on the word rock.[citation needed] Ferry had named the band Roxy originally, but after learning of an American band with the same name he changed the name to Roxy Music.

In October 1971 Roxy advertised in Melody Maker seeking the "Perfect Guitarist" and Phil Manzanera was one of about twenty players who auditioned. Manzanera, the son of an English father and a Colombian mother, had spent a considerable amount of time in South America and Cuba as a child and although he did not have the same art school background as Ferry, Mackay and Eno, he was perhaps the most proficient member of the band, with an interest in a wide variety of music. Manzanera also knew other well-known musicians, such as David Gilmour, who was a friend of his older brother, and Soft Machine's Robert Wyatt. However, Manzanera did not initially make the band as a guitarist; the successful applicant was David O'List, former guitarist with The Nice. The group was impressed enough with Manzanera that he was invited to become Roxy Music's roadie, an offer which he accepted.

The band's fortunes were greatly increased by the support of Melody Maker journalist Richard Williams and broadcaster John Peel. Williams became an enthusiastic fan after meeting Ferry and being given a demonstration tape during mid-1971, and wrote the first major article on the band, featured on Melody Maker's "Horizons" page in 7 August 1971 edition. This line-up of Roxy Music (Ferry/Mackay/Eno/Simpson/Thompson/O'List) recorded a BBC session shortly thereafter.

First two albums (1972–1973)[edit]

In early February 1972, guitarist O'List quit the group abruptly after an altercation with Paul Thompson which took place at their audition for David Enthoven of EG Management. When O'List didn't show for the next rehearsal, Manzanera was asked to come along, on the pretext of becoming the band's sound mixer. When he arrived he was invited to play guitar and quickly realised that it was an informal audition. Unbeknownst to the rest of the group, Manzanera had learned their entire repertoire and as a result, he was immediately hired as O'List's permanent replacement, joining on 14 February 1972. Two weeks later Roxy Music signed with EG Management.[13]

With this team, EG Management financed the recording of the tracks for their first album, Roxy Music, recorded in March–April 1972 and produced by King Crimson lyricist Peter Sinfield. Both the album and its famous cover artwork were apparently completed before the group signed with Island Records. A&R staffer Tim Clark records that although he argued strongly that Island should contract them, company boss Chris Blackwell at first seemed unimpressed and Clark assumed he was not interested. A few days later however, Clark and Enthoven were standing in the hallway of the Island offices examining cover images for the album when Blackwell walked past, glanced at the artwork and said "Looks great! Have we got them signed yet?"[14] The band signed with Island Records a few days later. The LP was released in June to good reviews and became a major success, reaching No. 10 on the UK album chart in September 1972.[2]

During the first half of 1972 bassist Graham Simpson became increasingly withdrawn and uncommunicative, which led to his leaving the band almost immediately after the recording of the debut album. He was replaced first by Peter Paul,[15] then by Rik Kenton.[16]

To bring more attention to their album, Roxy Music decided to record and release a single. Their debut single was "Virginia Plain", which scored No. 4 in the British charts. The band's eclectic visual image, captured in their debut performance on the BBC's Top of the Pops, became a cornerstone for the glam trend in the UK; the TOTP video of "Virginia Plain" was later parodied by the British comedy series Big Train. The single caused a renewed interest in the album. Soon after "Virginia Plain", Rik Kenton departed the band, which would never again have a permanent bass player. John Porter, John Gustafson, John Wetton, Gary Tibbs, Alan Spenner and Neil Jason among others would fill the revolving role.

The next album, For Your Pleasure, was released in March 1973. It marked the beginning of the band's long, successful collaboration with producer Chris Thomas, who worked on all of the group's classic albums and singles in the 1970s. The album was promoted with the non-album single "Pyjamarama"; no album track was released as a single. At the time, Ferry was dating French model Amanda Lear, who was photographed with a black jaguar for the front cover of the album (Ferry appears on the back cover as a dapper chauffeur standing in front of a limousine). John Porter (credited as a guest) played bass on the record, while Sal Maida played bass for subsequent live shows.[17]

Stranded, Country Life, Siren, and solo projects (1973–77)[edit]

Roxy Music, 1973

Soon after recording For Your Pleasure, Brian Eno left Roxy Music amidst increasing differences with Ferry about the management of the group.[18] The other members of the band are reported to have shared some of Eno's concerns about Ferry's dominance, but they elected to remain. Also, Johnny Gustafson became the band's permanent bass player for the next three studio albums, but not always for live shows; though he toured with Roxy on certain dates in 1973 and 1975, other live Roxy bassists of this period (1973–1976) included Sal Maida, John Wetton and Rick Wills.[19]

Eno, meanwhile, was replaced by a 19-year-old multi-instrumentalist Eddie Jobson, formerly of progressive rockers Curved Air, who played keyboards and electric violin. Although some fans lamented the loss of the experimental attitude and camp aesthetic that Eno had brought to the band, the classically trained Jobson was an accomplished musician. Eno himself later acknowledged the quality of the two albums that followed his departure, Stranded (1973) and Country Life (1974), and they are widely regarded as being among the most original and consistent British rock music albums of the period. Rolling Stone referred to the albums as marking "the zenith of contemporary British art rock".[20]

The songs on these albums also cemented Ferry's persona as the epitome of the suave, jaded Euro-sophisticate. Although this persona undoubtedly began as a deliberately ironic device, during the mid-1970s it seemed to merge with Ferry's real life, as the working-class miner's son from the north of England became an international rock star, an icon of male style who had love affairs with many beautiful women, among them Playboy playmate Marilyn Cole (who appeared on the cover of the Stranded album) and fashion models Amanda Lear (who would later date David Bowie) and Jerry Hall (who later became the common-law wife of Mick Jagger).

On the first two Roxy albums, all songs were written solely by Bryan Ferry. Beginning with Stranded, Mackay and Manzanera began to co-write some material. Gradually, their songwriting and musicianship became more integrated into the band's sound, although Ferry remained the dominant songwriter; throughout their career, all but one of Roxy's singles were written either wholly or jointly by Ferry. (However, Manzanera, Mackay and Thompson did individually write a few of the band's B-sides). Stranded was released in November 1973, and produced the top-10 single "Street Life".

The fourth album, Country Life, was released in 1974, and was the first Roxy Music album to enter the U.S. Top 40, albeit at No. 37. Country Life was met with widespread critical acclaim, with Rolling Stone referring to it "as if Ferry ran a cabaret for psychotics, featuring chanteurs in a state of shock".[20] Their fifth album, Siren, contained their only U.S. hit, "Love Is the Drug". (Ferry said the song came to him while kicking the leaves during a walk through Hyde Park.) At this time Ferry was involved in a relationship with Texas-born supermodel Jerry Hall. Ferry's paean to Hall, "Prairie Rose", directly inspired the Talking Heads song "The Big Country" and was later covered by the Scottish rock group Big Country as a B-side to their single "East of Eden" in 1984. Hall is also featured on the cover of the Siren LP and in the video for Ferry's 1976 international solo success, a cover of Wilbert Harrison's "Let's Stick Together".

After the concert tours in support of Siren in 1976, Roxy Music disbanded. Their live album Viva! was released in August 1976. During this time Ferry released two solo records on which Manzanera and Thompson performed, and Manzanera reunited with Eno on the critically acclaimed one-off 801 Live album.

Final albums and Hiatus (1978–83)[edit]

Roxy Music reunited during 1978 to record a new album, Manifesto, but with a reshuffled cast. Jobson was not present, and was reportedly not contacted for the reunion. (At that time, Jobson was touring and recording with his own band, UK.) The sleeve of Manifesto explicitly identifies the revived Roxy Music line-up as a septet of Ferry, Manzanera, Mackay, Thompson, and new members Gary Tibbs (bass), Alan Spenner (bass) and Paul Carrack (keyboards).[21] However, these newest three members were downgraded to session musician status (as opposed to full band members) on all subsequent releases.

Three singles were spun off from Manifesto, including the major UK hits "Angel Eyes" (UK No. 4), and "Dance Away" (UK No. 2). Both these tracks are significantly different from the album versions, as "Dance Away" was remixed for single release, and "Angel Eyes" was entirely re-recorded.

After the tour and before the recording of the next album, Flesh + Blood (1980), Thompson broke his thumb in a motorcycle mishap and took a leave from the band. Soon after, he left permanently.

At this point, Ferry, Mackay and Manzanera became the only permanent members of Roxy Music, and were supplemented by a variety of session players over the next few years (including Tibbs, Spenner, Carrack, Andy Newmark and Neil Hubbard.) The trio's 1980 album Flesh + Blood became a huge commercial success in their homeland, as the album went to No. 1 on the UK charts, and spun off three UK hits: "Oh Yeah" (UK No. 5), "Over You" (UK No. 5), and "Same Old Scene" (UK No. 12).

However, the changed cast reflected a distinct change in Roxy's musical style. Gone were the unpredictable elements of the group's sound, giving way to smoother musical arrangements. Rolling Stone panned Manifesto ("Roxy Music has not gone disco. Roxy Music has not particularly gone anywhere else either"[22]) as well as Flesh + Blood ("such a shockingly bad Roxy Music record that it provokes a certain fascination"[23]), while other sources praised the reunion. Melody Maker said, of Manifesto, "...reservations aside, this may be the first such return bout ever attempted with any degree of genuine success: a technical knockout against the odds."[24]

In 1981, Roxy Music recorded the non-album single "Jealous Guy". A cover of a song written and originally recorded by John Lennon, Roxy Music recorded "Jealous Guy" as a tribute to Lennon after his 1980 death. The song topped the UK charts for two weeks in March 1981, becoming the band's only No. 1 single.

Later, with more sombre and carefully sculpted soundscapes, the band's eighth—and final—studio album, Avalon (1982), recorded at Chris Blackwell's Compass Point Studios, was a major commercial success and restored the group's critical reputation[25] and contained the successful single "More Than This". The album also included several Roxy Music classics, such as "Avalon," "The Main Thing," "The Space Between," and "True to Life." The trio (augmented by session players) toured extensively until 1983, when Bryan Ferry dissolved the band and band members devoted themselves full-time to solo careers (see below).

Reunions and End (2001–2014)[edit]

Ferry, Manzanera, Mackay, and Thompson re-formed in 2001 to celebrate the 30th anniversary of the band and toured extensively. A festival performance in Portugal and a short tour of the United States followed in 2003. Absent was Brian Eno, who criticised the motives of the band's reunion, saying, "I just don't like the idea. It leaves a bad taste".[26] Later Eno remarked that his comment had been taken out of context. Manzanera and Thompson recorded and toured with Ferry on his 2002 album Frantic. Eno also contributed to Frantic on the track "I Thought".

During 2002, Image Entertainment, Inc., released the concert DVD Roxy Music Live at the Apollo featuring performances of 20 songs plus interviews and rehearsal footage.

In 2004, Rolling Stone magazine ranked the group No. 98 on its list of the 100 Greatest Artists of All Time.[27]

Roxy Music gave a live performance at the 2005 Isle of Wight Festival on 11 June 2005, their first UK concert since the 2001–2002 world tour. On 2 July 2005, the band played "Jealous Guy", "Do the Strand", and "Love is the Drug" at the Berlin contribution to Live8; "Do the Strand" is available on the 4-disc DVD collection, whereas "Love Is the Drug" can be found on the Live 8 Berlin DVD.

In March 2005, it was announced on Phil Manzanera's official site[28] that the band, including Brian Eno, had decided to record an album of new material. The project would mark the first time Eno worked with Roxy Music since 1973's For Your Pleasure. After a number of denials that he would be involved with any Roxy Music reunion, on 19 May 2006 Eno revealed that he had contributed two songs to the new album as well as playing keyboards on other tracks. He did, however, rule out touring with the band.[29] Had the record been released as a Roxy Music album, it would have been the first album since Manifesto on which original drummer Paul Thompson performed. The album has, however, been released as a Bryan Ferry solo album entitled Olympia.

Roxy Music on stage during concert at London's ExCeL Exhibition Centre, July 2006

During early 2006, a lesser-known Roxy track, "The Main Thing", was remixed by Malcolm Green and used as the soundtrack to a pan-European television commercial for the Opel Vectra featuring celebrated football referee Pierluigi Collina.

During July 2006, the band toured Europe. They concentrated mostly on places they had never visited before, such as Serbia and Macedonia. Roxy Music's second drummer, Andy Newmark, performed during the tour, as Thompson withdrew due to health issues, and Oliver Thompson (guitar) made his first appearance with the band.

During a March 2007 interview with the Western Daily Press, Ferry confirmed that although the next Roxy Music album is definitely being made, it would not be vended for another "year and a half", as Ferry had just released and toured behind his twelfth studio album, Dylanesque, consisting of Bob Dylan covers.[30]

In June 2007, the band hired a Liverpool-based design agency to develop their new website supporting their new album. Early in the year, Phil Manzanera revealed that the band were planning to sign a record contract. During an October 2007 interview, Ferry said that the album would include a collaboration with Scissor Sisters.[31]

However, in November 2009 Ferry stated that there would be no new Roxy Music record: "It was overly publicized, when Brian Eno and I went into the studio together, that we were re-forming. We worked together for a few days, weeks maybe, and I decided I didn’t really want to do a Roxy thing. It’s going to be a solo record. Brian plays on a couple of tracks though. I don't think we'll record as Roxy again. . . . It would be great to do some more Roxy Music concerts, although I don't think Eno will be involved."[citation needed]

Over the summer of 2010, Roxy Music headlined at various festivals across the world, including Lovebox at London's Victoria Park, Electric Picnic in Stradbally, Co. Laois, Ireland, and Bestival on the Isle of Wight. Thompson missed three dates of the tour due to illness, and was once more replaced by Andy Newmark. However, Thompson returned for the band's Bestival set.[32]

In the January 2011 edition of Uncut Magazine, Ferry did not rule out the possibility of new Roxy material, revealing that he would be interested in doing something "more experimental. A soundtrack or something."[citation needed]

Roxy Music performed seven dates around the UK in January and February 2011, in a tour billed 'For Your Pleasure', to celebrate the band's 40th anniversary. They then toured Australia and New Zealand between February and March for a further eight shows.[33]

Virgin Records was scheduled to release a box-set entitled Roxy Music: The Complete Studio Recordings 1972-1982 on 6 August, celebrating 40 years since the release of the band's debut album in 1972. Reissues of individual albums were expected to follow.[34]

In an interview given to Rolling Stone on 3 November 2014, Phil Manzanera stated that Roxy Music have split up.[35]

Style and legacy[edit]

The early style and presentation of Roxy Music was influenced by the art school backgrounds of its principal members. Ferry, Mackay and Eno all had studied at prominent UK art colleges during the mid-to-late 1960s, when these institutions were introducing courses that avoided traditional art teaching practice, with its emphasis on painting, and instead focused on more recent developments, most notably pop art, and explored new concepts such as cybernetics. As writer Michael Bracewell notes in his book Roxy: the band that invented an era, Roxy Music was created expressly by Ferry, Mackay and Eno as a means of combining their mutual interests in music, modern art and fashion.

Ferry studied at the Newcastle University in the Sixties under renowned pop artist and educator Richard Hamilton, and many of Ferry's university friends, classmates and tutors - e.g. Rita Donagh and Tim Head - became well-known artists in their own right. Eno studied at Winchester School of Art and although his iconoclastic style became apparent early and caused some conflict with the college establishment, it also resulted in him meeting important artists and musicians including Cornelius Cardew and Gavin Bryars. His interest in electronic music also resulted in his first meetings with Andy Mackay, who was studying at Reading University and who had likewise developed a strong interest in avant garde and electronic music.

The three eventually joined forces in London during 1970–71 after meeting through mutual friends and decided to form a rock band.

Roxy Music was one of the first rock music groups to create and maintain a carefully crafted look and style that included their stage presentation, music videos, album and single cover designs, and promotional materials such as posters, handbills, cards and badges. They were assisted in this by a group of friends and associates who helped to sculpt the classic Roxy Music 'look', notably fashion designer Antony Price, hair stylist Keith Mainwaring, photographer Karl Stoecker, the group's "PR consultant" Simon Puxley (a former university friend of Mackay's) and Ferry's art school classmate Nicholas De Ville. Well-known critic Lester Bangs went so far as to say that Roxy represented "the triumph of artifice".[36]

The band's debut album, produced by King Crimson's Pete Sinfield, was the first in a series of increasingly sophisticated album covers, art-directed by Ferry in collaboration with his friend Nick De Ville. The album artwork imitated the visual style of classic "girlie" and fashion magazines, featuring high-fashion shots of scantily clad models Amanda Lear, Marilyn Cole and Jerry Hall, each of whom had romances with Ferry during the time of their contributions, as well as model Kari-Ann Muller who appears on the cover of the first Roxy album but who was not otherwise involved with anyone in the band, and who later married Mick Jagger's brother Chris.[37] The title of the fourth Roxy album, Country Life, was intended as a parody of the well-known British rural magazine of the same name, and the visually punning front cover photo featured two models (two German fans, Constanze Karoli—sister of Can's Michael Karoli—and Eveline Grunwald)[38] clad only in semi-transparent lingerie standing in a forest. As a result, in many areas of the United States the album was sold in an opaque plastic wrapper because retailers refused to display the cover. Later, an alternative cover, featuring just a picture of the forest, was used.

The English group Madness are among the artists that have cited Roxy Music as an influence[39] and have paid tribute to Bryan Ferry in the song "4BF" (the title is a reference to the song "2HB", itself a tribute to Humphrey Bogart from the first Roxy Music album). Other artists who have claimed Roxy Music as an influence include David Bowie, Steve Jones and Paul Cook of The Sex Pistols, Siouxsie and the Banshees, The Cars, Grace Jones, Kate Bush, Adam Ant, The Human League, Japan, Duran Duran, Simple Minds, ABC, Spandau Ballet, The Fixx, Depeche Mode, Men Without Hats, Nile Rodgers, Annie Lennox, Morrissey, Jarvis Cocker and Neil Hannon.

In 1997 John Taylor of Duran Duran produced the tribute album Dream Home Heartaches... Remaking/Remodeling Roxy Music. The compilation features Taylor as well as Dave Gahan (Depeche Mode) and Low Pop Suicide, among others.

The British electronic band Ladytron took their name from the title of a Roxy Music song from their debut album.[40]

Members[edit]

Discography[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Allmusic
  2. ^ a b Prendergast, Mark (2001). The Ambient Century: From Mahler to Trance: The Evolution of Sound in the Electronic Age. Bloomsbury Publishing. p. 119. ISBN 1-58234-134-6. 
  3. ^ More Than This: The Story of Roxy Music, Eagle Rock, October 2009.
  4. ^ "((( Roxy Music > Biography )))". Stephen Thomas Erlewine. Allmusic. Accessed 3 March 2010.
  5. ^ [1][dead link]
  6. ^ Roxy Music. Similar Artists, Influenced By
  7. ^ "Working With Someone is Like Dating". The Guardian. 19 May 2006. Retrieved 24 May 2010. 
  8. ^ Sanghera, Sathnam (28 November 2009). "Bryan Ferry I lead quite a sheltered life". The Times (London). Retrieved 22 May 2010. 
  9. ^ Thrills, Adrian (29 May 2010). "'People think I wake up in the morning and put on a tuxedo': Bryan Ferry reveals the truth about his life and career". Daily Mail (London). Retrieved 24 May 2010. 
  10. ^ Greene, Andy (3 November 2014). "'Roxy Music Break Up'". Rolling Stone (United States). Retrieved 3 November 2014. 
  11. ^ "Bryan Ferry and Roxy Music Chronology". RoxyRama. Retrieved 24 May 2010. 
  12. ^ "Paul Thompson Biography". Roxyrama.com. Retrieved 20 July 2011. 
  13. ^ Michael Bracewell, Roxy: The band that invented an era (Faber & Faber, 2007, ISBN 978-0-571-22986-4) pp.376–77
  14. ^ Michael Bracewell, Roxy: The band that invented an era (Faber & Faber, 2007, ISBN 978-0-571-22986-4) p.385–86
  15. ^ "Roxy Music - The BBC Sessions". Roxyrama.com. Retrieved 23 October 2011. 
  16. ^ Michael Bracewell, Roxy: The band that invented an era (Faber & Faber, 2007, ISBN 978-0-571-22986-4) p.376
  17. ^ Stump, Paul - Unknown Pleasures: A Cultural biography of Roxy Music, Thunder's Mouth Press, New York, 1998, p. 72
  18. ^ "Phonograph Record: Eno Music: The Roxy Rebellion". Music.hyperreal.org. 1 June 1974. Retrieved 20 July 2011. 
  19. ^ Stump, Paul - Unknown Pleasures: A Cultural biography of Roxy Music, Thunder's Mouth Press, New York, 1998, pps. 72, 154
  20. ^ a b Jim Miller (27 February 1975). "Albums Reviews: Roxy Music -Country Life". Rolling Stone. 
  21. ^ "A scan of the back cover of Manifesto, listing the new group line-up". Retrieved 20 July 2011. 
  22. ^ Roxy Music: Manifesto : Music Reviews : Rolling Stone[dead link]
  23. ^ Roxy Music: Flesh & Blood : Music Reviews : Rolling Stone[dead link]
  24. ^ "Manifesto Album Review - Melody Maker - circa March 1979". Roxyrama.com. 25 May 2011. Retrieved 20 July 2011. 
  25. ^ (Rolling Stone: "Avalon takes a long time to kick in, but it finally does, and it's a good one.")
  26. ^ Eno attacks Roxy reunion, BBC News
  27. ^ "The Immortals: The First Fifty". Rolling Stone Issue 946. Rolling Stone. 
  28. ^ "Phil Manzanera, Expression Records and the Roxy Music Archive". Retrieved 11 March 2006. 
  29. ^ "Viva Roxy Music". Archived from the original on 21 June 2006. Retrieved 30 May 2006. 
  30. ^ "Roxy Rama". Roxy Rama. 15 March 2007. Retrieved 20 July 2011. 
  31. ^ Elio Iannacci. "Style". globeandmail.com. Retrieved 20 July 2011. [dead link]
  32. ^ "TGPT Bounces Back For Bestival - 11 Sep 2010 - Bryan Ferry & Roxy Music News". Roxyrama.com. 11 September 2010. Retrieved 20 July 2011. 
  33. ^ "Bryan Ferry and Roxy Music Tour Dates - Live Concerts and Gigs". Roxyrama.com. Retrieved 20 July 2011. 
  34. ^ Press Release: The Complete Studio Recordings 1972-1982, 25 January 2012. Retrieved 17 April 2012.
  35. ^ Greene, Andy (3 November 2014). "'Roxy Music Break Up'". Rolling Stone. Retrieved 3 November 2014. 
  36. ^ "Roxy Music - The Early Years - Album Reviews". Nme. 2 September 2000. Retrieved 20 July 2011. 
  37. ^ These Vintage Years! - Bryan Ferry and Roxy Music - Kari-Ann[dead link]
  38. ^ "Seventies' Greatest Album Covers: Country Life". Superseventies.com. Retrieved 20 July 2011. 
  39. ^ "Madness". Madness. Retrieved 20 July 2011. 
  40. ^ Bogdanov, Vladimir et al (2002). All music guide to rock. Hal Leonard Corporation. p. 638. ISBN 978-0-87930-653-3. 

References[edit]

  • Bracewell, Michael Roxy Music: Bryan Ferry, Brian Eno, Art, Ideas, and Fashion (Da Capo Press, 2007) ISBN 0-306-81400-5
  • Buckley, David The Thrill of It All: The Story of Bryan Ferry and Roxy Music (André Deutsch, 2004) ISBN 0-233-05113-9
  • Rigby, Jonathan Roxy Music: Both Ends Burning (Reynolds & Hearn, 2005; revised edition 2008) ISBN 1-903111-80-3
  • Stump, Paul Unknown Pleasures: A Cultural Biography of Roxy Music (Quartet Books, 1998) ISBN 0-7043-8074-9

External links[edit]