Royal Military Police

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
Royal Military Police
RMP cap badge British Army.jpg
Royal Military Police cap badge
Active 28 November 1946-Present
Country  United Kingdom
Branch  British Army
Role Military Police
Size 2.500
RHQ RMP Defence College of Policing and Guarding
Nickname Redcaps
Motto Exemplo Ducemus
By example, shall we lead
Beret Red
March The Watchtower (Hoch Heidecksburg)
Commanders
Colonel-in-Chief HM The Queen
Deputy Colonel Commandant Major General Gerald Berragan
Insignia
Tactical Recognition Flash RMP TRF.svg
British Army arms and services
Flag of the British Army.svg
Combat Arms
Royal Armoured Corps
Infantry
Army Air Corps
Combat Support Arms
Royal Artillery
Royal Engineers
Royal Corps of Signals
Intelligence Corps
Combat Services
Royal Army Chaplains Department
Royal Logistic Corps
Army Medical Services
Royal Electrical and Mechanical Engineers
Adjutant General's Corps
Small Arms School Corps
Royal Army Physical Training Corps
General Service Corps
Corps of Army Music

The Royal Military Police (RMP) is the corps of the British Army responsible for the policing of service personnel, and for providing a military police presence both in the UK and while service personnel are deployed overseas on operations and exercises.[1] Members of the RMP are often known as 'Redcaps' because of their ubiquitous scarlet-topped peaked caps, or scarlet coloured berets.

The RMP origins can be traced back to the 13th Century but it was not until 1877 that a regular corps of military police was formed, with the creation of the Military Mounted Police (MMP). This was followed by the Military Foot Police (MFP) in 1885. The Military Mounted Police first engaged in combat in 1882 at the Battle of Tel el-Kebir. Although technically two independent corps, the two effectively functioned as a single organisation. In 1926, they were fully amalgamated to form the Corps of Military Police (CMP). In recognition of their service in the Second World War, they became the Corps of Royal Military Police (RMP) on 28 November 1946 under Army Order 167.

The RMP and their forbears have been deployed to most significant conflicts of the 20th Century, and more recently have been deployed to Iraq and Afghanistan in support of the British commitment in those countries.

Non-commissioned members of the RMP receive their basic training as soldiers, at the Army Training Regiment in Winchester. They then receive further training at the Defence College of Policing and Guarding. RMP commissioned officers are trained at the Royal Military Academy Sandhurst, as are all other British Army officers.

The regimental march of the RMP is "The Watchtower" or "Hoch Heidecksburg" originally a German Army marching tune from 1912 by Rudolf Herzer. The RMP motto is Exemplo Ducemus, Latin for "By example, shall we lead".

History[edit]

First World War[edit]

In 1914 the Corps of Military Mounted Police and the Corps of Military Foot Police had a total establishment of nearly 5000 men. When the British Expeditionary Force was sent to France in that year, each division had one Assistant Provost Marshal in the rank of Major and several NCOs. The Provost Marshal was a Colonel until 1915, and a Brigadier thenceforward.

During the retreat from Mons the MPs were busy dealing with soldiers who, through exhaustion or the general confusion of battle, had either become lost or detached from their units. By operating stragglers posts, the MP were able to return soldiers to their units. These posts were also well placed to pick out deserters and those Absent With Out Leave (AWOL).

Second World War[edit]

At the beginning of the Second World War, the CMP had several branches:

  • Special Investigation Branch (SIB);
  • Red Caps, who were responsible for general policing;
  • Blue Caps (Vulnerable Points), responsible for security of static locations and establishments;
  • White Caps (Traffic Control); and
  • Field Security Wing (Green Caps), which was separated from the CMP in 1940 to form the Intelligence Corps, and who wore the CMP cap badge, but without the scroll.

By the end of the war the Red Caps had replaced the Blue and White Caps. The CMP provided support to the British Expeditionary Force in France and these units were also involved in Operation Dynamo. The CMP took part in several major operation of the Second World War, including: Operation Overlord, Operation Market Garden and Operation Varsity.

Cold War[edit]

In 1946 King George VI granted the 'Royal' prefix to the Corps of Royal Military Police (RMP) in recognition of its outstanding wartime record. (CRMP was chosen to avoid confusion with the Royal Canadian Mounted Police or RCMP) The RMP had the task of policing the Soviet mission in Bünde, and this was tasked to 19 (Support) Platoon RMP, who became known as "White Mice". This unit's job was to wait outside the Soviet mission until a SOXMIS vehicle appeared and then follow it.

In restricted areas, Soviet vehicles were not permitted to leave the autobahns (not even in parking areas) unless accompanied by U.S., British or French military police. The agreements remained in force until 2 October 1990, when all three missions were deactivated on the eve of Germany's reunification.

In Berlin, within 2 Regiment RMP, 247 Provost Company RMP was responsible for manning the British Sector checkpoints and Border Patrols. As part of 2 Regiment, an armed unit of German nationals, 248 German Security Unit, was maintained; its commander was a German national in the rank of Staff Superintendent (~Major) and a RSM from a British infantry regiment acted as liaison officer. This was disbanded in 1994, when the British Garrison in Berlin was closed. A third company within the 2 Regiment was 246 Provost Company in Helmstedt.

Post Cold War[edit]

In 1991, British forces as part of US-led coalition forces invaded Kuwait and Southern Iraq as part of Operation Desert Storm. The British name for this operation was Operation Granby. During 1994 the British Army deployed units to Bosnia as part of the United Nations Protection Force (UNPROFOR), which was later superseded by IFOR and then SFOR. RMP personnel have also been involved in the European Union Force (EUFOR), which took over in 2004. On 12 June 1999, the UK sent 19,000 troops into Kosovo as part of KFOR. Lead units of the 5 Airborne Brigade, which included the Royal Engineers and RMP, had to deal with booby traps in road tunnels before the Force could advance into Kosovo and seize the Kačanik defile.

Role[edit]

As well as policing service personnel whilst at home in the UK, the Royal Military Police are required to provide a capable military police presence in support of military operations overseas.

In the United Kingdom and British overseas garrisons[edit]

Broadly speaking, within the United Kingdom and its overseas garrisons, the Royal Military Police are responsible for policing service personal. In garrison towns, the RMP often assist the local territorial police force in town centres at venues where service personnel are likely to frequent.[2] Some Royal Military Police NCOs are allocated roles working on Service Family Accommodation (SFA) estates, such as Community Liaison Officers and Crime Reduction Officers. Part of this role involves visiting schools in the SFA catchment area, where the school's children come from service families. In the UK, this work is often done in conjunction with the Ministry of Defence Police.

Some of the specific roles the RMP fulfill include:[3]

  • Law enforcement and crime prevention, within the service community
  • Assistance to civilian police forces in garrison towns

When deployed on operations[edit]

RMP Para Provost DZ Flash (16 Air Assault Brigade)

The Royal Military Police are required to provide tactical military police support to the British Army in military operations. When deployed, some of the roles the RMP fulfill include:[3]

  • War crime investigations
  • Handling and collating criminal evidence
  • Reconnaissance patrols
  • Detainee handling
  • Search operations
  • General policing duties within operational bases
  • Foreign police and military training
  • Provide close protection operatives for senior military personnel on operations[4][5]

Jurisdiction[edit]

In the United Kingdom[edit]

Royal Military Police personnel are not constables under UK law and do not have any specific police powers over the general public, only whilst dealing with service personnel. However, the RMP can utilise the powers, available to all persons in England and Wales, under Section 24(A) of the Police and Criminal Evidence Act 1984; which allows any person to arrest any individual they have reasonable grounds to believe is committing, or has committed, an indictable offence, and that a constable is not available to perform the arrest.[6] They are allowed to use such force as is reasonable in the circumstance to achieve this.[7] A similar power of arrest exists under Scottish common law, but there is a requirement to use the minimum amount of force and for the Military Police officer to have directly witnessed the individual commit the act for which they are arresting them.[citation needed] The RMP are subject to inspection by HM Inspectorate of Constabulary, in the same way as UK civilian police forces.[8]

RMP personnel sometimes have powers, conferred by Military lands byelaws, to give lawful directions to civilians who are on Ministry of Defence land affected by such byelaws. This may included the power to regulate vehicular and pedestrian traffic, close or restrict access, or to direct civilians to leave Military land to which the byelaws apply. The particulars of these powers are highly changeable and are determined by each individual Statutory Instrument.[9][10]

A member of the Royal Military Police can arrest any individual in the UK whom he has reasonable grounds to believe to be a serving member of HM Armed Forces and he has committed a relevant civil or military law offence.[11] RMP personnel do not have to be on Ministry of Defence land to exercise their authority over service personnel.[3] The RMP also have police powers over personnel of the other two branches of the Armed Forces: the Royal Navy and the Royal Air Force. The Royal Navy Police and RAF Police also have reciprocal police powers over British Army personnel.[12]

Postings overseas[edit]

Where service personnel are deployed overseas, the Royal Military Police are often called upon to provide a complete policing service. In these situations, members of the Royal Military Police can often exercise police powers in respect of civilians subject to service discipline. This includes, not exclusively, service dependents and overseas contractors sponsored by the British Army.[12]

In Germany, under the Status of forces agreement, the RMP has jurisdiction and primacy over British service personnel, their families, MoD contractors, and NAAFI staff.[13] The German civil police only normally become involved where the interests of a German national are concerned.[13] The RMP also maintains a detachment (part of 101 Provost Company) in Belgium who work with convoys to and from the North Sea ports, through Belgium and the Netherlands to the German border. This detachment works closely with both the Royal Netherlands Marechaussee and the Belgian Military Police Group.

In The Falkland Islands, while serving at the Joint Service Police and Security Unit at RAF Mount Pleasant—where RMP work alongside RAFP and RNP—all Service Police members are sworn-in, during a ceremony at the Court Centre, to the Royal Falkland Islands Police, as reserve constables. In this capacity, they can exercise powers over service personnel and civilian inhabitants of the island. These powers extend to the boarding of fishing vessels docked in Port Stanley, in order to conduct anti-drugs investigations.[citation needed]

Uniform and equipment[edit]

An RMP NCO—accompanied by an MDP officer (right)—patrol Exeter city centre on OP Dissuade, the policing of alcohol-related disorder committed by off-duty service personnel in 2006.
Royal Military Police Opel Vectra patrol car in Germany

Uniform[edit]

Day-to-day, Royal Military Police officers and soldiers wear British Army working dress, consisting of: Multi-Terrain Pattern combat uniform, black boots, stable belt and scarlet beret. Whilst undertaking general police duties, personnel additionally wear a black protective stab vest marked 'Military Police', with the RMP crest on the front and rear. Personnel also carry standard police belt kit, including a baton and Hiatt speedcuffs. Moreover, personnel may also wear a hi-vis police utility vest, or hi-vis jacket, marked 'Military Police'.

Some RMP units follow the old tradition of wearing barrack dress on Fridays. In RMP usage, the woolen pullover is olive green in colour and features gold 'RMP' shoulder titles on the epaulettes. Should personnel be required to undertake general police duties in this dress, a scarlet armband with black 'MP' initials would be worn on the right arm; together with a whistle and chain attached to a belt loop on the left side of the body. This dress is worn with the traditional scarlet peaked cap and either bulled black boots or shoes.

For ceremonial duties, the RMP have transitioned from wearing the previous No. 2 Service Dress to the new standard Future Army Dress (FAD). FAD is similar to barrack dress, but is worn with an open-collared khaki jacket replacing the pullover and a belt around the centre of the jacket. The jacket is worn with RMP collar insignia (smaller versions of the RMP cap-badge), together with whistle on chain and a black and red Adjutant General's Corps lanyard on the left shoulder. Rank insignia is worn on the right sleeve and scarlet armbands, with black 'MP' initials on, are worn just underneath the rank insignia. Leather gloves are sometimes worn in cold/wet weather.

Equipment[edit]

Royal Military Police personnel undertaking general police duties are equipped with extendable batons, Hiatt speedcuffs and Airwave personal radios.

Standard British Army weapons, including the L85A2 rifle and the L105A1/L106A1 pistols are used for combat operations and training. RMP personnel no longer carry pistols as standard in the United Kingdom—except during exercises, operational deployments or when serving in British overseas territories. In addition, both male and female RMP personnel are expected to carry and use a number of different British Army weapons on operational deployments, as they work directly alongside the Infantry on patrol.

Most RMP patrol cars, used in the United Kingdom and in Germany, have standard police Battenburg markings and have Airwave police radios fitted in the UK.

The RMP also uses the Home Office Large Major Enquiry System, known as HOLMES, as well as having access to the Police National Computer database.

Training[edit]

RMP commissioned officers attend the Royal Military Academy Sandhurst, as do all other British Army officers. Other ranks recruits undertake their phase 1, Common Military Syllabus (Recruits) training at the Army Training Regiment in Winchester. They then move onto Phase 2 which is undertaken at the Defence College of Policing and Guarding.

The training syllabus includes:

Recruits are expected to maintain a high level of fitness, this is assessed, and improved upon in two ways:

  • Personal Fitness Test (PFT): This consists of having to achieve as many sit-ups as physically possible in under 2 minutes. The score you are expected to achieve is gender neutral and both men and women are expected to achieve at least 50 sit-ups in that time. The next part of the test is to achieve as many press-ups as you can in under 2 minutes. Females are expected to achieve at least 21 and men are expected to achieve at least 44. There is then a very quick water break and stretch of the limbs before going straight into a 800 metre warm up jog as a squad. This is then followed by a 2400 metre (1.5 miles) run, best effort, to be completed in under 10:30 mins for the men and under 13 mins for the women. For those over 30 the time limit increases at intervals dependent on actual age. After training the PFT is conducted on a twice yearly basis; it is a requirement of service personnel to pass, anyone not able to pass their PFT will now not be entitled to promotion and should they not pass their re-take(s) of the test they will be liable to being discharged from service for being combat ineffective and thus undeployable.
  • Combat Fitness Test (CFT): Undertaken in a squad wearing MTP combat uniform and boots. This is to get the recruit used to "tabbing", a mixture of walking quickly and jogging for short periods. Most CFTs undertaken nowadays do not involve the carrying of your personal rifle and wearing your helmet. However, due to the fact that these items have not now been included and the overall weight of the equipment reduced, the amount a recruit and trained soldier must carry in their bergan has increased. Both recruits and trained soldiers that are non Infantry must be able to carry at least 15 kg of weight in their bergan and will be tabbing with it for a distance of 8 miles, walking quickly and jogging. For the completion of this tab the recruits/soldiers are given approximately 2 hrs to complete the task. You are allowed to come in about 10 minutes under that time however if you go over that time then that is a failure as is non-completion. Should they not pass their re-take(s) of the test they will be liable to being discharged from service for being combat ineffective and thus undeployable.

Professional training and qualifications[edit]

All the Service Police organisations use the Defence College of Policing and Guarding for a variety of advanced qualification courses such as level 3 and 4 of the Investigators course, Crime Scene Management, IT (HOLMES, CRIMES, COPPERS and REDCAP systems). Fraud Investigation training is provided and accredited by the Ministry of Defence Police Fraud Squad.

Organisation[edit]

The RMP is headed by the Provost Marshal, now a Brigadier. Every formation has a Deputy Provost Marshal (DPM), or Assistant Provost Marshal (APM). As well as being responsible for the Military Provost Staff Corps, the Provost Marshal (A) is also responsible for the Military Provost Guard Service, who provides a guard force of armed soldiers for military establishments and units of all three services.

The RMP is divided into units called Provost Companies, subdivided into platoons, and sometimes grouped into regiments. Platoons are commanded by a Second Lieutenant, or Lieutenant with a Staff Sergeant as the Platoons Second-in-Command (2ic). They are further divided into sections under the command of Sergeants. All non-commissioned RMP personnel are promoted to Lance Corporal as soon as they complete training in order to give them authority over other soldiers. Commissioned officers were once attached from other branches of the army, but can now be commissioned directly into the RMP.

The RMP is divided into three branches. Most personnel belong to the General Police Duties Branch, which performs uniformed policing and security duties. The Special Investigation Branch is dedicated to investigating more serious crime. The Close Protection Unit provides bodyguards for senior military officers and other key personnel (nominated by the Foreign and Commonwealth Office) in danger zones. The RMP also trains military personnel in defensive driving techniques. There is also a Covert Operations Team that conducts surveillance operations in accordance with the Regulation of Investigatory Powers Act (RIPA) and Test Purchase operations.

The RMP sometimes shares its police stations with other police forces. At Catterick Garrison, the RMP station is shared with North Yorkshire Police (who man it during daylight hours). Another police station in Wiltshire is shared with the Ministry of Defence Police and Wiltshire Constabulary.

The HQ of the RMP is located at Trenchard lines in Upavon, Wiltshire. The regimental headquarters of the RMP moved to MOD Southwick Park, near Portsmouth in February 2007. It is co-located with the tri-service Defence College of Policing and Guarding.[14] The RMP training centre moved there on 27 September 2005 from the RMP's long-standing RHQ at Roussillon Barracks in Chichester, West Sussex. The Service Police Crime Bureau is also located at MOD Southwick Park and is staffed by personnel from the Royal Military Police, Royal Air Force Police and Royal Navy Police.

The RMP museum has also moved to MOD Southwick Park.[15]

Colonel Commandants[edit]

Current RMP units[edit]

Great Britain[edit]

Northern Ireland[edit]

  • Northern Ireland Detachment, 174 Pro Coy 3 RMP
    • Weapons Intelligence Section (WIS)
    • Legal Process Office (LPO)
    • 38 Sect, 1(Inv)Coy SIB Regt RMP

Germany[edit]

  • 1 Regiment RMP
    • 110 Provost Company (Paderborn) (20 Armoured Brigade)
    • 111 Provost Company (Bergen Hohne) (7 Armoured Brigade)
    • 114 Provost Company (Gütersloh, Germany) (102 Logistic Brigade)
  • 5 Regiment RMP

Each individual regular RMP company will have smaller Police stations and Police posts at other locations in their area where there is a sizeable Army presence.

  • Special Investigation Branch (G) (SIB (G) RMP)
    • HQ SIB (G)
    • Specialist Support Unit (Crime Scene Management and Technical Support)
    • 70 Section SIB (G)
    • 72 Section SIB (G) (Gütersloh Detachment)
    • 72 Section SIB (G) (Bielefeld Detachment)
    • 74 Section SIB (G) (Sennelager)
    • 76 Section SIB (G) (Now Bielefeld Detachment)
    • 87 Section SIB (G) (Monchengladbach, co-located with 101 Provost Company)

Other units[edit]

The RMP are also currently deployed (22.5% of manpower) around the world in Kosovo, Bosnia, Iraq, and Afghanistan.[14]

Territorial Army[edit]

The TA element of the RMP is delivered by a Central Volunteer Headquarters at Worthy Down Barracks near Winchester, the Garrison for the AGC. The CVHQ manages delivery of TA officers and soldiers of the RMP including both General Policing and SIB, Army Legal Service, Provost Marshals. Until 1999 TA support was delivered through four general police duty companies and an SIB Section; 152, 251, 165 and 164 Provost Companies and 83 (V) Sec SIB.

Operation Telic casualties[edit]

British operations in Iraq, including the 2003 invasion, were carried out under the name Operation Telic, which claimed the lives of several members of the RMP.

  • 24 June 2003, Al Majar Al Kabir, Iraq:

All personnel shown below were from 156 Provost Company RMP (16 Air Assault Brigade). This incident represented the largest loss of life, on a single day, in RMP history.[16]

    • Sergeant Simon Hamilton-Jewell
    • Corporal Russell Aston
    • Corporal Paul Long
    • Corporal Simon Miller
    • Lance Corporal Benjamin Hyde
    • Lance Corporal Thomas Keys
  • 23 August 2003, Basra, Iraq
    • Major Matthew Titchener, 150 Provost Company
    • Company Sergeant Major Colin Wall, 150 Provost Company
    • Corporal Dewi Pritchard, 116 Provost Company (V)
  • 31 October 2004, Basra, Iraq
    • Staff Sergeant Denise Rose, SIB
  • 15 October 2005, Waterloo Lines, Basra, Iraq
    • Captain Ken Masters, Officer Commanding 61 Section SIB[17]
  • 8 July 2007, Basra City, Iraq
    • Corporal Christopher Read, 158 Provost Company, 3rd Regiment RMP[18]

Operation Herrick casualties[edit]

  • 30 May 2007, Kajaki, Helmand Province
    • Cpl Mike Gilyeat, Royal Military Police,[19]
  • 7 May 2009,Gereshk, Helmand Province
    • Sgt Benjamin Ross, 173 Pro Coy, Royal Military Police.
  • 22 October 2009, Gereshk, Helmand Province
  • 3 November 2009, Nad-e'Ali, Helmand Province
    • Acting Cpl Steven Boote, 116 Provost Company (V), Royal Military Police
    • Cpl Nicholas Webster-Smith, 160 Provost Company, Royal Military Police[23][24]
  • 18 November 2009, (Operation Herrick 11) Helmand Province
    • Sgt Robert David Loughran-Dickson, 160 Provost Company, 4th Regiment Royal Military Police[25]
  • 20 December 2009, Sangin, Helmand Province
    • L/Cpl Michael David Pritchard, 160 Provost Company, 4th Regiment Royal Military Police[26]

The RMP in popular culture[edit]

Redcap, an ABC television drama series which aired from 1964 to 1966, starred John Thaw as SIB investigator Sergeant (later Staff Sergeant) John Mann.[27]

Red Cap, another television drama series, which aired in 2003 and 2004, starred Tamzin Outhwaite as Sergeant Jo McDonagh, also an SIB investigator.[28][29]

Soldier Soldier, a television drama series about an infantry company which aired from 1991 to 1997, featured Holly Aird as Corporal (later Sergeant) Nancy Thorpe RMP.[30][31]

The Investigator (aired 1998) stars Helen Baxendale as an RMP SSgt. It is about life in the British forces at a time when being homosexual was banned and had serious repercussions, and is based on a true story.[32]

The Real Redcaps was a television documentary series about the Royal Military Police which aired from 2003 to 2005. It shows the RMP in the Second Gulf War, their training in (then) Colchester, Close Protection (CP) training, SIB work in Iraq, and other duties such as policing troops in Germany. It also shows the Military Provost Staff Corps Military Provost Guard Service manning MCTC Colchester.[33]

7 Seconds is a 2005 Hollywood feature film starring Wesley Snipes, that follows the actions of female Royal Military Police Sgt Kelly Anders (Tamzin Outhwaite). When an experienced thief accidentally makes off with a Van Gogh, his partner is kidnapped by gangsters in pursuit of the painting, forcing the thief to hatch a rescue plan, in which he joins forces with RMP Sgt Anders along the way.[34]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Ministry of Defence, Royal Military Police website, (accessed 4 June 2010)[dead link]
  2. ^ "Operation Dissuade"[dead link]
  3. ^ a b c "Role of the RMP - British Army Website". Army.mod.uk. Retrieved 2012-05-05. 
  4. ^ "Royal Military Police - British Army Website". Army.mod.uk. Retrieved 2012-05-05. 
  5. ^ Ministry of Defence (2012-08-07). "Royal Military Police train for close protection". Mod.uk. Retrieved 2013-10-05. 
  6. ^ "Police and Criminal Evidence Act 1984". Legislation.gov.uk. Retrieved 2012-05-05. 
  7. ^ "Criminal Law Act 1967". Legislation.gov.uk. Retrieved 2013-10-05. 
  8. ^ "Armed Forces Act 2011". Legislation.gov.uk. Retrieved 2013-10-02. 
  9. ^ "Military Lands Act 1892". Legislation.gov.uk. Retrieved 2013-10-05. 
  10. ^ "Military Lands Byelaws". Defence Estates. Retrieved 2013-10-05. 
  11. ^ Armed Forces Act 2006
  12. ^ a b "Armed Forces Act 2006". Legislation.gov.uk. Retrieved 2012-05-05. 
  13. ^ a b "NATO - Official text: Agreement between the Parties to the North Atlantic Treaty regarding the Status of their Forces, 19-Jun.-1951". Nato.int. 1951-06-19. Retrieved 2012-05-05. 
  14. ^ a b RMP Journal
  15. ^ Welcome to the new British Army Website - British Army Website[dead link]
  16. ^ http://www.modoracle.com/
  17. ^ "Suicide in Basra: The unravelling of a military man". London: The Independent. 31 July 2006. Retrieved 22 May 2010. "After a flawless military career that had seen him rise to the rank of captain in just 15 years, the task of leading the British Military Police's investigative unit in Basra should have been the crowning achievement for Ken Masters, a soldier for whom, on missions from Afghanistan to Bosnia, the glass was always half full." 
  18. ^ Oracle News[dead link]
  19. ^ "MoD names soldier killed in crash". BBC News. 1 June 2007. Retrieved 22 May 2010. 
  20. ^ "Bbc News". BBC News. 2009-10-23. Retrieved 2013-10-05. 
  21. ^ ITN[dead link]
  22. ^ Ministry of Defence (2009-10-23). "Ministry of Defence". Mod.uk. Retrieved 2013-10-05. 
  23. ^ "Ministry of Defence | Defence News | Military Operations | Soldiers killed in Afghanistan named". Mod.uk. Retrieved 2012-05-05. 
  24. ^ "Five gun attack dead named by MoD". BBC News. 5 November 2009. Retrieved 22 May 2010. 
  25. ^ "Ministry of Defence | Defence News | Military Operations | Sergeant Robert Loughran-Dickson RMP killed in Afghanistan". Mod.uk. Retrieved 2012-05-05. 
  26. ^ Ministry of Defence (2009-12-22). "Lance Corporal Michael Pritchard killed in Afghanistan - Fatality notice". GOV.UK. Retrieved 2013-10-05. 
  27. ^ Redcap at the Internet Movie Database
  28. ^ "BBC Red Cap Show page". Bbc.co.uk. Retrieved 2013-10-05. 
  29. ^ Red Cap (TV Series 2003–2004)at IMoB database
  30. ^ Soldier Soldier at the Internet Movie Database
  31. ^ Soldier Soldier[dead link]
  32. ^ [1] Channel 4
  33. ^ The Real Redcaps, Produced by Anglia Television/Channel Television/Meridian Broadcasting for ITV 2005
  34. ^ 7 Seconds at the Internet Movie Database

Bibliography[edit]

External links[edit]