Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons of Canada

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons of Canada
Logo for Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons of Canada.jpg
Abbreviation Royal College (Previously RCPSC)
Motto Mente Perspicua, Manuque Apta (With a keen mind and skillful hand)
Formation 1929
Type nonprofit organization
Legal status
active
Purpose oversee medical education and professional development, advocate and public voice, network
Headquarters Ottawa, Ontario Canada
Region served
Canada
Membership medical specialists
Official language
English, French
Website http://www.royalcollege.ca

The Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons of Canada (Royal College), French: Collège royal des médecins et chirurgiens du Canada, is a national, nonprofit organization organization established in 1929 by a special Act of Parliament to oversee the medical education of specialists in Canada.

The Royal College is an association of physicians concerned with setting national standards for medical education and continuing professional development in Canada for 80 medical specialties.[1][2][3][4] As such, the Royal College is neither a licensing nor a disciplinary body.[5] Instead, it is a regulatory authority that helps ensure that the training and evaluation of medical and surgical specialists and three special programs maintain certain standards of quality.[6]

All specialists in Canada except family physicians must be certified by the Royal College before they obtain a provincial or territorial licence to practice.[7][8][9][10][11][12][13][14][15][16] The only exception is in the Province of Quebec, where the Royal College shares the responsibility for certifying physicians with the Collège des médecins du Québec.[17]

To become certified, a physician must pass Royal College examinations. Access to these examinations is usually gained by completing a Royal College-accredited residency program at a Canadian university. Access is also available for medical residents who complete a Royal College-recognized residency program in the United States.[18] Certain international training programs approved by the Royal College provide limited access to Royal College examinations.[19]

Since its founding, the Royal College has been granted the patronage of the Canadian monarch, currently Elizabeth II.

History[edit]

The Royal College headquarters at 774 Echo Drive in Ottawa, Canada
Coat of Arms

In June 1929, a special Act of Parliament established the Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons of Canada to oversee postgraduate medical education in Canada.[20][21] At first, the Royal College offered just two specialty qualifications: Fellowship in general medicine and Fellowship in general surgery. By 2014, the Royal College had expanded its activities to recognize 80 disciplines, granting Fellowships in 30 specialties, 35 subspecialties, three special programs and 13 Areas of Focused Competence (AFC-diplomas).

From the 1940s to the 1970s, the Royal College conducted examinations at two levels in most specialties: Fellowship, the higher qualification, or Certification, a lesser designation. In 1972, the Royal College abolished this dual standard and began to offer a single certification that continues today: Fellowship.[22]

In 1968, the Royal College established the McLaughlin Examination and Research Centre at the University of Alberta and Laval University to research and develop modern techniques for evaluating specialist physicians.[23] In 1987, the Royal College merged the centre into a bilingual McLaughlin Centre based in Ottawa, Ontario.[24]

Since the mid-1980s, the Royal College has broadened its activities to study areas of special interest in Canadian healthcare, including injury prevention[25][26][27] and patient safety.[28] In 2005, the Royal College set a specific goal to improve the health of Indigenous Peoples in Canada.[29][30][31]

Today, the headquarters for the Royal College is located at 774 Echo Drive in Ottawa, Ontario.[32] The building, constructed in 1921, was formerly the monastery of the Sisters Adorers of the Precious Blood.[33]

Objectives[edit]

The work of the Royal College centres around its prime objective — to ensure the highest possible standards of specialist training and specialist care. The Royal College undertakes work under the following six areas:

  • Prescribes the requirements for specialty education in 80 areas of medical, surgical and laboratory medicine plus three special programs,
  • Accredits specialty residency programs,
  • Assesses the acceptability of residents' education,
  • Conducts certifying examinations,
  • Administers the Maintenance of Certification Program, a mandatory continuing professional development program for all members,[34][35] and
  • Sets standards for professional and ethical conduct among its members.[36][37][38]

Membership[edit]

In 2014 the Royal College had more than 44,000 members worldwide, including Fellows, residents, and honorary, retired, and emeritus members.[39] However, about 90% of certified physicians decide to become Fellows within two years of their certification.

Fellows of the Royal College use the designation FRCPC (Fellow of The Royal College of Physicians of Canada) or FRCSC (Fellow of The Royal College of Surgeons of Canada) depending on their qualifications.[40][41] Since 1997, the Royal College has also offered category of resident membership called “resident affiliate” in an attempt to engage residents at an early stage of their careers. Those who choose to join the Royal College receive complimentary membership during the time they are registered in a Royal College-accredited residency program. Approximately 2,000 members are designated as resident members.

The Royal College website includes a directory of all current and retired Fellows.[42]

International Medical Graduates[edit]

An international medical graduate is someone who has completed his or her medical training outside of Canada or the United States and whose medical training is recognized by the World Health Organization. There are 29 international jurisdictions that the Royal College has assessed and deemed as having met Royal College criteria.[43] For the graduates of these particular jurisdictions, the College assesses their training to determine the extent to which they have successfully met and completed the Royal College training requirements. When the training is deemed comparable and acceptable, the IMGs are ruled eligible to take the Royal College certification examination. Success at the certification examination will lead to Royal College certification. The Royal College accepts training from some international jurisdictions that have similar residency training accreditation systems to Canada.[44]

Work with other medical organizations[edit]

The Royal College maintains close working relations with the 17 Canadian university medical schools, numerous national professional associations, voluntary health organizations and governmental agencies where it has a respected and influential voice in discussions affecting medical education, medical research and the delivery of high-quality health care to Canadians.[45][46][47] In some cases, the Royal College accredits training programs conjointly with other professional organizations.[48] In addition, Royal College training programs are sometimes cited as requirements for specific levels of remuneration for resident physicians.[49]

Continuing Profesional Development[edit]

The Royal College develops and administers a continuing professional development program called Maintenance of Certification (MOC) that requires Fellows to engage in certain activities to maintain their competence throughout their careers.[50][51][52][53] First introduced in 2000, MOC is a core service delivered by the Royal College and is also open to health care professionals who are not Fellows and not physicians. The program awards credits to participants who engage in learning activities that enhance their practice.[54][55][56] Elements of the MOC Program are recognized by medical associations in other countries, including the American Medical Association (which allows its members to convert certain MOC credits to AMA PRA Category 1 Credits™)[57] and the American College of Physicians.[58]

CanMEDS[edit]

In 1996, the Royal College adopted CanMEDS, a medical education framework it developed that emphasizes the essential competencies of a physician.[59][60] The CanMEDS competencies have been integrated into the Royal College's accreditation standards, objectives of training, final in-training evaluations, exam blueprints, and the Maintenance of Certification program. All 17 medical schools in Canada also use the framework to assess the abilities of their residents.[61][62][63]

Since its creation, CanMEDS has been adopted and adapted around the world. CanMEDS is an educational framework identifying and describing seven roles that lead to optimal health and health care outcomes: medical expert (central role), communicator, collaborator, manager, health advocate, scholar and professional.[64][65] The overarching goal of CanMEDS is to improve patient care.[66]

Competency-Based Medical Education[edit]

Competency-based medical education, or CBME, is an outcomes-based approach to the design, implementation, assessment and evaluation of a medical education program using an organizing framework of competencies.[67][68] In 2012, the Royal College began a multi-year plan to design, develop, implement and sustain a program of CBME.[69] Under CBME, medical education (for residents in training and specialist physicians who pursue lifelong learning) progresses not according to how much time a resident or certified physician has practiced certain skills, as has been the case in the past in Canada. Instead, it progresses under a system in which residents and certified physicians must achieve and demonstrate core competency levels called “milestones” before they move on, receive credit or are otherwise recognized by the system.[70][71][72]

In 2013, the Royal College announced Competence by Design, the name that the organization has given to its reorientation toward a CBME model of learning and assessment. In 2013, the Royal College announced Competence by Design, the name that the organization has given to its reorientation toward a CBME model of learning and assessment[73] (The CanMEDS Framework, first introduced in 1997, sets out the competencies and principles considered essential for Canadian physicians[74]). As of 2014, the Royal College’s move toward CBME and Competence by Design was received with mixed reactions from Royal College Fellows.[75]

Health and Educational Policy Work[edit]

The Royal College engages regularly in work to affect health policy, especially in the areas of and physician employment and resident duty hours.

Physician employment: In 2013, the Royal College released the results of a Canada-wide study that showed an increasing number of specialists cannot find jobs relevant to their skills and training.[76][77][78][79]

Resident Duty Hours: In 2013 the National Steering Committee on Resident Duty Hours, hosted by the Royal College with funding from Health Canada, released a report called Fatigue, Risk and Excellence: Toward a Pan-Canadian consensus on resident duty hours.[80][81][82] The steering committee’s research process and subsequent report were widely received as robust and a major step forward in the controversial debate about duty hours.[83][84][85]

Awards and Grants[edit]

The Royal College’s awards and grants program distributes $1 million a year in awards, grants, fellowships and visiting professorships. Awards recognize the importance and potential impact of specialist physicians’ work and categories include original research, personal achievements and visiting professorships. Grants support professional development and research, with categories covering continuing professional development grants, travelling fellowships and medical education grants.

Among the more notable Royal College awards is the Teasdale-Corti Humanitarian Award which recognizes physicians and surgeons who, while providing health care or emergency medical services, go beyond the accepted norms of routine practice, which may include exposure to personal risk.[86] The award is named in honour of Dr. Lucille Teasdale and Dr. Piero Corti, a physician couple who devoted their professional careers to healing, teaching, and improving the condition of the population residing in the poverty stricken Gulu region of Uganda.[87] Past recipients have worked throughout the world, including in Africa, Europe and South America.[88][89][90]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ http://www.ipolitics.ca/2014/02/07/health-week-status-quo-budgets-living-wills-and-outmoded-clinical-practice/
  2. ^ http://www.paediatricchairs.ca/partner_rcpsc.html
  3. ^ http://www.saskimmigrationcanada.ca/specialist-physicians-eligible-to-apply-process-map
  4. ^ http://www.royalcollege.ca/rc/faces/oracle/webcenter/portalapp/pages/ibd.jspx;jsessionid=rtBBTyFGYd72mwgJvcwZvyS9xl5jTph2xBRhXT27QpqTvGk2Ly7K!1305833773?lang=en&_afrLoop=10762031865888674&_afrWindowMode=0&_afrWindowId=null#%40%3F_afrWindowId%3Dnull%26_afrLoop%3D10762031865888674%26lang%3Den%26_afrWindowMode%3D0%26_adf.ctrl-state%3D17hvk97tbs_4
  5. ^ http://books.google.ca/books?id=WHw_a-5yllYC&pg=PA31&lpg=PA31&dq=royal+college+physicians+surgeons+canada&source=bl&ots=TeeGIsrkZQ&sig=2lA6Ze1e5DLb369c4paPdjR0oK4&hl=en&sa=X&ei=a0P1UtjAIOHu2wXBpoCYDQ&ved=0CDwQ6AEwBThQ#v=onepage&q=royal%20college%20physicians%20surgeons%20canada&f=false
  6. ^ http://www.albertaphysicianlink.ab.ca/orientation_guide/royal-college-of-physicians-and-surgeons-of-canada.html
  7. ^ http://www.cpsnb.org/english/license.html
  8. ^ http://www.yukonmedicalcouncil.ca/physician_licensing.html
  9. ^ http://www.psychiatryinbc.com/files/registration-licensing.php
  10. ^ http://www.plasticsurgery.ca/whatisaplasticsurgeon.php
  11. ^ http://www.healthemployment.ca/pra_lice.html
  12. ^ http://www.healthmatchbc.org/physicians/specialists/licensing-requirements.aspx
  13. ^ http://www.arthritis.ca/document.doc?id=570
  14. ^ http://www.immigratemanitoba.com/working-in-manitoba/profession/physician/
  15. ^ http://www.quadrant.net/cpss/registration/register.html
  16. ^ http://www.uwo.ca/pathol/postgraduate/images/res/Royal%20College%20of%20Physicians%20and%20Surgeons%20of%20Canada.pdf
  17. ^ http://physicians.fraserhealth.ca/cme_and_medical_education/cme_accreditation/
  18. ^ http://www.cpso.on.ca/registering-to-practise-medicine-in-ontario/international-medical-graduates/access-to-canadian-postgraduate-qualifications
  19. ^ http://www.cpso.on.ca/registering-to-practise-medicine-in-ontario/international-medical-graduates/access-to-canadian-postgraduate-qualifications
  20. ^ http://www.cpsnl.ca/default.asp?com=Pages&id=119&m=323
  21. ^ http://www.med.uottawa.ca/students/md/professionalism/eng/national.html
  22. ^ Dinsdale, Henry B. The Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons of Canada: The evolution of Specialty Medicine: 1979-2004. Self published;. p. 2. ISBN 0-9692155-6-8. 
  23. ^ Corbet, Elise A. (1990). Frontiers of Medicine: A History of Medical Education and Research at the University of Alberta. Edmonton, Alberta: University of Alberta Press. 
  24. ^ Shephard, David AE (1985). The Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons of Canada, 1960-1980: the pursuit of unity. The College= Collège royal des médecins et chirurgiens du Canada. 
  25. ^ http://www.cma.ca/multimedia/CMA/Content_Images/Inside_cma/Media_Release/bios/Louis-Francescutti_en.pdf
  26. ^ http://www.parachutecanada.org/networks/topic/C314
  27. ^ http://www.surgicalspotlight.ca/Article.aspx?ver=Fall_2012&f=Awards
  28. ^ http://www.newswire.ca/en/story/1279867/royal-college-supports-new-federal-patient-safety-legislation
  29. ^ http://ipac-amic.org/wp-content/uploads/2011/10/21118_RCPSC_CoreCurriculum_Binder.pdf
  30. ^ http://www.nosm.ca/education/pgme/general.aspx?id=6024
  31. ^ Indigenous Physicians Association of Canada and the Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons of Canada. "First Nations, Inuit and Métis Health Core Competencies for Continuing Medical Education". Retrieved 1 March 2014. 
  32. ^ http://ottawa.cioc.ca/record/OCR2260?UseCICVw=13&
  33. ^ http://www.oldottawasouth.ca/index.php/oshp-heritage-properties/monastery-of-the-precious-blood
  34. ^ http://jama.jamanetwork.com/article.aspx?articleid=408170
  35. ^ http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1117549/
  36. ^ http://www.thecanadianencyclopedia.com/en/article/medical-ethics/
  37. ^ http://www.usask.ca/cme/documents/ProfessionalOrganizations.pdf
  38. ^ http://www.cihr-irsc.gc.ca/e/29371.html
  39. ^ http://canada-arabbusiness.org/wp-content/uploads/2012/07/CABC-July-2012-Newsletter.pdf
  40. ^ Klostranec, Jesse M. Toronto Notes 2012: Comprehensive medical reference and review for MCCQE I and USMLE II. . Toronto Notes for Medical Students Inc. 
  41. ^ Subburaj, V.V.K. http://books.google.ca/books?id=Dho9xGqq-roC&pg=PA47&lpg=PA47&dq=royal+college+physicians+surgeons+canada&source=bl&ots=bpMnSzQ5yD&sig=8zjGb2BZhdPczpElBs3HSZND2e4&hl=en&sa=X&ei=TUf1UtLrKLL02wX504DYBQ&ved=0CDEQ6AEwATha#v=onepage&q=royal%20college%20physicians%20surgeons%20canada&f=false. Retrieved 1 March 2014.  Missing or empty |title= (help)
  42. ^ "Royal College Directory". Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons of Canada. 
  43. ^ Health Force Ontario. "International Medical Graduate Living in Ontario". 
  44. ^ "Multiple routes to certification: Find the route that's right for you". Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons of Canada. 
  45. ^ Canadian Opthomalogical Society. ".) COS Receives High Praise for 2013 RCPSC Accreditation Review". 
  46. ^ https://www.ucalgary.ca/paed/files/paed/Royal%20CollegePSC_Applyforassessment.pdf
  47. ^ Dalhousie University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Emergency Medicine. http://emergency.medicine.dal.ca/Emprogrcps.cfm. Retrieved 12 January 2014.  Missing or empty |title= (help)
  48. ^ The College of Family Physicians of Canada. "Family physicians and other specialists: Working and learning together. Conjoint Discussion Paper". 
  49. ^ http://www.para-ab.ca/agreement/collective-agreement/article23-remuneration
  50. ^ The Governor General of Canada His Excellency the Right Honourable David Johnston. "Convocation of the Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons of Canada". Retrieved 9 October 2012. 
  51. ^ http://physicians.fraserhealth.ca/cme_and_medical_education/cme_accreditation/
  52. ^ Canadian Psychiatric Association. "FAQs for Physicians". 
  53. ^ Klostranec, Jesse M. Toronto Notes 2012: Comprehensive medical reference and review for MCCQE I and USMLE II. Toronto Notes for Medical Students Inc. 
  54. ^ University of Toronto Faculty of Medicine. "Quick Tips for the Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons of Canada (RCPSC) Maintenance of Certification (MOC) Program". 
  55. ^ Canadian Fertility and Andrology Society. "CPD/CME – Calculating House for the RCPSC". 
  56. ^ College of Physicians of Nova Scotia. "Welcome to the Nova Scotia College of Family Physicians". Retrieved 5 February 2014. 
  57. ^ American Medical Association. "Agreement with the Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons of Canada". 
  58. ^ "MKSAP 16—your go-to source for RCPSC MOC credit". American College of Physicians. 
  59. ^ Sophia Chou, Gary Cole, Kevin McLaughlin and Jocelyn Lockye (12 August 2008). "CanMEDS evaluation in Canadian postgraduate training programmes: tools used and programme director satisfaction". Medical Education 42 (9). 
  60. ^ Frank, Jason R. (2004). "The CanMEDS project: the Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons of Canada moves medical education into the 21st century". The evolution of specialty medicine: 109–24. 
  61. ^ Queens University School of Medicine. "The CanMEDS Roles". Queens University School of Medicine. 
  62. ^ Fred Trompa, Myrra Vernooij-Dassena, b, Richard Grola, Anneke Kramera, Ben Bottemaa (October 2012). "Assessment of CanMEDS roles in postgraduate training: The validation of the Compass". Science Direct 89 (1): 199–204. 
  63. ^ Cornelia Fluit, Sanneke Bolhuis, Richard Grol, Marieke Ham, Remco Feskens, Roland Laan, Michel Wensing (2012). "Evaluation and feedback for effective clinical teaching in postgraduate medical education: Validation of an assessment instrument incorporating the CanMEDS roles". Medical Teacher 34 (11): 893–901. 
  64. ^ Jonathan Sherbino, Jason R. Frank, Leslie Flynn, Linda Snell (December 2011). ""Intrinsic Roles" rather than "armour": renaming the "non-medical expert roles" of the CanMEDS framework to match their intent". Advances in Health Sciences Education 16 (5): 695–697. 
  65. ^ ason R. Frank and Deborah Danoff (2007). "The CanMEDS 2005 physician competency framework". Medical Teacher 29 (7): 642–647. 
  66. ^ Frank, J. R. (2005). The CanMEDS 2005 physician competency framework. Ottawa: Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons of Canada. 
  67. ^ Jason R. Frank, Linda S. Snell, et all (2010). "Competency-based medical education: theory to practice". Medical Teacher 32 (8): 638–645. 
  68. ^ William F. Iobst, Jonathan Sherbino, et al (2010). "Competency-based medical education in postgraduate medical education Read More: http://informahealthcare.com/doi/abs/10.3109/0142159X.2010.500709". Medical Teacher 32 (8): 651–656. Retrieved 2 December 2013. 
  69. ^ "Residents prepare for switch to competency-based medical education". Canadian Medical Association Journal. July 5, 2013. 
  70. ^ University Affairs (September 2, 2013). "Medical education in Canada moves to a competency based approach". 
  71. ^ http://www.nosm.ca/uploadedFiles/home/events/Competency_Based_Education_Brochure_October.pdf
  72. ^ William F. Iobst, Kelly J. Caverzagie (November 2013). "Milestones and Competency-Based Medical Education". Gastroenterology 145 (5): 921–924. 
  73. ^ . University of Calgary Medicine (n.d.) Postgraduate Medical Education http://medicine.ucalgary.ca/pgme/home/accreditation-2015/canmeds-2015-info.  Missing or empty |title= (help)
  74. ^ McGill University. "New MDCM Curriculum – Design Resources". Retrieved 18 November 2013. 
  75. ^ "Message from the CEO". Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons of Canada. Retrieved March 28, 2013. 
  76. ^ "Health Human Resource Planning in Canada, Physician and Nursing Workforce Issues—Summary Report". Policy Research Networks Inc. 
  77. ^ "More than one in six new specialists can't find work: Royal College". Canadian Medical Association. Retrieved October 10, 2013. 
  78. ^ http://www.newswire.ca/en/story/1240021/study-shows-growing-number-of-new-specialist-physicians-can-t-find-jobs-in-canada
  79. ^ http://blogs.vancouversun.com/tag/royal-college-of-physicians-and-surgeons/
  80. ^ "Fatigue, Riask & Excellence: Toward a Pan-Canadian Consensus on Resident Duty Hours". Standing Committee on Resident Duty Hours. Retrieved July 1, 2013. 
  81. ^ "New pan-Canadian consensus report on duty hours". Canadian Association of Internes and Residents. Retrieved 27 June 2013. 
  82. ^ "More sleep urged for residency doctors". Globe and Mail. 27 June 2013. 
  83. ^ "Duty Hours and Professional Responsibility". Canadian Family Physician. 
  84. ^ "Changes needed to reduce fatigue of Canada's medical residents: report". CTV News. 
  85. ^ "The end of 24-hour residency shifts?". Canadian Medical Association Journal. 
  86. ^ "Royal College Teasdale-Corti Humanitarian Award". Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons of Canada. 
  87. ^ "Lucille Teasdale". HLWIKI International. 
  88. ^ "Dedicated surgeon in Angola receives Teasdale-Corti award". Retrieved 11 March 2012. 
  89. ^ "Chamberlain Froese wins prestigious humanitarian award from Royal College". McMaster University. 
  90. ^ "IMHL Class 4 participant Joanne Liu Named Winner of 2013 Teasdale-Corti Humanitarian Award". McGill University. Retrieved 1 February 2013. 

External links[edit]