Royal Canadian Mint numismatic coins (20th century)

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One of the most profitable aspects of the Royal Canadian Mint (RCM) is its numismatic product line.[1] The first numismatic coin from the RCM was arguably the 1935 dollar commemorating the Silver Jubilee of His Majesty King George V. Though intended for circulation, it was the first Canadian coin commemorating an event. The decision to issue this coin was made in October 1934 by then-Prime Minister R.B. Bennett.[2] There were economic and patriotic motivations for the release of a silver dollar, including a hope to boost the silver mining industry. In future years, the silver dollar would have a more emotional meaning for many Canadians because it was also the first coin to have the Voyageur motif on its reverse.

Olympic coins[edit]

Most numismatists[who?] agree that the first true numismatic collection was the Olympic Five and Ten Dollar coins for the 1976 Montreal Olympics. Starting in 1973, the RCM issued four coin sets (two five dollar coins and two ten dollar coins). At the behest of the Federal Government, led by then-Prime Minister Pierre Elliott Trudeau, it was agreed that these coins would help finance while commemorate the 1976 Summer Olympics. The plan was to have thirty coins, twenty-eight silver coins with face values of $5 and $10, and two gold coins. Due to the incredibly high mintage (over 20 million coins were produced), these coins have no investment value whatsoever. Most of these coins today are usually sold for their silver content.

After the Olympic coin venture, the numismatic line expanded to include $100 Gold coins. These were premium coins that sold for higher than face value. The common issue price from 1977 to 1979 ranged from $140 to $180. The cases for these coins tended to be brown or black leatherette cases with maroon or blue inserts, and a Certificate of Authenticity. Of all these coins, the only one that had any significant increase in value on the secondary market was the 2002 Alberta Strikes Oil coin.

Heading into the 1980s, the Olympics would return to Canada. The city of Calgary would host the 1988 Winter Olympics. Starting in 1985, the Federal Government, under the leadership of then-Prime Minister Brian Mulroney, issued a ten coin set to help finance and commemorate the Olympic games. These coins were issued in Proof quality only, and were sold with the partnership of the Royal Bank of Canada. Part of the agreement with Royal Bank was that these coins could be redeemed for their face value. Unlike the Montreal coins, mintage was limited to 5,000,000 coins and this would mark the first time that any silver coin had edge lettering on it. Said lettering was 'XV OLYMPIC WINTER GAMES - JEUX D'OLYMPIQUES D'HIVER.'

On February 23, 2007, the Royal Canadian Mint held a press conference in Calgary, Alberta to announce the release of the Vancouver Olympic commemorative coins. The newest denomination for the Vancouver Olympic coins is twenty-five dollars.[3] The twenty-five dollar coins are the first Modern Olympic coins ever to have a hologram on the reverse.

Birth of luxury coins[edit]

Expansion in the numismatic line was a key element of the 1990s. The first significant sign was the birth of the Two Hundred Dollar Gold coins. Starting in 1990, this coin was sold for a higher price than its face value. The first coin commemorated the Silver Jubilee of Canada's flag and sold for $395.00. The superstar of this collection would be the Canadian Native Cultures and Traditions coins. These coins were minted from 1997 to 2000. The Haida coin has been an award winning coin for the RCM taking the Best Coin Award at the 1997 Singapore International Coin Show.[4]

This was only the beginning for the RCM. The advent of the Two Hundred Dollar Gold series was quickly joined by a Platinum series. These high quality collector coins solidified the RCM's entry into the luxury coin market. A four coin set with face values of $30, $75, $150, and $300 respectively were complemented by the high quality artwork that adorned these luxury items. Famed artists such as Robert Bateman and Glen Loates contributed to these collections with polar bear and bird designs. The issue price for these collections was around $1,990 and the casing was a walnut or burgundy (for 1994) case with a black suede four hole insert and a Certificate of Authenticity.

Expansion and innovation[edit]

A long overdue project was launched in 1995 when fifty cent coins became part of the numismatic line. For decades, fifty cent coins were part of the standard sets but were never really marketed as their own numismatic product. Truly a favourite among collectors, the Discovering Nature Series marked the first numismatic coins with a face value of fifty cents. Marketed as a 32 coin set with one set released on an annual basis, the decade would close with another fifty cent series. A coin set to honour Canadian sports first was released.

The decade also saw the birth of several new coin series which used innovative techniques that had never been before. These techniques were the use of a gold cameo in the coin. The first set that was part of this great innovation was the Aviation Collection, which debuted in 1990. The Canadian aviation heroes were commemorated on a twenty coin set. A RCM first was the fact that every coin in the collection consisted of a 24 karat gold covered oval cameo portrait of the aviation hero. The coin itself featured a different plane ranging from the Gypsy Moth to the legendary Avro Arrow. These were proof coins while the case of issue was an aluminum case in the shape of a wing.

A new coin series which not only increased awareness in the RCM but acknowledged Canada's cultural differences was launched near the end of the decade. The Chinese Lunar New Year Collection debuted in 1998 with the Year of the Tiger coin. The centre featured the fierce Tiger in a gold plated cameo while the rim found the Tiger surrounded by all twelve animal zodiacs. All the images from this collection are courtesy of artist Harvey Chan. With a face value of $15, this set will see its end in 2009 with the Year of the Ox.

Chinese Lunar New Year Coin Series[edit]

Year Theme Artist Mintage Issue Price
1998 Year of the Tiger Harvey Chan 68,888 $68.88
1999 Year of the Rabbit Harvey Chan 77,791 $72.88

Commemorative Silver Dollar Series[edit]

1935-1980[edit]

Year Theme Artist Mintage Issue Price
1935 Voyageur Dollar Emanuel Hahn 428,707 $1.00
1939 Royal Visit Emanuel Hahn 1,363,816 $1.00
1949 Newfoundland Entry Into Confederation Thomas Shingles 672,218 $1.00
1958 Totem Pole Stephen Trenka 3,039,630 $1.00
1964 Confederation Meetings Commemorative Dinko Vodanovic 7,296,832 $1.00
1967 Canadian Centennial Alex Colville and Myron Cook 6,767,496 $1.00
1971 B.C. Centennial Patrick Brindley 585,217 $3.00
1973 RCMP Centennial Paul Cedarberg 904,723 $3.00
1974 Winnipeg Centennial Paul Pederson 628,183 $3.50
1975 Calgary Centennial D.D. Paterson 833,095 $3.50
1976 Library of Parliament Centennial Patrick Brindley and Walter Ott 483,722 $4.00
1977 Silver Jubilee of Elizabeth II Raymond Lee 744,848 $4.25
1978 Commonwealth Games Raymond Taylor 640,000 $4.50
1979 Griffon Tricentennial Walter Schluep 688,671 $5.50
1980 Arctic Territories Centennial D.D. Paterson 389,564 $22.00

1981-1999[edit]

1981 was the first year that the RCM issued two different qualities of silver dollars. One version was the Proof, which composed of a frosted relief against a parallel lined background. The second version was the Brilliant Uncirculated. The finish is classified as a brilliant relief on a brilliant background.

Year Theme Artist Mintage (Proof) Issue Price (Proof) Mintage (BU) Issue Price (BU)
1981 Canadian Pacific Railway Centennial Christopher Gorey 353,742 $18.00 148,647 $14.00
1982 Regina Centennial Huntley Brown 577,959 $15.25 144,989 $10.95
1983 World University Games Carola Tietz 340,068 $16.15 159,450 $10.95
1984 Toronto Sesquicentennial D.J. Craig 571,079 $17.50 133,563 $11.40
1985 National Parks Centennial Karel Rohlicek 537,297 $17.50 162,873 $12.00
1986 Vancouver Centennial Elliott John Morrison 496,418 $18.00 124,574 $12.25
1987 John Davis 400th Anniversary Christopher Gorey 405,688 $19.00 118,722 $14.00
1988 Saint-Maurice Ironworks R.R. Carmichael 259,230 $20.00 106,702 $15.00
1989 Mackenzie River Bicentennial John Mardon 272,319 $21.75 110,650 $16.25
1990 Henry Kelsey Tricentennial D.J. Craig 222,983 $22.95 85,763 $16.75
1991 Frontenac D.J. Craig 222,892 $22.95 82,642 $16.75
1992 Kingston to York Stagecoach Karsten Smith 187,612 $23.95 78,160 17.50
1993 Stanley Cup Centennial Stewart Sherwood 294,214 $23.95 88,150 $17.50
1994 RCMP Northern Dog Team Ian D. Sparkes 178,485 $24.50 65,295 $17.95
1995 325th Anniv. Hudson's Bay Company Vincent McIndoe 166,259 $24.50 61,819 $17.95
1996 John McIntosh, McIntosh Apple Roger Hill 133,779 $29.95 58,834 $19.95
1997 25th Anniversary of Canada/Russia Summit Series Walter Burden 184,965 $29.95 155,252 $19.95
1997 10th Anniversary of Loon Dollar Jean-Luc Grondin 24,995 $49.95 No BU Exists N/A
1998 125th Anniversary of RCMP Adeline Halvorson 130,795 $29.95 81,376 $19.95
1999 225th Anniversary of the Voyage of Juan Perez D.J. Craig 126,435 $29.95 67,655 $19.95
1999 International Year of Older Persons S. Armstrong-Hodgins 24,976 $49.95 No BU Exists N/A

Numismatic One and Five Cents[edit]

One Cent
Year Theme Artist Mintage Issue Price
1998 Part of 90th Anniversary of Royal Canadian Mint set. Coins were Matte Finish. Ago Aarand 24,893 $99.00
1998 Part of 90th Anniversary of Royal Canadian Mint set. Coins were Mirror Finish. Ago Aarand 18,376 $99.00
Five Cents
Year Theme Artist Mintage Issue Price
1998 Part of 90th Anniversary of Royal Canadian Mint set. Coins were Matte Finish. Ago Aarand 24,893 $99.00
1998 Part of 90th Anniversary of Royal Canadian Mint set. Coins were Mirror Finish. Ago Aarand 18,376 $99.00

Numismatic Ten Cents[edit]

Year Theme Artist Mintage Issue Price
1997 500th Anniversary, John Cabot Donald H. Curley 49,848 $10.95
1998 Part of 90th Anniversary of Royal Canadian Mint set. Coins were Matte Finish. Ago Aarand 24,893 $99.00
1998 Part of 90th Anniversary of Royal Canadian Mint set. Coins were Mirror Finish. Ago Aarand 18,376 $99.00

Numismatic 25-cent Pieces[edit]

Year Theme Artist Mintage Issue Price Special Notes
1998 Part of 90th Anniversary of Royal Canadian Mint set. Ago Aarand 24,893 $99.00 Coins were Matte Finish.
1998 Part of 90th Anniversary of Royal Canadian Mint set. Ago Aarand 18,376 $99.00 Coins were Mirror Finish.
1999 Millennium Proof Coins Various 171,659 $14.95 each, $149.95 for 12 coin set Also sold as a twelve coin set

Numismatic Fifty-Cent Collections[edit]

Discovering Nature Series[edit]

Year Theme Artist Finish Issue Price (For Two Coin Set) Total Mintage Designs
1995 Birds of Canada Jean-Luc Grondin Proof $56.95 172,377 Atlantic Puffins, Whooping Crane, Gray Jays, and White Tailed Ptarmigans
1996 Little Wild Ones Dwayne Harty Proof $59.95 206,552 Moose Calf, Wood Ducklings, Cougar Kittens, and Black Bear Cubs
1997 Canada’s Best Friends Arnold Nogy Proof $59.95 184,536 Newfoundland, Nova Scotia Duck Toting Retriever, Labrador Retriever, Canadian Eskimo Dog
1998 Canada’s Ocean Giants Pierre Leduc Proof $59.95 133,310 Killer Whale, Humpback Whale, Beluga Whale, Blue Whale
1999 Cats of Canada John Crosby Proof $59.95 83,423 Tonkinese, Lynx, Cymric, Cougar

90th Anniversary of Royal Canadian Mint[edit]

Year Theme Artist Issue Price Mintage
1998 Part of 90th Anniversary of Royal Canadian Mint set. Coins were Matte Finish. Ago Aarand $99.00 24,893
1998 Part of 90th Anniversary of Royal Canadian Mint set. Coins were Mirror Finish. Ago Aarand $99.00 18,376

Canadian Sports Series[edit]

Year Coin No 1 Coin No 2 Coin No 3 Coin No 4 Artist Finish Issue Price (For Four Coin Set) Total Mintage
1998 First Amateur Figure Skating Championships 1888 First Cdn Ski Running and Jump Championships 1898 First Overseas Cdn Soccer Tour of 1888 Gilles Villeneuve, Grand Prix of Canada Victory, 1978 Friedrich G. Peter Proof $59.95 56,428
1999 First Cdn Open Golf Championship, 1904 First International Yacht Race, US vs. Canada, 1874 First Grey Cup, 1904 Invention of Basketball by James A. Naismith, 1891 Donald H. Curley Proof $59.95 52,115

Source:[5]

Numismatic Five Dollars[edit]

Five Dollars

Year Theme Artist Mintage Issue Price
1998 Norman Bethune (part of joint coin set with China) Harry Chan 65,831 $98.00
1999 Viking Settlement (part of joint coin set with Norway) Donald Curley 28,450 N/A

Twenty Dollars[edit]

Year Theme Artist Mintage Issue Price Composition
1967 Gold Confederation Coin (part of $40 Specimen Set) Myron Cook 337,687 $40.00 (for Specimen set) 90% gold, 10% copper

Aviation Collection[edit]

The collection consists of twenty coins in all, with two coins being released annually over a period of ten years, starting in 1990 and concluding in 1999, the 90th anniversary of powered flight in Canada. They were also offered in two presentation sets of 10 coins each—Series 1: 1990-94; and Series 2: 1995-99. Each coin has a face value of $20, is composed of sterling silver (92.5% silver, 7.5% copper); and includes a 24-karat gold-covered cameo depicting a Canadian aviation pioneer. Weight: 31.103 grams; Diameter: 38mm; Edge Type: Interrupted Serration; Finish: Proof. The obverse on all 20 coins features the portrait of Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth II by Dora de Pédery-Hunt.

Series One
Year Aircraft Aviation Pioneer Artist Mintage Issue Price
1990 Avro Anson and the North American Harvard Robert Leckie Geoff Bennett 41,844 $55.50
1990 Avro Lancaster John Emilius Fauquier R.R. Carmichael 43,596 $55.50
1991 AEA Silver Dart F.W. Baldwin and John A.D. McCurdy George Velinger 35,202 $55.50
1991 de Havilland Beaver Phillip C. Garratt Peter Mossman 36,197 $55.50
1992 Curtiss JN-4 (Canuck) Sir Frank Wilton Baillie George Velinger 33,105 $55.50
1992 de Havilland Gypsy Moth Murton A. Seymour John Mardon 32,537 $55.50
1993 Fairchild 71c James A. Richardson R.R. Carmichael 32,199 $55.50
1993 Lockheed 14 Super Electra Zebulon Lewis Leigh R.R. Carmichael 32,550 $55.50
1994 Curtiss HS-2L Stuart Graham John Mardon 31,242 $55.50
1994 Canadian Vickers Vedette Wilfrid T. Reid R.R. Carmichael 30,880 $55.50

The 1998 coins were offered in a special gift box with two cardboard models of the Argus and the Waterbomber.

Series Two
Year Aircraft Aviation Pioneer Artist Mintage Issue Price
1995 Fleet 80 Canuck J. Omer (Bob) Noury Robert W.Bradford 17,438 $57.95
1995 DHC-1 Chipmunk Russell Bannock Robert W.Bradford 17,722 $57.95
1996 Avro Canada CF-100 Canuck Janusz Żurakowski Jim Bruce 18,508 $57.95
1996 Avro Canada CF-105 Arrow Jim Chamberlin Jim Bruce 27,163 $57.95
1997 Canadair F-86 Sabre Fern Villeneuve Ross Buckland 16,440 $57.95
1997 Canadair CT-114 Tutor Edward Higgins Ross Buckland 18,414 $57.95
1998 Canadair CP-107 Argus William S. Longhurst Peter Mossman 14,711 $57.95
1998 Canadair CL-215 Waterbomber Paul Gagnon Peter Mossman 15,237 $57.95
1999 de Havilland DHC-6 Twin Otter George A. Neal Neil Aird 14,173 $57.95
1999 de Havilland DHC-8 Dash 8 Robert H. (Bob) Fowler Neil Aird 14,138 $57.95

100 Dollar Gold[edit]

The text "CANADA" appears on the edge for the first time in Canadian coinage.

Year Theme Artist Mintage Issue Price
1976 Olympic Commemorative (14k) Dora de Pédery-Hunt 650,000 $105.00
1976 Olympic Commemorative (22k) Dora de Pédery-Hunt 350,000 $150.00
1977 Silver Jubilee, Queen Elizabeth II Raymond Lee 180,396 $140.00
1978 Canadian Unity Coin Roger Savage 200,000 $150.00
1979 International Year of Child Carola Tietz 250,000 $185.00
1980 Arctic Territories Arnaldo Marchetti 130,000 $430.00
1981 O Canada Commemorative Roger Savage 100,950 $300.00
1982 Patriation of Constitution Friedrich Peter 121,706 $290.00
1983 Sir Humphrey Gilbert’s Landing (See Note 1) John Jaciw 83,128 $310.00
1984 Jacques Cartier Voyage of Discovery Carola Tietz 67,662 $325.00
1985 National Parks Centenary Hector Greville 58,520 $325.00
1986 International Year of Peace Dora de Pédery-Hunt 76,255 $325.00
1987 XV Olympic Winter Games Friedrich Peter 145,175 $255.00
1988 The Bowhead Whale Robert R. Carmichael 52,239 $255.00
1989 Sainte-Marie David J. Craig 63,881 $245.00
1990 International Literacy Year John Mardon 49,940 $245.00
1991 Empress of India Karsten Smith 33,966 $245.00
1992 City of Montreal, 350th Anniversary Stewart Sherwood 28,190 $239.85
1993 Era of the Horseless Carriage John Mardon 25,971 $239.85
1994 The Home Front Paraskeva Clark 17,603 $249.95
1995 Founding of Louisbourg Lewis Parker 16,916 $249.95
1996 First Major Gold Discovery in the Klondike John Mantha 650,000 $259.95
1997 150th Anniversary, Alexander Graham Bell Donald H. Curley 14,030 $259.95
1998 75th Anniv., Nobel Prize for Discovery of Insulin Robert R. Carmichael 11,220 $259.95
1999 50th Anniv, Newfoundland’s Confederation with Canada J. Gale-Vaillancourt 10,242 $259.95

200 Dollar Gold[edit]

Year Theme Artist Mintage Issue Price
1990 Canada Flag Silver Jubilee Stewart Sherwood 20,980 $395.00
1991 A National Passion (Hockey) Stewart Sherwood 10,215 $425.00
1992 Niagara Falls John Mardon 9,465 $389.65
1993 Royal Canadian Mounted Police Stewart Sherwood 10,807 $389.65
1994 Anne of Green Gables Pheobe Gilman 10,655 $399.95
1995 The Sugar Bush J.D. Mantha 9,579 $399.95
1996 Transcontinental Landscape Suzanne Duranceau 8,047 $414.95

Celebrating Canadian Native Cultures and Traditions[edit]

Year Theme Artist Mintage Issue Price
1997 Haida “Raven Bringing Light to the World” Robert Davidson 11,610 $414.95
1998 The Legend of the White Buffalo Alex Janvier 7,149 $414.95
1999 Mikmaq Butterfly Alan Syliboy 6,510 $414.95
2000 Mother and Child Germaine Arnaktauyok 10,000 $409.95

350 Dollar Gold[edit]

Year Theme Artist Mintage Issue Price
1998 90th Anniversary of the Royal Canadian Mint Pierre Leduc 1,999 $999.99

Provincial Flowers[edit]

Year Theme Artist Mintage Issue Price
1999 The Golden Slipper (Flower of Prince Edward Island) Henry Purdy 1,990 $999.99

Platinum coins[edit]

Canadian Wildlife Series
Year Theme Face Values Artist Issue Price Mintage Finish
1990 Polar Bears $30, $75, $150, $300 Robert Bateman $1,990.00 2,629 Proof
1991 Snowy Owls $30, $75, $150, $300 Glen Loates $1,990.00 1,164 Proof
1992 Cougars $30, $75, $150, $300 George McLean $1,955.00 1,081 Proof
1993 Arctic Foxes $30, $75, $150, $300 Claude D’Angelo $1,955.00 1,033 Proof
1994 Sea Otters $30, $75, $150, $300 Ron S. Parker. $1,995.00 766 Proof
Endangered Wildlife Series
Year Theme Face Values Artist Issue Price Mintage Finish
1995 Canadian Lynx $30, $75, $150, $300 Michael Dumas $1,950.00 682 Proof
1996 Peregrine Falcon $30, $75, $150, $300 Dwayne Harty $2,095.95 675 Proof
1997 Wood Bison $30, $75, $150, $300 Chris Bacon $1,950.00 413 Proof
1998 Grey Wolf $30, $75, $150, $300 Kerr Burnett $2,095.00 661 Proof
1999 Muskox $30, $75, $150, $300 Mark Hobson $2,095.95 495 Proof

Definition of finishes[edit]

  • Bullion
Brilliant relief against a parallel lined background.
  • Proof
Frosted relief against a mirror background
  • Specimen
Brilliant relief on a satin background.

Mint marks[edit]

  • A
Used on 2005 Palladium Test Coin to signify the coins were struck from Lot A.
  • B
Used on 2005 Palladium Test Coin to signify the coins were struck from Lot B.
  • C
Placed on sovereigns produced at the Ottawa branch of the Royal Mint, between 1908 and 1919.
  • Dot
In December 1936, King Edward VIII abdicated the throne in favour of his brother, who would become King George VI. The problem was that the Royal Mint was designing the effigy of King Edward VIII and now a new effigy would need to be created. The 1, 10 and 25 cent pieces in 1937 would be struck from dies with a 1936 date on the reverse. To distinguish that these coins were issued in 1937, a Dot Mint Mark was placed on the 1936 dies, and could be found beneath the year. These coins fulfilled demand for coins until new coinage tools with the effigy of King George VI were ready. While the 10 and 25 cent coins are more common, the 1 cent coins are rare, with about a half-dozen known to exist.
  • H
Used to identify coins that were struck for Canada by the Birmingham Mint, also known as the Heaton Mint, until 1907.
  • Innukshuk
All circulation coins for the 2010 Vancouver Olympics have the Innukshuk Mint Mark on the Obverse of the coin.
  • International Polar Year
The obverse of the 2007 International Polar Year $20 Numismatic Coin has the logo for the International Polar Year on the obverse of the coin.
  • Maple Leaf
All coins with a Maple Leaf Mint Mark were struck in 1948 due to an emergency with coin toolage. The granting of India’s independence resulted in the removal of IND:IMP (meaning Emperor of India) from King George VI’s effigy. Due to the demand for circulation coins in 1948, coins for 1948 could not be struck until the new tools were received. The new tools would have the IND:IMP removed from them. In the meanwhile, coins were produced in 1948 with a year of 1947 on them. A small Maple Leaf Mint Mark was struck beside 1947 on the reverse of all coins to signify the year of production.
  • P
From 2001-2006, most one cent, five cents, ten cents, twenty-five cents, and fifty cents issued for circulation were struck with a P Mint Mark to represent the Royal Canadian Mint’s plating process.
  • Paralympic Logo
All circulation coins for the 2010 Vancouver Paralympic Games have the Paralympic Games logo on the Obverse of the coin.
  • RCM Logo
At the CNA Convention in July 2006, the RCM unveiled its new Mint Mark to be used on all circulation and numismatic coinage. The agenda behind the implementation of this new Mint Mark was to help increase the RCM’s image as a brand. The aim of the logo is to educate coin users and coin collectors, respectively, that the RCM is minting Canada’s coins. The first Circulation Coin to have this new Mint Mark is the 10th Anniversary Two-Dollar coin. The first Numismatic Coin to have this new Mint Mark is the Snowbirds Coin and Stamp Set.[6]
  • T/É
In an effort to push the standard of quality higher, the RCM started to experiment with a gold bullion coin that would have a purity of 99.999%. The result was a Gold Maple Leaf Test Bullion coin with the Mint Mark of T/É (to signify Test/Épreuve). The date on the obverse of the coin was 2007 and it had a mintage of 500.
  • Teddy Bear
When the RCM released its Baby Lullabies and CD Set, a sterling silver one dollar coin was included in the set. The one dollar coin included a mint mark of a teddy bear.
  • W
Used occasionally on specimen sets produced in Winnipeg, starting in 1998.
  • W/P
Used on the Special Edition Uncirculated Set of 2003. The W mint mark stated that the coin was produced in Winnipeg and the P states that the coins are plated.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Royal Canadian Mint 2006 Annual Report, page 4
  2. ^ Striking Impressions, James A. Haxby, 1983, p.139, ISBN 0-660-91234-1
  3. ^ "Olympic commems to sport $25 face, Bret Evans, Canadian Coin News, January 9 to 22, 2007
  4. ^ http://www.mint.ca, Path on site: The Passion, The Museum, Award Winning Coins
  5. ^ Charlton Standard Catalogue of Canadian Coins, 60th Edition
  6. ^ Coin World, Vol. 47, Issue 2417, Page 74, August 7, 2006
  • Charlton Standard Catalogue of Canadian Coins, 60th Edition, 2006, W.K. Cross

External links[edit]