Royal Institute of Thailand

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Royal Institute of Thailand
สํานักงานราชบัณฑิตยสภา
Samnakngan Ratchabandittayasapha
Royal Institute of Thailand Seal.jpg
Agency overview
Formed 31 March 1933[1]
Preceding Agency Royal Academy of Siam
Type Government agency
Jurisdiction Nationwide
Headquarters Sanam Suea Pa, Dusit District, Bangkok, Thailand, 10300
Annual budget THB 168,439,000 (2015)[2]
Agency executives • Santhat Rotchanasunthon[3], President
• Kanokwalee Chuchaiya, Secretary General
Key document Royal Institute Act, BE 2558 (2015)
Website Royin.go.th

The Royal Institute of Thailand (Thai: สํานักงานราชบัณฑิตยสภา; rtgsSamnakngan Ratchabandittayasapha) is a Thai government department in charge of academic works of the government as well as planning and regulation of the Thai language.

The institute was established on 31 March 1933 when the Royal Academy of Siam was dissolved.[1] At present, the institute is an independent agency and is part of the executive branch. Its members are of three types: associate fellows, fellows and honorary fellows. The associate fellows are experts selected and appointed by the institute. The fellows are associate fellows selected by the institute and appointed by the monarch upon advice of the prime minister. And the honorary fellows are prominent experts selected by the institute and appointed in the same manner as the fellows.[4]

The institute is widely known for its many publications, particularly the Royal Institute Dictionary, the official and prescriptive dictionary of the Thai language, and the Royal Thai General System of Transcription, the official system for romanising Thai words.

History[edit]

On 31 March 1933, the Royal Academy (ราชบัณฑิตยสภา; Ratchabandittayasapha) was dissolved and its divisions were incorporated into two new agencies. The academic divisions became the Royal Institute (ราชบัณฑิตยสถาน; Ratchabandittayasathan) and the archaeological divisions became the Fine Arts Department.[1] According to the Act on Royal Institute, Buddhist Era 2476 (1934), which took effect on 24 April 1933, the institute was a legal person sponsored by the government and the prime minister was in charge of the institute. The act gave the institute three main duties: to conduct research in all fields and publish the outcomes for the common good of the nation, to exchange knowledge with foreign academic bodies, and to provide academic opinions to the government and public agencies. Under the act, the institute members were selected by the institute itself and were appointed by the monarch upon approval of the cabinet and the House of Representatives.[5]

On 1 April 1942, the Royal Institute Act, Buddhist Era 2485 (1942), entered into force. The act changed the status of the institute from a legal person to a public organisation and authorised the prime minister to directly command the institute. The act also modified the method of selecting the institute members. The members were selected and nominated to the monarch by the prime minister.[6]

On 31 December 1944, the Royal Institute Act (No. 2), Buddhist Era 2487 (1944), came into operation. It again modified the institute status and the member selection method. The institute became an independent department commanded by the prime minister and its members were selected by the institute itself and were appointed by the monarch upon advice of the prime minister.[7]

On 12 March 1952, the Administrative Reorganisation Act, BE 2495 (1952), became operative. It changed the commander of the institute from the prime minister to the culture minister.[8] On 1 September 1958, the Administrative Reorganisation Act (No. 6), BE 2501 (1958), became effective. It again changed the commander of the institute from the culture minister to the education minister.[9]

On 29 September 1972, Field Marshal Thanom Kittikachorn, leader of the junta called Revolutionary Council, issued the Revolutionary Council Announcement No. 216 which once again modified the status of the institute. According to the announcement, the institute changed its status from an independent department to a government department which was not subject to any other agency and was commanded by the education minister.[10]

On 13 November 2001, the Royal Institute Act, BE 2544 (2001), entered into operation. Under the act, the institute was a government department which was not subject to any other agency. The act also improved the structure of the institute and increased its missions.[11]

On 14 February 2015, the Royal Institute Act, BE 2558 (2015), came into force. The act changed the Thai name of the institute from Ratchabandittayasathan to the original name, Samnakngan Ratchabandittayasapha. The act granted the institute the powers to manage its own budgets, to provide advanced training in all fields of the institute, and to confer certificates upon the trainees. A welfare fund for the institute members was also established by the act.[4]

Location[edit]

The former building of the institute in the Grand Palace, Bangkok.
Entrance to the former building of the institute.
A meeting room of the institute in its former building, following a meeting of the Dictionary Revision Committee.

On 21 August 2006, the institute relocated to offices at Sanam Suea Pa, near the Royal Plaza in Bangkok. Previously, the institute was located in the Grand Palace, Bangkok.

Administration[edit]

For administrative purposes, the Royal Institute has four divisions:

The Secretariat General
The Moral and Political Sciences Division
The Science Division
The Arts Division

The institute's website states that each division has a staff of civil servants and clerical employees who perform both business and academic functions facilitating the works of fellows and associate fellows as well as conducting and promoting various academic activities.

Fellows[edit]

Scholars from the academic community of Thailand can apply for membership in the institute. Acceptance is based on an applicant's contributions to his field and his published works. The levels of membership in the institute are:

  1. Honorary fellows (ราชบัณฑิตกิตติมศักดิ์)
  2. Fellows (ราชบัณฑิต)
  3. Associate fellows (ภาคีสมาชิก)

Of these, only the title of associate fellow can be applied for. Fellows are appointed by the monarch as senior experts in the institute within their field, chosen from among the existing associate fellows. Honorary fellows are likewise appointed by the monarch and are chosen from among scholars who are not already fellows of the institute. These three groups can be collectively referred to as the members of the institute.

Academies[edit]

Fellows of the institute are divided into three academies. Each academy is subdivided into branches, and each branch comprises several specific fields, in total 65 different academic disciplines.

Academy of Moral and Political Sciences[edit]

Academy of Science[edit]

Academy of Arts[edit]

Seal[edit]

The official seal of the institute is a shining sword behind an open book bearing a Pali word, paṇḍito ("scholars"). A crown floats upon the sword and a ribbon bearing the name of the institute is below the book.[12]

The sword and the book is based upon a saying, "wisdom is on a par with weapon" (ปัญญาประดุจดังอาวุธ). The light of the sword represents the light of wisdom. The crown represents the monarch.[12]

Works[edit]

Royal Institute Dictionary[edit]

Perhaps the most well-known work of the institute is the prescriptive Royal Institute Dictionary (พจนานุกรม ฉบับราชบัณฑิตยสถาน, in English often abbreviated RID).

The institute has published four fully revised editions of the dictionary, and many intermittent reprintings with minor revisions. Each of the major revisions is associated with a significant year in Thai history, although in the case of the 1999 and 2011 editions, the actual publication date is a later year.

Royal Thai General System of Transcription[edit]

The institute publishes the Royal Thai General System of Transcription[13] or RTGS, the official way of transcribing Thai into the Latin alphabet.

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c "Prawat Khwam Pen Ma" ประวัติความเป็นมา (html) (in Thai). Bangkok: Royal Institute of Thailand. 2007. Retrieved 2014-02-14. 
  2. ^ Government of Thailand (2014-09-30). "Phra Ratcha Banyan Ngop Praman Rai Chai Pracham Pi Ngop Praman Phuttha Sakkarat Song Phan Ha Roi Ha Sip Paet" พระราชบัญญัติงบประมาณรายจ่ายประจำปีงบประมาณ พ.ศ. 2558 [Annual Expenditure Budgets Act, BE 2558 (2015)] (pdf). Royal Thai Government Gazette (in Thai) (Bangkok: Cabinet Secretariat) 131 (69A): 1–86. Retrieved 2015-02-14. 
  3. ^ "ประกาศสำนักนายกรัฐมนตรี เรื่อง แต่งตั้งนายกราชบัณฑิตยสถานและอุปนายกราชบัณฑิตยสถาน ลงวันที่ 22 มีนาคม 2556" [Announcement of the Office of the Prime Minister, Re: Appointment of President and Vice Presidents of the Royal Institute, dated 22 March 2013]. Royal Institute. n.d. Retrieved 2013-04-09. 
  4. ^ a b Government of Thailand (2015-02-13). "Phra Ratcha Banyan Ratchabandittayasapha Phuttha Sakkarat Song Phan Ha Roi Ha Sip Paet" พระราชบัญญัติราชบัณฑิตยสภา พ.ศ. 2558 [Royal Institute Act, BE 2558 (2015)] (pdf). Royal Thai Government Gazette (in Thai) (Bangkok: Cabinet Secretariat) 132 (10A): 1–11. Retrieved 2015-02-14. 
  5. ^ Government of Thailand (1934-04-24). "Phra Ratcha Banyan Wa Duai Ratchabandittayasathan Phuttha Sakkarat Song Phan Si Roi Chet Sip Hok" พระราชบัญญัติว่าด้วยราชบัณฑิตยสถาน พุทธศักราช 2476 [Act on Royal Institute, Buddhist Era 2476 (1934)] (pdf). Royal Thai Government Gazette (in Thai) (Bangkok: Cabinet Secretariat) 51: 128–146. Retrieved 2015-02-14. 
  6. ^ Government of Thailand (1942-04-01). "Phra Ratcha Banyan Ratchabandittayasathan Phuttha Sakkarat Song Phan Si Roi Paet Sip Ha" พระราชบัญญัติราชบัณฑิตยสถาน พุทธศักราช 2485 [Royal Institute Act, Buddhist Era 2485 (1942)] (pdf). Royal Thai Government Gazette (in Thai) (Bangkok: Cabinet Secretariat) 59 (22): 789–798. Retrieved 2015-02-14. 
  7. ^ Government of Thailand (1944-12-31). "Phra Ratcha Banyan Ratchabandittayasathan (Chabab Thi Song) Phuttha Sakkarat Song Phan Si Roi Paet Sip Chet" พระราชบัญญัติราชบัณฑิตยสถาน (ฉะบับที่ 2) พุทธศักราช 2487 [Royal Institute Act (No. 2), Buddhist Era 2487 (1944)] (pdf). Royal Thai Government Gazette (in Thai) (Bangkok: Cabinet Secretariat) 61 (79): 1215–1220. Retrieved 2015-02-14. 
  8. ^ Government of Thailand (1952-03-11). "Phra Ratcha Banyan Prap Prung Krasuang Thabuang Krom Phuttha Sakkarat Song Phan Si Roi Kao Sip Ha" พระราชบัญญัติปรับปรุงกระทรวง ทบวง กรม พ.ศ. 2495 [Administrative Reorganisation Act, BE 2495 (1952)] (pdf). Royal Thai Government Gazette (in Thai) (Bangkok: Cabinet Secretariat) 69 (16): 313–327. Retrieved 2015-02-14. 
  9. ^ Government of Thailand (1958-08-31). "Phra Ratcha Banyan Prap Prung Krasuang Thabuang Krom (Chabab Thi Hok) Phuttha Sakkarat Song Phan Ha Roi Et" พระราชบัญญัติปรับปรุงกระทรวง ทบวง กรม (ฉบับที่ 6) พ.ศ. 2501 [Administrative Reorganisation Act (No. 6), BE 2501 (1958)] (pdf). Royal Thai Government Gazette (in Thai) (Bangkok: Cabinet Secretariat) 75 (67 (Special)): 1–10. Retrieved 2015-02-14. 
  10. ^ Government of Thailand (1958-08-31). "Prakat Khong Khana Patiwat Chabap Thi Song Roi Sip Hok Long Wan Thi Yi Sip Kao Kanyayon Song Phan Ha Roi Sip Ha" ประกาศของคณะปฏิวัติ ฉบับที่ 216 ลงวันที่ 29 กันยายน 2515 [Revolutionary Council Announcement No. 216 dated 29 September 1972] (pdf). Royal Thai Government Gazette (in Thai) (Bangkok: Cabinet Secretariat) 89 (145 (Special)): 1–16. Retrieved 2015-02-14. 
  11. ^ Government of Thailand (2001-11-12). "Phra Ratcha Banyan Ratchabandittayasapha Phuttha Sakkarat Song Phan Ha Roi Si Sip Si" พระราชบัญญัติราชบัณฑิตยสถาน พ.ศ. 2544 [Royal Institute Act, BE 2544 (2015)] (pdf). Royal Thai Government Gazette (in Thai) (Bangkok: Cabinet Secretariat) 118 (104A): 1–11. Retrieved 2015-02-14. 
  12. ^ a b Royal Institute of Thailand (2007). "Khrueang mai ratchakan khong Ratchabandittayasathan" เครื่องหมายราชการของราชบัณฑิตยสถาน [Official symbol of the Royal Institute] (in Thai). Bangkok: Royal Institute of Thailand. Retrieved 2015-02-16. 
  13. ^ Royal Thai General System of Transcription (RTGS)

External links[edit]