Roy Campanella

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This article is about the baseball player. For his son, the television director and producer, see Roy Campanella II.
Roy Campanella
Roy Campanella cropped NYWTS.jpg
Catcher
Born: (1921-11-19)November 19, 1921
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania
Died: June 26, 1993(1993-06-26) (aged 71)
Woodland Hills, California
Batted: Right Threw: Right
MLB debut
April 20, 1948 for the Brooklyn Dodgers
Last MLB appearance
September 29, 1957 for the Brooklyn Dodgers
Career statistics
Batting average .276
Home runs 242
Runs batted in 856
Teams
Career highlights and awards
Induction 1969
Vote 79.41%

Roy Campanella (November 19, 1921 – June 26, 1993), nicknamed "Campy", was an American baseball player, primarily as a catcher. The Philadelphia native played for the Negro leagues and Mexican League for several seasons before he was accepted by the minor leagues during 1946 and debuted in Major League Baseball during 1948. His playing career was ended during 1958 when he was paralyzed by an automobile accident.[1]

Widely considered to have been one of the greatest catchers of the history of the game,[2] Campanella played for the Brooklyn Dodgers during the 1940s and 1950s. After his playing career, Campanella held positions in scouting and community relations with the Dodgers. He was inducted into the Baseball Hall of Fame during 1969.

Playing career[edit]

Negro leagues[edit]

Campanella's father John was the son of Sicilian immigrants. His mother Ida was African American. Therefore, he was prohibited from Major League Baseball before 1947, the season that black players were admitted to the major leagues for the first time since the 19th century. Campanella began playing Negro league baseball for the Washington Elite Giants during 1937, after dropping out of school on his sixteenth birthday. The Elite Giants would move to Baltimore the following year,[3] and Campanella would go on to become a star player with the team.

Mexican League[edit]

During 1942 and 1943, Campanella played in the Mexican League with the Monterrey Sultans. Lazaro Salazar, the team's manager, told Campanella that one day he would play at the Major League level. During 1971, Campanella was elected to the Mexican League Hall Of Fame.[4]

Minor leagues[edit]

During 1946, Campanella was accepted by the Brooklyn Dodgers' minor league system, as the Dodger organization began preparations to break the Major Leagues' color barrier with Jackie Robinson. For the 1946 season, Robinson was assigned to the Montreal Royals, the Dodgers' affiliate in the Class AAA International League. Meanwhile, the team looked to assign Campanella to a Class B league. After the general manager of the Danville Dodgers of the Illinois-Indiana-Iowa League reported that he did not feel that league ready for racial integration, the organization sent Campanella, along with pitcher Don Newcombe, to the Nashua Dodgers of the Class B New England League, where the Dodgers felt the climate would be more tolerant. The Nashua team thus became the first professional baseball team of the 20th century to field a racially integrated lineup in the United States.

Campanella's 1946 season proceeded largely without racist incidents, and in one game Campanella assumed the managerial duties after manager Walter Alston was dismissed. This made Campanella the first African-American to manage caucasian players of an organized professional baseball team. Nashua was three runs down at the time Campanella took over. They came back to win, in part due to Campanella's decision to use Newcombe as a pinch hitter during the seventh inning; Newcombe hit a game-tying two-run home run.

Major League Baseball[edit]

Campanella about 1953.

Jackie Robinson's first season in the Major Leagues came during 1947, and Campanella began his Major League career with the Brooklyn Dodgers the following season, playing his first game on April 20, 1948. He went on to play for the Dodgers from 1948 through 1957 as their regular catcher. During 1948, he had three different uniform numbers (33, 39, and 56) before settling on 39 for the rest of his career.

Campanella seen shaving in a TV commercial for Gillette Razors.

Campanella played in the All-Star Game every year from 1949 through 1956. His 1949 All-Star selection made him one of the first four African-Americans so honored. (Jackie Robinson, Don Newcombe and Larry Doby were also All-Stars during 1949.)[5] Campanella received the Most Valuable Player (MVP) award in the National League three times: in 1951, 1953, and 1955. In each of his MVP seasons, he batted more than .300, hit more than 30 home runs and had more than 100 runs batted in. His 142 RBIs during 1953 exceeded the franchise record of 130, which had been held by Jack Fournier (1925) and Babe Herman (1930). Today it is the second most in franchise history, Tommy Davis breaking it with 153 RBIs in 1962. That same year, Campanella hit 40 home runs in games in which he appeared as a catcher, a record that lasted until 1996, when it was exceeded by Todd Hundley. Duringr his career, he threw out 57% of the base runners who tried to steal a base on him, the highest by any catcher in major league history.[6]

During 1955, Campanella's final MVP season helped gain Brooklyn its first-ever World Series championship. After the Dodgers lost the first two games of that year's World Series to the Yankees, Campanella began Brooklyn's comeback by hitting a two-out, two-run home run in the first inning of Game 3. The Dodgers won that game, got another home run from Campanella in a Game 4 victory that tied the series, and then went on to claim the series in seven games.

Campanella caught three no-hitters during his career: Carl Erskine's two on June 19, 1952 [7] and May 12, 1956 [8] and Sal Maglie's on September 25, 1956.[9]

After the 1957 season, the Brooklyn Dodgers relocated to Los Angeles, California, and became the Los Angeles Dodgers, but Campanella's playing career came to an end before he ever played a game for Los Angeles.

Automobile accident[edit]

Campanella lived in Glen Cove, New York, on the North Shore of Long Island, while operating a liquor store in Harlem between regular-season games and during the off-season. On January 28, 1958, after closing the store for the night, he began his drive to his home in Glen Cove. En route, traveling at about 30 mph (48 km/h), his car, a rented 1957 Chevrolet sedan, hit a patch of ice at an S-curve on Dosoris Lane near Apple Tree Lane, skidded into a telephone pole and overturned, breaking Campanella's neck. He fractured the fifth and sixth cervical vertebrae and compressed the spinal cord.[10][11] The accident left Campanella paralyzed from the shoulders down.[10] By physical therapy, he eventually was able to regain substantial use of his arms and hands.[12] He was able to feed himself, shake hands, and gesture while speaking, but he would require a wheelchair for mobility for the remainder of his life.[13]

Post-playing career[edit]

LAret39.PNG
Roy Campanella's number 39 was retired by the Los Angeles Dodgers in 1972.

After his playing career, Campanella remained involved with the Dodgers. During January 1959 the Dodgers named him assistant supervisor of scouting for the eastern part of the United States and special coach at the team's annual spring training camp in Vero Beach, Florida, serving each year as a mentor and coach to young catchers in the Dodger organization.[14] In 1978, he moved to California and accepted a job as assistant to the Dodgers' director of community relations, Campanella's former teammate and longtime friend Don Newcombe.

On May 7, 1959, the Dodgers, then playing their second season in Los Angeles, honored Campanella with Roy Campanella Night at the Los Angeles Memorial Coliseum. The New York Yankees agreed to make a special visit to Los Angeles to play an exhibition game against the Dodgers for the occasion. The Yankees won the game, 6–2. The attendance at the game was 93,103, setting a record at that time for the largest crowd to attend a Major League Baseball game. The proceeds from the game went to defray Campanella's medical bills. During 1969, Campanella was inducted into the Baseball Hall of Fame, the second player of African American heritage so honored, after Jackie Robinson. The same year, he received the Bronze Medallion from the City of New York.

On June 4, 1972, the Dodgers retired Campanella's uniform number 39 alongside Robinson's (42) and Sandy Koufax's (32).

In an article in Esquire magazine during 1976, sportswriter Harry Stein published an article called the "All Time All-Star Argument Starter," a list of five ethnic baseball teams. Campanella was the catcher on Stein's black team.

Personal life[edit]

Willie Mays with Roy Campanella (1961)

Campanella was interviewed by Edward R. Murrow on the CBS program Person to Person on October 2, 1953 and again on January 2, 1959. Campanella also appeared as Mystery Guest on What's My Line? episode 171 on September 6, 1953 and as a guest celebrity on The Name's the Same (ABC-TV) on July 27, 1954. Campanella was also mentioned in the lyrics of the song "Did You See Jackie Robinson Hit that Ball?", written and recorded by Buddy Johnson in 1949 (and covered by Count Basie and his Orchestra that same year) and in the lyrics to the song "We Didn't Start the Fire" by Billy Joel. Campanella was also honored on the famous Ralph Edwards show This Is Your Life. Campanella appeared as himself in the Lassie episode "The Mascot," first broadcast September 27, 1959, in a story where he is coaching Timmy Martin's "Boys' League" team.

Campanella was married three times. His first marriage, to Bernice Ray on January 3, 1939, ended in divorce. They had two daughters together. On April 30, 1945, he married Ruthe Willis and had three children with her (including a son, television director Roy Campanella II). Their marriage deteriorated after his accident and was never the same; they separated in 1960 and Ruthe died during January 1963. Campanella's adopted son David had a somewhat troubled life; he was arrested a number of times, developed a problem with drugs and died at the age of 41. On May 5, 1964, Campanella married Roxie Doles, who survived him after his death.

Death[edit]

Campanella died of heart failure on June 26, 1993, in his Woodland Hills, California home.[1][15] He was cremated by the Forest Lawn, Hollywood Hills Cemetery in Los Angeles.[16]

Legacy[edit]

Bronze sculpture at the Baseball Hall of Fame

During 1999, Campanella ranked number 50 on The Sporting News' list of the 100 Greatest Baseball Players, and was a nominee for the Major League Baseball All-Century Team.

The book Carl Erskine's Tales from the Dodgers Dugout: Extra Innings (2004) includes short stories from former Dodger pitcher Carl Erskine. Campanella is prominent in many of these stories. Campanella himself authored the inspirational book It’s Good to Be Alive, published during 1959, which details his journey back from the near-fatal car accident that left him paralyzed. The book mentions the years of efforts by physical therapist Sam Brockington which allowed Campanella to regain some use of his arms, eventually overcome his initial bitterness about his fate, and finally adopt an optimistic outlook on life. Michael Landon made his TV-movie directorial debut in the 1974 movie It’s Good to Be Alive, in which Campanella was portrayed by Paul Winfield.

During 2006, Campanella was featured on a United States postage stamp.[17] The stamp is one of a block of four honoring baseball sluggers, the others being Mickey Mantle, Hank Greenberg, and Mel Ott.

During September 2006, the Los Angeles Dodgers announced the creation of the Roy Campanella Award, which is voted among the club's players and coaches and is given to the Dodger who best exemplifies "Campy's" spirit and leadership. Shortstop Rafael Furcal was named the inaugural winner of the award. During March 2011, Simon & Schuster published a new biography of Campanella written by Neil Lanctot, author of Negro League Baseball - The Rise and Ruin of a Black Institution. The book is entitled Campy - The Two Lives of Roy Campanella.[18] The book reveals new details about Campanella's near-fatal car accident and his stormy relationship with Jackie Robinson. It also provides the most comprehensive look at Campanella's Negro League career, including newly compiled year-by-year statistics.

During 2013, SpiritClips.com, a sub-division of Hallmark Channel, released 'Roy Campanella Night', a short documenting the period of paralysis leading up to the famous tribute to Roy Campanella on May 7, 1959 at Los Angeles Memorial Coliseum. The short movie was directed by Chris Commons and stars Anthony Holiday, Tia Streaty and Nathan Wilson.

See also[edit]

Footnotes[edit]

  1. ^ a b Thomas, Jr., Robert McG. (June 28, 1993). "Roy Campanella, 71, Dies; Was Dodger Hall of Famer". New York Times. Retrieved 2008-05-29. 
  2. ^ Ott, Tim (2002-07-17). "All-time unpredictable fantasy leaguers". Major League Baseball. Retrieved 2007-06-29. 
  3. ^ Baltimore Elite Giants - Negro League Baseball Players Association website
  4. ^ Campanella's biography page on the Mexican Professional Baseball Hall of Fame website (Spanish)
  5. ^ 1949 All-Star Game. - Baseball-Almanac.
  6. ^ 100 Best Catcher CS% Totals at The Encyclopedia of Baseball Catchers
  7. ^ Retrosheet Boxscore: Brooklyn Dodgers 5, Chicago Cubs 0
  8. ^ Retrosheet Boxscore: Brooklyn Dodgers 3, New York Giants 0
  9. ^ Retrosheet Boxscore: Brooklyn Dodgers 5, Philadelphia Phillies 0
  10. ^ a b "Man Behind the Plate". - TIME. - February 10, 1958. - Retrieved: 2008-05-30
  11. ^ "Seat Belts & Safety". - TIME. - August 24, 1962. - Retrieved: 2008-05-29
  12. ^ "Scoreboard". - TIME. - March 17, 1958. - Retrieved: 2008-05-30
  13. ^ Smith Andrew. "Greatest Dodger of All," New York Newsday. June 28, 1993, p. 8.
  14. ^ People: News Roundup. - TIME. - January 12, 1959. - Retrieved: 2008-05-30
  15. ^ Anderson, Dave (June 28, 1993). "BASEBALL: Sports of The Times; In Roy Campanella, The Heart of a Hero". New York Times. Retrieved 2008-05-29. 
  16. ^ Thornley, Stew (2003). "Reviews: The Baseball Necrology: The Post-Baseball Lives and Deaths of Over 7,600 Major League Players and Others. By Bill Lee." (PDF). Nineteenth Century Notes (Watertown, MA: Nineteenth Century Committee, Society for American Baseball Research) 2003: 6. Retrieved 2008-10-13. "Often a cemetery that performs a cremation gets listed as the interment site. Thus Lee lists Roy Campanella as buried at Forest Lawn Hollywood Hills in Los Angeles, although Campanella was only cremated there with his remains returned to the family." 
  17. ^ Campanella stamp. - USPS
  18. ^ "Received: Campy: The Two Lives of Roy Campanella". NotGraphs. Retrieved 2011-01-08. 

References[edit]

  • Campanella, Roy. It's Good to Be Alive, New York: Little Brown and Co., 1959
  • Daly, Steve. Dem Little Bums: The Nashua Dodgers, Concord, NH: Plaidswede Publishing, 2002
  • Greenfield, Steven, "Roy Campanella", BaseballLibrary.com
  • Roper, Scott C., and Stephanie Abbot Roper. "'We're Going to Give All We Have for this Grand Little Town': Baseball Integration and the 1946 Nashua Dodgers" Historical New Hampshire, Spring/Summer, 1998
  • Tygiel, Jules. Baseball's Great Experiment: Jackie Robinson and His Legacy, New York: Oxford University Press, 1997
  • Young, A.S. (Andrew Sturgeon). Great Negro Baseball Stars, and How They Made the Major Leagues, New York: A. S. Barnes, 1953.

External links[edit]