Royal Australian Regiment
|The Royal Australian Regiment|
Cap badge of the Royal Australian Regiment
|Active||23 November 1948 – Present|
|Part of||Royal Australian Infantry Corps|
|Garrison/HQ||1st Battalion – Townsville
2nd Battalion – Townsville
3rd Battalion – Townsville
5th Battalion – Palmerston
6th Battalion – Enoggera
7th Battalion – Adelaide
8th/9th Battalion – Enoggera
|Nickname||1st Battalion – The Pony Soldiers or The Big Blue One
2nd Battalion – Second to None
3rd Battalion – Old Faithful
4th Battalion – The Fighting Fourth
5th Battalion – The Tiger Battalion
7th Battalion – The Pigs
8th Battalion – The Grey Eight
|Colors||3rd Battalion and 6th Battalion entitled to wear US PUC streamer on Regimental Colour; 1st Battalion entitled to US MUC streamer on Regimental Colour|
|March||Quick – El Alamein (Band); Black Bear (Pipes and Drums)
Slow – Infantry Song
|Mascot||1st Battalion – Shetland Pony "Septimus"
3rd Battalion – None
4th Battalion – None
5th Battalion – Sumatran Tiger "Quintus Rama"
6th Battalion – Blue Heeler Corporal "Ridgeliegh Blue"
8th/9th Battalion – Merino ram John "Stan the Ram" Macarthur
|Major General Mark Kelly AO, DSC (Colonel commandant)|
|Colonel in Chief||HM The Queen
(Royal Australian Infantry Corps)
|General Sir Peter Cosgrove, AK, MC (Governor-General of Australia)|
|Unit Colour Patches|
|Tartan||Australian (2 and 7 RAR piper's kilts and plaids)
Royal Stewart (3 RAR piper's kilts and plaids)
The Royal Australian Regiment (RAR) is the parent administrative regiment for regular infantry battalions of the Australian Army and is the senior infantry regiment of the Royal Australian Infantry Corps. It was originally formed in 1948 as a three battalion regiment; however, since then its size has fluctuated as battalions have been raised, amalgamated or disbanded in accordance with the Australian government's strategic requirements. Currently, the regiment consists of seven battalions and has fulfilled various roles including those of light, parachute, motorised and mechanised infantry. Throughout its existence, units of the Royal Australian Regiment have deployed on operations in Japan, Korea, Malaya, Borneo, Vietnam, Somalia, Rwanda, Cambodia, East Timor, the Solomon Islands, Iraq and Afghanistan.
- 1 Organisation
- 2 History
- 2.1 Formation, 1948
- 2.2 Early years: Japan and Australia, 1948–50
- 2.3 Korean War, 1950–53
- 2.4 Malaya and Borneo, 1955–66
- 2.5 Expansion of the regiment, 1960s
- 2.6 Vietnam War, 1962–72
- 2.7 Peacetime service, 1973–98
- 2.8 East Timor, Solomon Islands, Iraq and Afghanistan, 1999 – Present
- 2.9 Special Operations
- 2.10 Reorganisation, 2005–14
- 3 Theatre and battle honours
- 4 Music
- 5 Lanyards
- 6 Alliances
- 7 See also
- 8 Notes
- 9 References
The Royal Australian Regiment (RAR) is part of the Royal Australian Infantry Corps, along with the six state-based infantry regiments of the Australian Army Reserve. It is the most senior of the corps' regiments in the order of precedence, and currently consists of seven Regular Army light infantry battalions:
- 1st Battalion (1 RAR)
- 2nd Battalion (2 RAR)
- 3rd Battalion (3 RAR)
- 5th Battalion (5 RAR)
- 6th Battalion (6 RAR)
- 7th Battalion (7 RAR)
- 8th/9th Battalion (8/9 RAR).
The battalions of the regiment are capable of providing seven of the ten regular battlegroups that the Australian Army has available for deployment. The current order of battle sees 5 and 7 RAR as part of the 1st Brigade based in Darwin and Adelaide; 1, 2, and 3 RAR as part of the 3rd Brigade in Townsville; and 6 and 8/9 RAR as part of the 7th Brigade in Brisbane.
- 2nd/4th Battalion (1973–95), delinked to 2 RAR and 4 RAR
- 4th Battalion (1964–73 and 1995–2009), reflagged 2nd Commando Regiment
- 5th/7th Battalion (1973–2006), delinked to 5 RAR and 7 RAR
- 8th Battalion (1966–73), amalgamated to 8/9 RAR
- 9th Battalion (1967–73), amalgamated to 8/9 RAR
- 10th Independent Rifle Company (1974 – late 1990s), disbanded.
The origins of the Royal Australian Regiment lie in the decision made by the Australian government to raise a force for occupation duties in Japan at the end of the Second World War. The 34th Australian Infantry Brigade was raised in October 1945 from Second Australian Imperial Force (2nd AIF) personnel then serving in the South West Pacific Area, with the three battalions of the brigade designated as the 65th, 66th and 67th Australian Infantry Battalions of the AIF. The 65th Battalion was formed from volunteers from the 7th Division and the 2/40th Battalion. The 66th Battalion received volunteers from the 9th Division and 1st Australian Corps troops. The 67th Battalion was formed from the 3rd, 6th, and 11th Divisions. After concentrating on the island of Morotai, the 34th Brigade moved to Japan and joined the British Commonwealth Occupation Force (BCOF) in February 1946.
The 34th Brigade became the basis of the post-war Regular Army in 1947, and when the decision was taken in 1948 to withdraw two of the battalions to Australia, attention turned to the status and designation of these units. Brigadier Ronald Hopkins, commander of the brigade, was concerned that despite the unit prestige and regimental spirit developed since October 1945, it would be undesirable to have the regular units the highest numbered, without battle honours or colours, and with precedence after Militia units. Consideration was given to whether the battalions might be designated as separate regiments. For example, the 65th Battalion might have become the 1st Infantry Battalion, City of Sydney's Own Regiment under one proposal or the 1st Battalion, King George VI's Australian Rifle Regiment under another.[Note 1] Instead, the decision was taken to number the units sequentially as part of one large regiment and so on 23 November 1948 the 65th, 66th and 67th Battalions became the 1st, 2nd and 3rd Battalions of the Australian Regiment. An application was made for a royal title, which was granted on 10 March 1949. The Royal Australian Regiment thus came into being as Australia's first regiment of regular infantry. Since formation the battalions of the regiment have competed against each other in an annual military skills competition known as the Gloucester Cup.
Early years: Japan and Australia, 1948–50
The formation of the regiment following the end of the Second World War was fundamentally important to the post-war Australian Army, forming a key component of the first "permanent, professional army, available in peace and war for any task the government might direct". Prior to this time the Australian Army had been substantially a part-time militia with a permanent cadre. A major influence in the raising of the regiment was Australia's desire to secure a prominent role in the occupation of Japan and the eventual peace settlement. After some delays the 65th, 66th and 67th Battalions arrived in Japan's Hiroshima Prefecture in February 1946. Subsequent employment "involved activities designed to reinforce upon the Japanese the lesson of their defeat", in addition to guard duty, patrolling and training. In December 1948 the Australian component of the BCOF was reduced from a brigade to one understrength battalion, with the 1st and 2nd Battalions returning to Australia, while the 3rd Battalion remained in Japan.
On return to Australia the 34th Brigade became the 1st Brigade. The 1st Battalion was subsequently based in Ingleburn, New South Wales, and the 2nd Battalion at Puckapunyal, Victoria. Both units were significantly understrength as many men discharged on returning to Australia, while others elected to remain in Japan with the 3rd Battalion. Alan Morrison, a former member of the regiment, later recalled that for the two battalions that returned to Australia "...the first eighteen months of the regiment's existence were harrowing times". Many men discharged due to frustration and discontent, while the battalions were not strong enough to undertake meaningful training activities and their barracks were in a state of disrepair. Yet from this experience came the core "...of dedicated soldiers destined to be the non-commissioned officers of the regiment in the Korean War and the outstanding warrant officers and sergeants of the battalions that served in Malaya and in the early part of the Vietnam campaign".
The regiment has provided units and individuals for virtually all Australian Army deployments and operations since its formation. The first period of sustained operational service began with the regiment's first deployment in Korea in 1950 and continued until the withdrawal of combat units from Vietnam in 1972. These 22 years were arguably the most significant for the regiment with between one and three battalions involved in combat operations in South-East Asia at any one time. A second lengthy period of operational service commenced with the intervention in East Timor in 1999, which became the first of many commitments for the regiment that have continued to the present day. Approximately 85,000 personnel have served in the RAR during this time, with casualties sustained by the regiment on operations including 693 killed and over 3,000 wounded.
Korean War, 1950–53
|Australian Infantry Battalions in Korea, 1950–56
|3 RAR||September 1950 – September 1954|
|1 RAR||April 1952 – March 1953
April 1954 – March 1956
|2 RAR||March 1953 – April 1954|
|Source: Kuring 2004, p. 248|
The Korean War was the first major test of the regiment. Following preparations in Japan, 3 RAR arrived in Pusan on 28 September 1950 and was attached to the 27th British Commonwealth Brigade. The initial invasion of South Korea by the North Korean People's Army (NKPA) had been broken by General Douglas MacArthur's amphibious landing at Inchon, and so, in what was a complicated war of manoeuvre, 3 RAR was involved in the pursuit of the NKPA back across the 38th parallel. On 21 October 1950, 3 RAR took part in the Battle of Yongju in an apple orchard north of Pyongyang, the first large-scale engagement fought by a battalion of the regiment. The farthest north 3 RAR would advance into North Korea was the Pakchon–Chongju area following the Battle of Chongju, and it was near here that Lieutenant Colonel Charlie Green, the battalion's commanding officer, was mortally wounded on 30 October 1950. By November 1950, following the Chinese intervention, 3 RAR was withdrawing south along with the rest of the allied Eighth Army, fighting the Battle of Pakchon. However, following a UN counteroffensive a defensive line was established about 45 kilometres (28 mi) north of Seoul and it was here in April 1951 that 3 RAR, along with the 2nd Battalion, Princess Patricia's Canadian Light Infantry and supporting UN forces, fought a successful defensive action at the Battle of Kapyong. This battle proved to be the climactic point of the regiment's first year in Korea.
By June 1951, 3 RAR moved to a position on the Imjin River under the command of the US I Corps and it was here that the battalion would spend the next two years of the war. The major action fought by the regiment in the second half of 1951 was the Battle of Maryang San, where 3 RAR, under the command of Lieutenant Colonel Frank Hassett, assaulted Hill 317 on 5 October 1951. Known as Operation Commando, Hill 317 was captured after five days of hard fighting. Following this action the war was defined by fixed defences of trenches, bunkers and wire, constant patrolling, and numerous clashes. In April 1952, 3 RAR was joined by 1 RAR and command of the 28th British Commonwealth Brigade, of which they were now a part, passed to an Australian officer as a result. Meanwhile, the expansion of the commitment in Korea to two battalions resulted in the establishment of a regimental depot at Ingleburn in 1952 to train and hold infantrymen for service in Korea. In April 1953, 1 RAR was replaced by 2 RAR on a system of unit rotation. During this changeover a parade was held to mark the first occasion that all battalions of the regiment had been on parade together. 1 RAR served a year in Korea, 2 RAR for four months before the armistice, while 3 RAR served throughout the war, earning itself the nickname of "Old Faithful". The last major action of the war for the regiment was the Battle of the Samichon River fought by 2 RAR over 24–26 July 1953, repulsing a number of major Chinese assaults just hours before the Armistice Agreement was signed.
Following the armistice both sides withdrew and a demilitarised zone was created. The period that followed proved uneventful, yet the UN forces were required to maintain combat readiness and the ability to react quickly in case the North Koreans violated the ceasefire. In April 1954, 2 RAR returned to Australia and was replaced by 1 RAR which remained in South Korea until March 1956. 3 RAR finally returned to Australia in September 1954 after four years of continuous service in Korea and five years before that in Japan. Total Army casualties in Korea included 293 killed, 1,210 wounded and 23 captured, the majority being infantrymen of the Royal Australian Regiment. The fighting in Korea provided the regiment with valuable combat experience, establishing a foundation for its further development and marking the emergence of the Australian Regular Army. The Korean War remains the only large-scale, conventional war that the regiment has fought. During this time the Army developed the capability to maintain two battalions on major operations at the same time.
Malaya and Borneo, 1955–66
|Australian Infantry Battalions in Malaya and Borneo, 1955–66
|2 RAR||October 1955 – October 1957|
|3 RAR||September 1957 – October 1959|
|1 RAR||October 1959 – October 1961|
|Malaysia and Borneo during Confrontation, 1963–66|
|3 RAR||Mainland Malaysia, August 1963 – March 1965
Borneo, March – July 1965
Mainland Malaysia, July – September 1965
|4 RAR||Mainland Malaysia, October 1965 – April 1966
Borneo, April – August 1966
|Source: Kuring 2004, pp. 258 and 310|
In April 1955 the Australian government had committed army, navy and air force elements to the Far East Strategic Reserve to assist in the defence of Malaya from internal and external security threats. While British Commonwealth forces had been operating against the communist terrorists since 1948, the battalions of the regiment came relatively late to the Malayan Emergency, and when 2 RAR arrived in theatre in October 1955 the war had been running for over seven years. 2 RAR was replaced by 3 RAR in 1957, which was in turn replaced by 1 RAR in 1959. During the Emergency the three battalions were involved in 45 contacts, killing 17 guerrillas for the loss of seven men killed in action. According to Jim Molan the attention to detail required of five years of infantry soldiering in Malaya exposed the regiment to jungle warfare skills developed by the British Army during its most successful counterinsurgency war. This experience later informed the development of its own doctrine, with the Malayan Emergency making a significant contribution to the professionalism of the regiment. Meanwhile, the regimental depot—which had been renamed 4 RAR soon after formation—was subsequently incorporated into the School of Infantry and renamed Depot Company, Royal Australian Regiment in 1960. Despite the end of the State of Emergency in Malaya, 1 RAR was employed on anti-terrorist operations along the Thai border in late 1960. 1 RAR was replaced in Malaya by 2 RAR in 1961, with the battalion involved in training and counter-terrorist operations. It was subsequently employed on operations along the Thai border for three months in mid-1962, and again in May and June 1963, being involved in a number of minor contacts. 2 RAR handed over to 3 RAR in August, and returned to Australia. 3 RAR was also committed to operations along the Thai border in early 1964.
Between 1963 and 1966, Indonesia pursued a policy of Konfrontasi, or Confrontation, with Malaysia. 3 RAR, which was based at Camp Terendak in Malacca on mainland Malaysia, was subsequently used with British and New Zealand forces to mop up two small airborne and seaborne landings near Labis and Pontian in September and October 1964. On 13 February 1965, 3 RAR was warned for service in Sarawak on the island of Borneo, commencing in March. 3 RAR completed a four month tour mounting numerous security patrols in its area of operations, including a number of sensitive cross-border patrols into the Indonesian regency of Sarawak as a part of Operation Claret, which resulted in actions at Sungei Koemba, Kindau and Babang, between late May and July. Operations on the Sarawak border "were a severe test of the skill, discipline and professionalism of the infantry, involving long periods in the jungle or in the company bases." Out of the 30 Claret operations conducted by 3 RAR, 12 were reconnaissance patrols, while the remainder were ambushes or fighting patrols, four of which resulted in contact with Indonesian forces. 4 RAR, having been reformed as a battalion the previous year, assumed responsibility from 3 RAR at Camp Terendak in October 1965. Deploying forward to Borneo in April 1966, it remained there until September and like its predecessor, conducted a demanding routine of internal security and cross-border patrols.
Expansion of the regiment, 1960s
The early 1960s were a period of strategic uncertainty and increasing commitments in South East Asia. Consequently, the Australian government re-introduced selective conscription in late-1964 and directed a significant increase in the strength of the Army. Yet unlike during the 1950s when National Servicemen bolstered the strength of CMF, under the new scheme they would serve for two years in the Regular Army instead. This substantial period of service for the regiment in Australia, Malaysia, and Vietnam saw the government direct the expansion of the regiment from four to nine battalions. By September 1965 the regiment consisted of seven battalions; by July 1966, eight; and by November 1967, nine. 4 RAR was formed in February 1964; 1 RAR abandoned the Pentropic Establishment (1,300 personnel) to revert to the Tropical Establishment (800 personnel), allowing 5 RAR to form in March 1965; 6 RAR was formed from a cadre drawn from 2 RAR in June 1965; 3 RAR assisted the formation of 7 RAR in September 1965; 8 RAR formed in August 1966; and 9 RAR was raised in November 1967.
Vietnam War, 1962–72
Although individual members of the regiment had served as advisors with the Australian Army Training Team Vietnam (AATTV) since 1962, it was not until April 1965 that the government announced that a battalion would be deployed to Vietnam. Between June 1965 and March 1972 the units of the regiment would conduct sixteen rotations in Vietnam, with the first seven battalions completing two 12-month tours, while 8 and 9 RAR would each serve one. Consequently, following a period of hurried training and administration 1 RAR joined the US 173rd Airborne Brigade at Bien Hoa airbase outside of Saigon in June 1965. After initially defending the airbase, 1 RAR steadily increased the scope of its patrols. For example, in January 1966, 1 RAR assaulted a large Viet Cong headquarters complex in the Ho Bo Woods as a part of Operation Crimp; which the Americans hailed as the first strategic intelligence victory of the war. The battalion subsequently completed a 12 month-tour attached to US forces, during which it developed new tactics and techniques that later became standard for Australian battalions and supporting arms and services that would subsequently operate in Vietnam.
In March 1966, Prime Minister Harold Holt announced that Australia would increase its commitment to Vietnam. In May 1966 the newly raised 5 and 6 RAR arrived in theatre as a part of the 1st Australian Task Force (1 ATF) in Phuoc Tuy Province, establishing a base at Nui Dat. After two months of constant patrolling by both battalions, 6 RAR was engaged in the action that would become a defining part of the regiment's war in Vietnam; the Battle of Long Tan. Fought on 18 August 1966, 108 men from D Company, 6 RAR fought a ferocious meeting engagement with the Viet Cong 275th Regiment, possibly reinforced by at least one North Vietnamese battalion, and D445 Battalion (between 1,500 and 2,500 personnel). After fighting for two and a half hours, D Company was surrounded on three sides. However, with the assistance of strong artillery support they were able to hold their position until the timely arrival of a relief force of infantry and armoured personnel carriers (APCs) finally forced the Viet Cong to break. In the words of the official historian, Ian McNeill, "D Company had achieved a stunning victory".
|Australian Infantry Battalions in Vietnam, 1965–72
|1 RAR||May 1965 – June 1966
April 1968 – February 1969
|2 RAR||May 1967 – June 1968
May 1970 – May 1971
|3 RAR||December 1967 – November 1968
February 1971 – October 1971
|4 RAR||May 1968 – May 1969
May 1971 – March 1972 (D Company only from December 1971 – March 1972)
|5 RAR||April 1966 – March 1967
February 1969 – February 1970
|6 RAR||May 1966 – June 1967
May 1969 – May 1970
|7 RAR||April 1967 – April 1968
February 1970 – February 1971
|8 RAR||November 1969 – November 1970|
|9 RAR||November 1968 – November 1969|
|Source: Kuring 2004, p. 364|
In 1967, 2 and 7 RAR assumed responsibility in Phuoc Tuy from their predecessors and continued the extensive patrolling, and cordon and searches characteristic of this conflict. In August 1967, 7 RAR fought elements of the Viet Cong 3rd Battalion, 274th Regiment in the largely unheralded Battle of Suoi Chau Pha, where extensive artillery support again proved decisive. A third infantry battalion arrived in December 1967 as part of a significant expansion of 1 ATF. By the time of the Tet Offensive in 1968, 1 and 3 RAR were serving in theatre. During actions at Fire Support Base (FSB) Coral by 1 RAR and at FSB Balmoral by 3 RAR in May and June 1968, later known as the Battle of Coral–Balmoral, these two battalions of the regiment would fight battles with conventional attributes not seen since Kapyong. In June 1969, an infantry company from 5 RAR, then on its second tour, and supported by a troop of tanks and another of APCs fought a significant combined arms action against a battalion-sized force of North Vietnamese regulars and Viet Cong local force troops during the Battle of Binh Ba.
Following Binh Ba, the remainder of the regiment's commitment to Vietnam would be characterised largely by the policies of "Pacification" and "Vietnamization", with an emphasis on ambushing and patrolling to protect the local population and training South Vietnamese troops to increasingly replace US and allied forces. The withdrawal of Australian forces from South Vietnam began in November 1970 when 8 RAR completed its tour of duty and was not replaced. Where possible, the Australians still sought to bring Viet Cong units to battle, such as during Operation North Ward, where V Company, 4 RAR/NZ fought elements of the Chau Duc and Ba Long guerrilla units in August and September 1971. On 18 August 1971, Prime Minister William McMahon announced that 1 ATF would cease operations in October, with the last combat elements of the regiment (D Company, 4 RAR) returning to Australia in February 1972. The regiment sustained losses of 325 killed and over 2,000 wounded in Vietnam.
Peacetime service, 1973–98
With the withdrawal of the battalion serving in Singapore as part of the Far East Strategic Reserve, 1973 finally saw all units of the regiment stationed in Australia for the first time. Thus began a period of peace-time soldiering of a sort not before seen in the regiment. The end of National Service significantly diminished the strength of the Army, and at this time the government directed that the number of battalions in the regiment be reduced to six, which was achieved by linking 2 and 4 RAR, 5 and 7 RAR, and 8 and 9 RAR. The strength of units and resources were also reduced, with a shift in strategic and tactical concepts from forward defence to defence of continental Australia. Regardless, from September 1973 the battalions of the regiment provided a company on three monthly rotations to Rifle Company Butterworth in Malaysia as part of the Five Power Defence Arrangements. Meanwhile, the 10th Independent Rifle Company, Royal Australian Regiment (10 IRC) was raised on 23 May 1974 to provide an opposing force for units training at the Jungle Training Centre at Canungra.
The 1980s saw the introduction of battalion specialisations—light, parachute, mechanised and motorised—in the regiment and the formation of a ready deployment force. The later concept was first tested during Operation Morris Dance, the contingency mounted in response to the 1987 Fiji coup. 5/7 RAR subsequently developed as a mechanised battalion equipped with M113 armoured personnel carriers, while 3 RAR re-roled as a parachute battalion. In 1988, during the Australian Bicentennial celebrations, a contingent drawn from the battalions of the Royal Australian Regiment under the command of Lieutenant Colonel John Salter of 1 RAR, supported by an Australian Army Band, was deployed as part of the bicentennial celebrations to mount public duties at Buckingham Palace Windsor Castle, St James' Palace and the Tower of London, the first Australian troops to do so since the coronation of Queen Elizabeth II in 1953. In 1991, the two Brisbane-based battalions—6 RAR and 8/9 RAR—then part of the 6th Brigade, became Ready Reserve battalions. Following trials of the concept 6 RAR requipped as a motorised battalion in 1992, while 8/9 RAR commenced is conversion in 1996. Each battalion was initially issued modified 6x6 Land Rover Perenties until a purpose-built infantry mobility vehicle could be acquired.
Although individual members of the regiment served on deployment in such locations as the Sinai, the Balkans, Western Sahara and Bougainville, it was not until 1993 that the regiment conducted another formed-body deployment. On 15 December 1992 the government announced that 1 RAR would deploy as a part of the US-led and UN-sanctioned Operation Restore Hope in Somalia. The Australian commitment, known as Operation Solace, saw 1 RAR deployed for 17 weeks to a 17,000-square-kilometre (6,600 sq mi) Humanitarian Relief Sector (HRS) centred on the township of Baidoa. In the course of four months over 8,311 tonnes of humanitarian aid was delivered. 1 RAR also protected Baidoa airfield, provided security in the township, conducted in-depth patrolling of the HRS, as well as escorting aid convoys within it. 1 RAR was never seriously challenged by the Somali bandits, although there were a number of contacts which resulted in casualties on both sides. One Australian was accidentally killed during the deployment.
In May 1993, a detachment from 12 Platoon, D Company, 2/4 RAR was deployed to Cambodia to provide security to the Australian contribution to the United Nations Transitional Authority in Cambodia. Operating from Battambang airport in north-west Cambodia in support of the Army Aviation Group, they conducted static defensive tasks, patrolling and provided a ready reaction force. They joined another detachment of personnel from 5/7 RAR's Support Company, which had been deployed to undertake communications tasks as part of the Force Communications Unit. The deployment came to an end in November 1993. In 1994, the raising of a fifth battalion was approved, with 2/4 RAR de-linked the following year, and 4 RAR returning to the order of battle in its own right.
Between August 1994 and August 1995, two companies of the regiment, initially A Company, 2/4 RAR and then B Company, 2 RAR, served with the Australian contingent of the United Nations Assistance Mission for Rwanda (UNAMIR). From 20 to 23 April 1995, a 50-member detachment, including infantrymen from 5 Platoon, B Company, 2 RAR were forced to witness the Kibeho Massacre of around 4,000 Hutu refugees at the Kibeho camp by members of the Rwandan Patriotic Army. Vastly outnumbered and frustrated by a mandate that did not allow them to engage the perpetrators, the infantrymen were forced into a passive role during the massacre. Throughout the incident, however, they worked under fire attempting to assist wounded refugees. Meanwhile, 8/9 RAR was disbanded in 1997 after the discontinuation of the Ready Reserve scheme.
East Timor, Solomon Islands, Iraq and Afghanistan, 1999 – Present
East Timor's ballot in favour of independence after 24 years of Indonesian occupation on 30 August 1999 resulted in a wave of violence by militia groups and pro-integration factions within the Indonesian military. 2, 3 and 5/7 RAR were subsequently deployed from 20 September 1999 as part of the UN-sanctioned International Force for East Timor (INTERFET), charged with restoring peace and overseeing the Indonesian departure. Despite minor clashes, including a contact at Motaain on the Indonesian border on 10 October 1999, control was quickly established and INTERFET handed over to the United Nations Transitional Administration in East Timor (UNTAET) in February 2000. At this time, 5/7 RAR become the first battalion of the regiment to serve under UN command since the Korean War. From 1999 to 2004, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5/7, and 6 RAR would all serve in East Timor twice, giving the regiment a wealth of operational experience. One soldier was accidentally killed during these operations, while several more were wounded. Two years after being withdrawn, the deteriorating situation in the country—by then known as Timor Leste—again saw units of the regiment deployed to conduct stabilisation and security operations, this time under Operation Astute. In response to the initial crisis, 3 RAR was deployed along with special forces from 4 RAR (Commando) and the Special Air Service Regiment (SASR) in May 2006. It was replaced in early September by a combined Australian and New Zealand battle group based on 6 RAR, designated the ANZAC Battle Group. Subsequent rotations included elements of 1, 2, 3, 5 and 8/9 RAR in the years that followed. After a phased drawdown, the last elements were withdrawn in 2013. Events in East Timor largely overshadowed developments in Solomon Islands, where elements of the regiment also served periodically from 2003 onwards. One member of the regiment died during operations in the Solomon Islands.
The regiment had only a minor role in the 2003 invasion of Iraq, providing a force element of about 40 Commandos from 4 RAR to support the Special Forces Task Group, which was based on an SASR Squadron. Following the invasion, the deteriorating security situation in Baghdad saw the deployment of a combined arms Security Detachment (SECDET), charged with protecting the Australian embassy and its personnel. Over a dozen companies of the regiment provided force elements to the various rotations. In February 2005 Prime Minister John Howard committed a battle group to southern Iraq to partially replace a Dutch unit that had been operating in the Governorate of Al Muthanna. The regiment's contribution to the first battle group, initially known as the Al Muthanna Task Group, was a rifle company, although the second and third rotations were led by 5/7 RAR and 2 RAR respectively. When Provincial Iraqi Control was declared in Al Muthanna in July 2006, AMTG 3, led by 2 RAR, was renamed the Overwatch Battle Group (West) (OBG(W)). The fifth battle group to serve in Iraq was based on 5 RAR, by which time OBG(W) was operating in both the Al Muthanna and Dhi Qar Governorates as a part of the British Multi-National Division South East (MND(SE)). (AMTG 1, OBG(W) 2 and OBG(W) 4 were all based on cavalry regiment headquarters). During this time elements of the regiment conducted counterinsurgency operations until withdrawn in mid-2008. Casualties in Iraq included one member of the regiment who was accidentally killed.
Meanwhile, a Reconstruction Taskforce (RTF) based around the 1st Combat Engineer Regiment with protective elements from the 5/7 RAR, 6 RAR and 2nd Cavalry Regiment began arriving in Uruzgan Province in southern Afghanistan in early September 2006 as part of Operation Slipper. The RTF formed part of a Dutch-led Provincial Reconstruction Team, operating as part of Task Force Uruzgan and based at Forward Operating Base Ripley, outside of Tarin Kowt. However, as the Australian commitment expanded, by 2010 the task force had evolved into a combined arms battalion-sized battle group consisting of infantry, engineers, cavalry, artillery and logistic elements, usually based on a unit of the Royal Australian Regiment. Known as the Mentoring Task Force (MTF), it formed part of a multinational brigade known as Combined Team Uruzgan and was tasked with counter-insurgency operations in conjunction with United States and other coalition forces. Partnered with the 4th Brigade, 205th Corps of the Afghan National Army (ANA), it operated throughout Uruzgan Province. While attached to MTF-1, soldiers from Combat Team Delta (based on D Company, 6 RAR) took part in heavy fighting during the Battle of Derapet in Deh Rahwod on 24 August 2010. Corporal Daniel Keighran was later awarded the Victoria Cross for Australia for his role in the battle, the first member of the Royal Australian Regiment to receive the award. The task force was withdrawn in late 2013 following the handover of the province to Afghan forces, although a small force protection element remains as part of the ongoing but reduced Australian training and advisory mission. Twelve members of the regiment have been killed in Afghanistan.
The Special Air Service Regiment owes its heritage to the RAR. Originally formed as the 1st SAS Company in 1957, in 1960 it became an independent company of the RAR and was tasked with providing the army's special operations capability. The SASR became a regiment in its own right on 20 August 1964, severing the link with the RAR at this time. Re-raised as a commando battalion from 1997, 4 RAR (Commando) served in East Timor as a conventional light-role battalion in 2001, before focusing on the development of its special operations capability. In this role the battalion was designed to be a flexible, self-contained force element able to deploy at short notice to undertake offensive operations in support of Australia's national interests. Once full operational capability was reached, elements of 4 RAR (Commando) would serve in Timor Leste, Iraq and Afghanistan, as well as providing a domestic counter terrorism capability as part of Tactical Assault Group (East). In 2009, 4 RAR (Commando) was renamed the 2nd Commando Regiment, and as such is no longer part of the RAR. Rather than being formally disbanded, 4 RAR remained on the Army's order of battle with its colours and traditions maintained and protected, ready to be re-raised in the future if required.
In 2005, the Australian Army began planning for a reorganisation as part of an initiative known as "Hardening the Army". The key impact of this plan on the regiment was that 3 RAR would surrender its parachute role, moving from Sydney to Adelaide to become the Army's second mechanised battalion. However, in August 2006 the government announced that the regiment would expand from five to seven battalions, with the initiative retitled "Hardening and Networking the Army". As such, 5/7 RAR conducted a de-linking parade on 3 December 2006, reforming as 5 RAR and 7 RAR. 5 RAR reformed in a largely mature state and included a company serving on operations in Iraq, while 7 RAR reformed with a company on operations in Afghanistan. Both battalions remained in the mechanised role. Meanwhile, the regiment marked its 60th Birthday on 23 November 2008 with a parade at Victoria Barracks, Sydney, including a Queens Guard provided by 3 RAR and the Colours of the Regiment. Achieving operational status in 2009, 7 RAR relocated to Adelaide in 2011. Under the new scheme 3 RAR relinquished the parachute role, becoming a light infantry battalion. It subsequently relocated to Townsville in 2012. 8/9 RAR reformed as a motorised battalion at Enoggera on 31 October 2007 in the last element of the Enhanced Land Force, and was equipped with Bushmaster PMVs. It subsequently served on operations in Timor Leste and Afghanistan.
In 2009, the reorganisation was again re-titled, this time as the "Adaptive Army" which sought to re-balance the Army and shape it to become an adaptive, learning organisation. Under the Plan Beersheba element of the Adaptive Army reforms announced in 2011 and confirmed in the 2013 Defence White Paper, the three Regular Army brigades will be restructured between 2014 and 2017 into three Combat Brigades with a similar structure and capabilities, each consisting of: a Brigade Headquarters, an Armoured Cavalry Regiment, two Standard Infantry Battalions, an Artillery Regiment, a Combat Engineer Regiment, a Combat Service Support Battalion and a Combat Signals Regiment. With the establishment of the Armoured Cavalry Regiments, 5 and 7 RAR have begun giving up their M113 armoured personnel carriers as they re-role as light infantry. Meanwhile, the motorised battalions are also re-roling as light infantry with a transport squadron being established in each Combat Service Support Battalion equipped with Bushmaster PMVs to provide protected mobility. 2 RAR has been selected to specialise in amphibious warfare.
Theatre and battle honours
The Royal Australian Regiment has been awarded theatre and battle honours for actions in Korea and Vietnam.
- Korean War: Sariwon, Yongyu, Chongju, Pakchon, Uijeongbu, Chuam-ni, Maehwa-San, Kapyong, Kowang-San, Maryang-San, The Samichon, Korea 1950–53.
- Vietnam War: Long Tan, Bien Hoa, Coral–Balmoral, Hat Dich, Binh Ba, Vietnam 1965–72.
Note: Not all theatre honours are displayed on battalion colours. The following battle honours are emblazoned upon each battalion's Regimental Colour:
- Korea 1950–53
- Vietnam 1965–72
- Long Tan
4 RAR (Commando) was presented with a Unit Citation for Gallantry (UCG) on 26 October 2007 for operations in Afghanistan. D Company, 6 RAR was belatedly also awarded a UCG on 18 August 2011 for its actions at the Battle of Long Tan.
Foreign military decorations
1,3 and 6 RAR have all been awarded American military decorations for service alongside US troops. 1 RAR received the Meritorious Unit Commendation for its service in Vietnam. 3 RAR received the Republic of Korea Presidential Unit Citation and United States Presidential Unit Citation (formerly the Distinguished Unit Citation) following the Battle of Kapyong during the Korean War (honours it shares with the 2nd Battalion Princess Patricia's Canadian Light Infantry). D Company 6 RAR also received the Distinguished Unit Citation for its actions during the Battle of Long Tan in Vietnam. Although the respective battle honours are borne by the whole regiment, the three citations awarded by the United States are held solely by the battalions that received them, and are displayed as streamers on the regimental colours of those battalions. 8 RAR was awarded the South Vietnamese Cross of Gallantry with Palm Unit Citation for its service during the Vietnam War.
- United States Presidential Unit Citation
- Republic of Korea Presidential Unit Citation
- United States Army Meritorious Unit Commendation
- South Vietnamese Cross of Gallantry with Palm Unit Citation.
The Royal Australian Regiment has a wide variety of regimental music. In addition to regimental quick and slow marches, each battalion has its own set of marches:
- Royal Australian Regiment — Quick: El Alamein (Band); Black Bear (Pipes and Drums); Slow: Infantry Song
- 1st Battalion — Waltzing Matilda
- 2nd Battalion — Ringo (Band); Back in Black (Pipes and Drums)
- 3rd Battalion — Our Director (Band); Hielan' Laddie (Pipes and Drums)
- 4th Battalion — Inverbrackie
- 5th Battalion — Dominique
- 6th Battalion — Spirit of Youth (Band); The Crusaders (Pipes and Drums)
- 7th Battalion — Australaise (Band); Cock o' the North (Pipes and Drums)
- 8th/9th Battalion — The Brown and Grey Lanyard
- 1st Battalion — Garter blue
- 2nd Battalion — Black
- 3rd Battalion — Rifle green
- 4th Battalion — Scarlet
- 5th Battalion — Gold
- 6th Battalion — Khaki
- 7th Battalion — Maroon
- 8th/9th Battalion — Slate grey and beech brown (braided)
- Canada — Princess Patricia's Canadian Light Infantry
- New Zealand — 1st Battalion, Royal New Zealand Infantry Regiment
- Malaysia — Royal Malay Regiment
- United Kingdom — Brigade of Gurkhas
- United Kingdom — Grenadier Guards (1 RAR)
- United Kingdom — Coldstream Guards (2 RAR)
- United Kingdom — Scots Guards (3 RAR)
- United Kingdom — The Queens's Royal Hussars (Queen's Own and Royal Irish) (3 RAR)
- United Kingdom — Irish Guards (4 RAR)
- United Kingdom — Welsh Guards (5 RAR)
- United Kingdom — The Highlanders (7 RAR)
- United Kingdom — The Parachute Regiment (8/9 RAR)
- Hopkins advocated the adoption of the designations of a number of Citizen Military Forces (CMF) units that had not been re-raised when the CMF had been reformed in 1948, with the 65th Battalion to be designated the 1st Infantry Battalion, City of Sydney's Own Regiment, the 66th Battalion as the 1st Infantry Battalion, Royal Melbourne Regiment and the 67th the 1st Infantry Battalion, the Oxley Regiment. Meanwhile, a counter-proposal from the infantry cell in the Directorate of Staff Duties recommended the 65th Battalion be redesignated the 1st Battalion, King George VI's Australian Rifle Regiment, the 66th Battalion as the 1st Battalion, Queen Elizabeth's Australian Footguards, and the 67th Battalion the 1st Battalion, Princess Margaret's Australian Infantry Regiment. See Horner & Bou 2008, p. 44.
- "1 RAR: "The Pony Soldiers"". Digger History. Retrieved 2 October 2014.
- "2 RAR: The Boys in Black". Digger History. Retrieved 2 October 2014.
- Kuring 2004, p. 245.
- "Traditions and Accoutrements". 4 RAR Association. 2010. Retrieved 2 October 2014.
- "5 RAR: The Tigers". Digger History. Retrieved 2 October 2014.
- "7 RAR: "Pork's People" or "The Pigs"". Digger History. Retrieved 2 October 2014.
- "8 RAR: The "Grey Eight"". Digger History. Retrieved 2 October 2014.
- Horner & Bou 2008, p. xxxii.
- "The Royal Australian Regiment (RAR)". Digger History. Retrieved 2 October 2014.
- "3 RAR: "Old Faithful"". Digger History. Retrieved 2 October 2014.
- "Quintus Ram, Mascot of the 5th Battalion RAR". 5th Battalion The Royal Australian Regiment Association. Retrieved 2 October 2014.
- "Battalion History". 6 RAR Association. Retrieved 2 October 2014.
- "8/9th Battalion RAR: History". Digger History. Retrieved 2 October 2014.
- Humbler & Daniels 2013, p. 9.
- "The Royal Australian Infantry Corps". Who We Are. Australian Army. Retrieved 30 September 2014.
- "The Royal Australian Regiment – A Brief History". Royal Australian Regiment Foundation. Retrieved 3 October 2014.
- "1st Battalion, The Royal Australian Regiment". Department of Defence. Retrieved 9 March 2014.
- "2nd Battalion, The Royal Australian Regiment". Department of Defence. Retrieved 9 March 2014.
- "3rd Battalion, The Royal Australian Regiment". Department of Defence. Retrieved 9 March 2014.
- "5th Battalion, The Royal Australian Regiment". Department of Defence. Retrieved 9 March 2014.
- "6th Battalion, The Royal Australian Regiment". Department of Defence. Retrieved 9 March 2014.
- "7th Battalion, The Royal Australian Regiment". Department of Defence. Retrieved 9 March 2014.
- "8th/9th Battalion, The Royal Australian Regiment". Department of Defence. Retrieved 9 March 2014.
- "1st Brigade". Department of Defence. Retrieved 9 March 2014.
- "3rd Brigade". Department of Defence. Retrieved 9 March 2014.
- "7th Brigade". Department of Defence. Retrieved 9 March 2014.
- Horner & Bou 2008, p. 295.
- "New Name for Sydney Commandos" (Press release). Department of Defence. 19 June 2009. Retrieved 28 February 2011.
- Horner & Bou 2008, p. 346.
- Horner & Bou 2008, p. 243.
- Price, Alan. "10IRC and 311 Raider Battalion". 4 RAR Association. Retrieved 10 March 2014.
- Horner & Bou 2008, p. 242.
- Horner & Bou 2008, pp. 1–2, 5–6.
- Horner & Bou 2008, p. 44.
- Horner & Bou 2008, p. 27.
- Horner & Bou 2008, p. 1.
- Horner & Bou 2008, pp. 23–39.
- Kuring 2004, p. 219.
- Kuring 2004, pp. 219–222.
- Horner & Bou 2008, p. xxxi.
- Horner & Bou 2008, p. 306.
- "Regimental History". rar.org.au. The Royal Australian Regiment Association. 26 August 2014. Retrieved 14 June 2014.
- Kuring 2004, pp. 229–231.
- Horner & Bou 2008, pp. 57–72.
- Horner & Bou 2008, pp. 73–75.
- Kuring 2004, p. 225.
- Horner & Bou 2008, pp. 73–80.
- Kuring 2004, pp. 244–245.
- Grey 1988, p. 183.
- O'Neill 1985, p. 710.
- Kuring 2004, p. 247.
- Kuring 2004, pp. 247–248.
- Horner & Bou 2008, p. 80.
- Odgers 2000, p. 148.
- Horner & Bou 2008, p. 103.
- Kuring 2004, p. 258.
- Horner & Bou 2008, p. 104.
- Horner & Bou 2008, p. 124.
- Horner & Bou 2008, pp. 127–130.
- Dennis et al. 2008, p. 152.
- Horner & Bou 2008, pp. 124–143.
- Horner & Bou 2008, p. 143.
- Horner & Bou 2008, pp. 144–148.
- Blaxland 1989, p. 105.
- McNeill 1993, pp. 23–29.
- Horner & Bou 2008, pp. 149–169.
- Horner & Bou 2008, pp. 170–178.
- Horner & Bou 2008, pp. 179–184.
- McNeill 1993, p. 342.
- Horner & Bou 2008, pp. 190–194.
- McNeill & Ekins 2003, p. 249.
- Horner & Bou 2008, pp. 196–219.
- Horner & Bou 2008, pp. 220–238.
- Fairhead 2014, p. 165.
- Horner & Bou 2008, pp. 239–249.
- Horner & Bou 2008, p. 256.
- Horner & Bou 2008, pp. 249–305.
- Horner & Bou 2008, pp. 269-276.
- Mills, T.F. "What Commonwealth Units Have Mounted the Guard in London?". Land Forces of Britain, The Empire, and Commonwealth. Regiments.org. Archived from the original on 28 December 2007. Retrieved 9 March 2014.
- Dennis et al. 2008, p. 471.
- Horner & Bou 2008, p. 294.
- Horner & Bou 2008, pp. 282–288.
- Horner & Bou 2008, pp. 288–289.
- Horner & Connor 2014, pp. 203–205.
- Kuring 2004, p. 411.
- Horner & Bou 2008, pp. 289–290.
- Horner & Bou 2008, pp. 306–322.
- Horner & Bou 2008, pp. 323–325.
- Blaxland 2014, pp. 198–207.
- "ANZAC Battle Group". Nautilus Institute. 24 August 2009. Retrieved 20 September 2014.
- "Mission complete for ANZAC Diggers". Department of Defence. 3 January 2013. Retrieved 30 January 2014.
- Horner & Bou 2008, pp. 325–329.
- "Roll of Honour" (PDF). rar.org.au. The Royal Australian Regiment Association. 26 February 2014. Retrieved 28 June 2014.
- Horner & Bou 2008, pp. 329–337.
- Dennis et al. 2008, pp. 7–8.
- Australian & NZ Defender Magazine 2010, p. 36.
- "Victoria Cross citation for Corporal Daniel Keighran". news.com.au (News Limited). 1 November 2012. Retrieved 1 November 2012.
- Griffiths 2013.
- "Battle casualties in Afghanistan". Global Operations: Afghanistan. Department of Defence. Retrieved 27 May 2014.
- Horner 2002, pp. 36–70.
- Kuring 2004, p. 260.
- Horner & Bou 2008, p. 329.
- Kuring 2004, p. 435.
- Horner & Bou 2008, pp. 323–338.
- Blaxland 2014, p. 403.
- Horner & Bou 2008, p. 342.
- Ferguson 2006.
- "3RAR Arrive in Townsville" (Press release). Department of Defence. 31 January 2012. Retrieved 1 February 2014.
- "PM Transcript: A Stronger Army for Australia". Department of the Prime Minister and Cabinet. Retrieved 10 March 2014.
- Talbot 2013, pp. 158–171.
- "Multi-role Combat Brigades". Australian Army. Archived from the original on 8 April 2014. Retrieved 1 May 2014.
- "5 RAR Farewells APC" (PDF). Tiger Tales: Newsletter of the 5th Battalion, The Royal Australian Regiment (Issue 34). August 2013.
- Australian Defence Magazine 2014, pp. 9–10.
- "Plan Beersheba". Australian Army. Archived from the original on 11 March 2014. Retrieved 11 March 2014.
- Welch 2012.
- Horner 1990, pp. 437–449.
- Rodger 2003, pp. 372–374.
- Horner 1990, pp. 450–461.
- Rodger 2003, p. 394.
- Jobson 2009, p. 57.
- "Presentation of the Unit Citation for Gallantry to 4RAR (Commando)". Governor-General of the Commonwealth of Australia. 26 October 2007. Retrieved 29 June 2014.
- Ekins & McNeill 2012, p. 808.
- Mills, T.F. "The Royal Australian Regiment". Regiments.org. Archived from the original on 28 October 2005. Retrieved 1 March 2011.
- "The United States Army Meritorious Unit Commendation to the 1st Battalion, Royal Australian Regiment, 173 Airborne Brigade, Vietnam". Vietnam Veterans Association of Australia. Retrieved 1 March 2011.
- Horner & Bou 2008, p. 71.
- Horner & Bou 2008, p. 69.
- "United States citation: 3rd Battalion, Royal Australian Regiment (transcript)". Australian War Memorial. Retrieved 1 March 2011.
- "United States Presidential Unit Citation (Army): D Company, Sixth Battalion, Royal Australian Regiment". Vietnam Veterans Association. Retrieved 1 March 2011.
- Festberg 1972, pp. 20–24.
- Jobson 2009, p. 198.
- Festberg 1972, pp. 21–24.
- Chant 2013, p. 246.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Royal Australian Regiment.|
- "Combat Operations: Afghanistan". Australian & NZ Defender Magazine (Brisbane Market, Queensland: Fullbore Magazines) (71): 36. Spring 2010. ISSN 1322-039X.
- "PMV Capability for Beersheba's MCBs" (PDF). Australian Defence Magazine (Sydney, New South Wales: Yaffa Publishing Group) (289): 9–10. 28 February 2014. ISSN 1324-6550. Archived from the original (PDF) on 31 May 2014. Retrieved 31 May 2014.
- Blaxland, John (1989). Organising an Army: The Australian Experience 1957–1965. Canberra Papers on Strategy and Defence. No. 50. Canberra, Australian Capital Territory: Australian National University. ISBN 0-7315-0530-1.
- Blaxland, John (2014). The Australian Army from Whitlam to Howard. Port Melbourne, Victoria: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-1-107-04365-7.
- Chant, Christopher (2013) . Handbook of British Regiments. London: Routledge. ISBN 978-1-134-64724-8.
- Dennis, Peter; Grey, Jeffrey; Morris, Ewan; Prior, Robin; and Jean Bou (2008). The Oxford Companion to Australian Military History (Second ed.). Melbourne, Victoria: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-551784-9.
- Ekins, Ashley; McNeill, Ian (2012). Fighting to the Finish: The Australian Army and the Vietnam War 1968–1975. The Official History of Australia's Involvement in Southeast Asian Conflicts 1948–1975. Volume Nine. St Leonards, New South Wales: Allen and Unwin. ISBN 1-86508-824-2.
- Fairhead, Fred (2014). A Duty Done: A History of The Royal Australian Regiment in the Vietnam War (PDF). Linden Park, South Australia: The Royal Australian Regiment Association SA Inc. ISBN 978-0-992470-0-1.
- Ferguson, Gregor (25 November 2006). "$10b Expansion Will Bring Strength". The Australian (Canberra, Australian Capital Territory: News Limited). ISSN 1038-8761.
- Festberg, Alfred (1972). The Lineage of the Australian Army. Melbourne, Victoria: Allara Publishing. ISBN 978-0-85887-024-6.
- Grey, Jeffrey (1988). The Commonwealth Armies and the Korean War. Manchester, United Kingdom: Manchester University Press. ISBN 0-7190-2770-5.
- Griffiths, Emma (17 December 2013). "Australian Soldiers Complete Withdrawal from Afghanistan's Uruzgan Province". ABC News. Retrieved 11 March 2014.
- Horner, David, ed. (1990). Duty First: The Royal Australian Regiment in War and Peace (First ed.). North Sydney, New South Wales: Allen and Unwin. ISBN 978-0-04-442227-3.
- Horner, David (2002). SAS: Phantoms of War. A History of the Australian Special Air Service (Second ed.). Sydney, New South Wales: Allen & Unwin. ISBN 1-86508-647-9.
- Horner, David; Bou, Jean, eds. (2008). Duty First: A History of the Royal Australian Regiment (2nd ed.). Crows Nest, New South Wales: Allen & Unwin. ISBN 978-1-74175-374-5.
- Horner, David; Connor, John (2014). The Good International Citizen: Australian Peacekeeping in Asia, Africa and Europe, 1991–1993. The Official History of Australian Peacekeeping, Humanitarian and Post-Cold War Operations. Port Melbourne, Victoria: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-1-107-02162-4.
- Jobson, Christopher (2009). Looking Forward, Looking Back: Customs and Traditions of the Australian Army. Wavell Heights, Queensland: Big Sky Publishing. ISBN 978-0-9803251-6-4.
- Humbler, Ben; Daniels, Aurora (24 October 2013). "Honouring Maryang San" (PDF). Army: The Soldiers' Newspaper (1316 ed.) (Canberra: Department of Defence). p. 9. ISSN 0729-5685.
- Kuring, Ian (2004). Redcoats to Cams: A History of Australian Infantry 1788–2001. Loftus, New South Wales: Australian Military Historical Publications. ISBN 1-876439-99-8.
- McNeill, Ian (1993). To Long Tan: The Australian Army and the Vietnam War 1950–1966. The Official History of Australia's Involvement in Southeast Asian Conflicts 1948–1975. Volume 2. Sydney, New South Wales: Allen & Unwin. ISBN 1-86373-282-9.
- McNeill, Ian; Ekins, Ashley (2003). On the Offensive: The Australian Army and the Vietnam War 1967–1968. The Official History of Australia's Involvement in Southeast Asian Conflicts 1948–1975. Volume 8. St Leonards, New South Wales: Allen and Unwin. ISBN 1-86373-304-3.
- Odgers, George (2000). Remember Korea: Australians in the War of 1950–53. Sydney, New South Wales: Lansdowne. ISBN 1-86302-679-7.
- O'Neill, Robert (1985). Australia in the Korean War 1950–53: Combat Operations. Volume II. Canberra, Australian Capital Territory: Australian War Memorial. ISBN 0-642-04330-2.
- Rodger, Alexander (2003). Battle Honours of the British Empire and Commonwealth Land Forces 1662–1991. Ramsbury, Wiltshire: The Crowood Press. ISBN 1-86126-637-5.
- Talbot, Steven (2013). "Learning to Add Value: Fostering Cultures of Effective Learning in the Australian Army" (PDF). Australian Army Journal (Duntroon, Australian Capital Territory: Land Warfare Studies Centre) X (3): 158–171. ISSN 1448-2843.
- Welch, Alisha (2012). "Proven and Capable". Defence Magazine (Canberra: Department of Defence) (3). OCLC 662564784. Archived from the original on 11 March 2014. Retrieved 31 May 2014.