Royal Factory of La Moncloa
Royal Factory of La Moncloa (Spanish: Real Fábrica de La Moncloa; variations: Moncloa Porcelain Factory, or Royal Porcelain Factory and Thin Earthenware of the Moncloa, or Real Fabrica de Loza de la Moncloa) (Spanish: Real Fábrica de La Moncloa) was a Spanish manufacturing plant for porcelain and ceramics whose wares were intended for actual use. The Royal Factory of La Moncloa was located in Madrid, in a place called the Granjilla of Jeronimos in Cementerio de La Florida.
In 1812, during the Peninsular War, the Real Fábrica del Buen Retiro was burned by orders from Wellington and it ceased production; five years later, the Buen Retiro's successor became the Royal Factory of La Moncloa. It was established after the absolutist restoration, founded by Ferdinand VII. He moved the Buen Retiro workshops and warehouses to Moncloa, into a building which had once been a villa of the Alva family on the Manzanares River. The factory was patronized by Queen Maria Isabel of Portugal. An early director was Bartolomé Sureda y Miserol, appointed to the position of acting director on 26 March 1821, and made the full director the following year. During Sureda's career, he was director of several royal factories, including Real Fabrica de Porcelana del Buen Retiro, the Real Fabrica de Pano in Guadalajara, and the Real Fábrica de Cristales de La Granja. Sureda was succeeded by Eusebio Zuloaga (1808-1898). It continued to operate until 1849.
In order to meet the requirements of the factory's pottery industry with technically trained personnel, a school of ceramic arts (Escuela de Cerámica Artística) was established in Moncloa, as well as a factory for the production of fine loza. In 1877, 2 hectares (4.9 acres) of land was allotted for this purpose. In 1882, the Escuela de Cerámica Artística was divided to form Escuela Oficial de Cerámica (Official School of Ceramics) and the Escuela Madrileña de Cerámica de La Moncloa (Madrid School of Ceramics of La Moncloa). The schools came under pressure in 1911 from Francisco Alcántara. Subsidy grants to run the schools were formalized in 1914 through a royal decree under the title "Escuela de Ceramica Artistica".
- Campbell, Gordon (9 November 2006). The Grove Encyclopedia of Decorative Arts: Two-volume Set. Oxford University Press. pp. 616–. ISBN 978-0-19-518948-3. Retrieved 11 September 2012.
- Vicente González, José de (2009). Antiguas boticas españolas y sus recipientes. tresCtres. pp. 391–. ISBN 978-84-92727-03-2. Retrieved 16 September 2012.
- Millán, Juan Ignacio Cuesta (1 April 2008). Madrid, 2 de mayo. Ediciones Nowtilus S.L. p. 155. ISBN 978-84-9763-540-0. Retrieved 18 September 2012.
- Williams, Leonard (1907). The arts and crafts of older Spain (Public domain ed.). T.N. Foulis. pp. 220–. Retrieved 11 September 2012.
- Brown, Jonathan; Mann, Richard G. (29 March 1991). Spanish Paintings of the Fifteenth through Nineteenth Centuries. Oxford University Press. p. 14. ISBN 978-0-521-40107-4. Retrieved 18 September 2012.
- Madrid (Spain : Region). Consejería de Educación y Cultura (2005). Madrid: revista de arte, geografía e historia. Comunidad de Madrid. p. 223. Retrieved 18 September 2012.
- Real Academia de Bellas Artes de San Fernando; Real Academia de Bellas Artes de San Fernando (Madrid) (1961). Academia: anales y boletín de la Real academia de bellas artes de San Fernando. Real Academia de Bellas Artes de San Fernando. p. 96. Retrieved 18 September 2012.
- Gavin, Robin Farwell; Pierce, Donna; Pleguezuelo, Alfonso (2003). Cerámica y Cultura: The Story of Spanish and Mexican Mayólica2. UNM Press. p. 181. Retrieved 13 September 2012.